oxidase

Molecule of the Day: Dopamine

Dopamine (C8H11NO2) is an important neurotransmitter involved in many signalling pathways in the body. At room temperature, it is a white powder that is freely soluble in water.

Dopamine plays a key role in the brain’s reward system and is associated with feelings of euphoria and pleasure. As a result, stimuli that cause greater amounts of dopamine to bind to the corresponding receptors on the post-synaptic membrane induce appetitive behaviour.

For example, drugs such as amphetamine bind to and inhibit dopamine reuptake transporters present on the pre-synaptic membrane, and can also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which normally metabolises dopamine. This causes the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft to increase, and the resultant rise in binding of dopamine receptors leads to feelings of pleasure. However, in combination with the resultant tolerance, this can lead to addiction and dependence on such drugs.

Dopamine is biosynthesised from tyrosine in the human body, via the intermediacy of L-DOPA:

Low dopamine levels have been linked to Parkinson’s disease; this is because the main symptoms arise from the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Consequently, one of the main methods of treating it is the injection of L-DOPA; while this does not recover the cells’ ability to produce dopamine, it can stimulate the remaining cells, and is also metabolised to form dopamine (see above).

Electron Transport Chain
  • Situated in the inner mitochondrial matrix
  • produces most eukaryotic ATP
  • a chain of proteins that move electrons from higher to lower energy levels
  • electrons are provided by FADH2 or NADH
  • terminal electron acceptor is oxygen
  • as electrons move to from high to lower energy levels, the energy is used to pump H+ against its concentration gradient out into the intermembrane space
  • this established concentration gradient drives the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
  • oxidative phosphorylation

electrons flow from protein to protein spontaneously 

  • due to the relative electron affinities of the proteins
  • this tendency is known as redox potential

Click read more for detailed step by step

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tip: loreal infallible pro matte foundation in classic ivory oxidases very orange if ur pale I do not recommend it especially don’t blend down ur neck with it I had an orange line across my chest it was grozz

Allopurinol

Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor

Indications for rx in patients with gout:
- Recurrent attacks >3 times per year
- Chronic tophaceous gout
- Uric acid nephropathy
- Persistently high uric acid levels
- Prophylaxis to treatment that can exacerbate acute gout

Medical uses:
- Gout and hyperuricaemia
- Tumour lysis syndrome
- Renal diseases
- Hypertension

Side-effects
- Stevens Johnson Syndrome
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Diarrhoea
- Thrombocytopenia
- Leukopenia
- Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome : erythematous rash, fever, hepatitis, hypereosinophilia, renal failure

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nonfermentative gram-negative bacillus. This bacterium is ubiquitous in soil and water, and on surfaces in contact with soil or water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, meaning that it exploits some break in the host defenses to initiate an infection. It causes urinary tract infections, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bacteremia, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections and a variety of systemic infections, particularly in patients with severe burns and in cancer and AIDS patients who are immunosuppressed.

Key characteristics: Gram(-), catalase(+), oxidase(+), motility(+), aerobic, produces pigments (green and blue), grows at 42°C.

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The chemistry of consciousness is, at first glance, complex. The infant basks in the divine glow of consciousness, manifested in the body/brain by the spirit molecules, 5-MeO-DMT and DMT. However, during development, the brain inhibits the flow of consciousness, utilizing enzymes to deactivate the synthe- sis of the spirit molecules. Then, to re-realize the divine source, the brain must inhibit the inhibiting enzymes! The chemistry is explained in more detail below.

Seratonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), the neurotransmitter implicated in many of the functions of conscious- ness, is synthesized in the brain from the amino acid tryptophan, a basic building block of proteins. After fulfilling its role in the synaptic cleft (the space between nerve cells), the seratonin molecule is decomposed into inactive by-products (5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde) by the enzyme MAO (monoamine oxidase). The seratonin molecule differs from the tryptophan molecule only by the addition of a hydroxyl group (OH) and removal of a carboxyl group (COO).

Melatonin (N-acetylseratonin), the neurohormone implicated in sleep, is synthesized directly from seratonin, by deactivating MAO and inhibiting the destruction of the seratonin molecule. MAO (monoamine oxidase) is deactivated (inhibited) by the beta-carbolene enzymes secreted in the pineal gland: harmine, harmaline, and pinoline. As melatonin levels rise in the brain, the melatonin converts to pinoline. There is some confusion in the literature regarding pinoline synthesis, perhaps because it has multiple synthesis pathways, as well as close affinities to a variety of related compounds.

Image 1 : Seratonin Synthesis

Image 2: Melatonin and Pinoline Synthesis

Image 3: “Harm’” Compounds. Pinoline also goes by the names 6-Methoxytetrahydro beta carboline, and 6MeOTHB

The inhibition of MAO (monoamine oxidase) also allows for the synthesis of the “spirit molecules”, 5- MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine) and DMT (dimethyltryptamine). In a two-step process, 5-MeO-DMT is synthesized from melatonin with the assistance of the O-methylating enzyme HIOMT (hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) and the enzyme INMT. Inhibition of INMT results in the formation of DMT.

Image 4: 5-MeO-DMT Synthesis

The structures of 5-MeO-DMT and DMT are very similar, differing only by the presence/absence of a CH3 group.

It should be noted that the tryptamine derivatives are often unstable, volatile substances, and mol- ecules with nearly identical structures may have significantly different functions and effects. DMT, for example, is metabolized by the brain in a matter of 10’s of seconds. The tryptamine molecules may rapidly destabilize and transform into sister compounds, and multiple pathways may exist for the formation of a given tryptamine structure. This probably accounts for some of the considerable confusion in the literature regarding the origin of the various “spirit molecules”. Pinoline synthesis, as a prime ex- ample, has been variously attributed to both melatonin and 5-MeO-DMT parent compounds. The sugges- tion that pinoline is a pineal secretion ignores the actual molecular pathways that lead to its synthesis.

Image 5: Comparison of the DMT and 5-MeO-DMT molecules. They differ by the presence/absence of a CH3 group.

Image 6: Tryptamine Derivatives

Stages of Dark Room Enlightenment

Benefits of Dark Room Experience

The Dark Room meditations will influence each person uniquely, depending on their maturity and stage of spiritual development. However, most people, even beginners, will receive great benefits, which may include:

1. Relaxation. This is one of the foundations for all other work. During the first days of the retreat, catching up on sleep, allowing the eyes to recuperate from the over-stimulation of our visual world, releasing the grip of mental concerns, plans, and a agendas and simply letting the energies settle creates the best vacation you may ever have.
2. Once relaxed and feeling at home in the dark, the Inner Lights may appear as well as possible images of space teachers, deities, colors, and shapes. Imbalances in one’s energies can manifest as dull colors.
3. Over time, as one becomes more open, balanced and awake, images clear as day may appear, not inside the mind’s eye but outside in the space of the retreat.
4. Advanced practitioners may experience some of the following: Dreams and sleep become more lucid. A state of continuous consciousness arises in which there is no break in conscious awareness; meditation can continue during sleeping and non-sleeping hours.
5. The Taoist Secret of Love and the Healing Love become very active, so that working with sexual energies and engaging in creative work become easier and more powerful.6. Dreams will often take the form of teachings or participation in great mythological stories.

The Dark Room enables the body and mind to undergo a series of profound transformations. The ‘states of consciousness’ appear correlated with the organic synthesis and accumulation of psychedelic chemicals in the brain, especially melatonin (Days 1 to 3), pinoline (Days 3 to 5), 5-MeO-DMT (Days 6 to 8), and DMT (Days 9 to 12). The pharmacology of these states is as follows.

‘Melatonin Stage’ (Day 1 to 3)

Complete isolation from external light causes the pineal gland to flood the brain with the neurotrans- mitter melatonin (average 2 to 5 mg/day), manifesting initially as the need for sleep and rest. The eyes recuperate from the over-stimulation of the visual world, releasing the grip of mental concerns, plans agen- das, and letting the energies settle. Melatonin is essential for maintaining the hibernation state, which facilitates the emergence of spiritual consciousness. The person retains a child-like biological condition where melatonin is conserved and recycled, not wasted in biological continuation. When this substance works together with the yellow marrow in the bone, the reddish firing reaction will activate a gentle interaction between the sacred water and the light. The sacred waters are the inner fluids that are responsible for producing bone marrow and other bodily fluids. The waters run not only in the in the center of the bones, but also in the spinal connections between the Crown and Perineum Points.

‘Pinoline Stage’ (Day 3 to 5)

After about three days, when melatonin concentrations reaches sufficient levels (15 to 20 mg) the body then begins to produce the superconductor pinoline, whereby a greater fluidity of thought and healing of the body starts to occur. Pinoline induces cell replication (mitosis) and intercalates with DNA molecules. The ‘pinoline stage’ is normally activated only in the womb, in lucid dreaming, or in near death experiences. Within this state we can metaprogram the brain to the Unity of Self, heightening awareness of the pathways with which we filter reality. At this stage, the nervous system becomes aware of itself. We become aware of the hologram of the external world that we create constantly in our head.

When the pinoline is triggered you activate your clairsentient and clairaudient powers. You may see light and visions, hear music, and gain phenomenal insight. A decoding of the DNA then begins to take place. Cosmic particles are attracted to us and decoded in the form of sound, light, knowledge and realization. The particles, which have the same cell structures as humans (and from which the Tao believes you evolved), are attracted to you magnetically. The body has approximately six trillion cells, which correspond to the universe ‘without’. Each of these cells can be seen as a computer with unlimited power and potential. Each cell can become a super conductor, able to receive information from space. You are able to decode this universal information carried from outer space, which may be as old as nothingness itself. When you enter this primordial state or force you are reunited with the true self and divinity within. You literally ‘conduct’ the universal energy. You may see into the past and future, understand the true meaning of existence, and begin to understand the order of things. You return to the womb, the cocoon of our material structure and Nature’s original Dark Room.

‘5-MeO-DMT Stage’ (Day 6 to 8)

At this stage the pineal gland starts to produce the neuro-hormone 5-MeO-DMT (aka ‘akashon’). This psychoactive tryptamine is highly luminescent and also extremely phosphorescent due to the amount of phosphene that it transmits onto the visual cortex. 5-MeO-DMT switches on 40% more of the cerebral cortex and awakens the nervous system to become aware of itself; ‘beingness’ results. Hence, the possibil- ity of metaprogramming the nervous system’s bio-computer - activating healing and conflict message as- sortment of the nervous system. 5-MeO-DMT is the empathogenic neurotransmitter that expands the emo- tional body between ‘infinity and zero’. It gives rise to telepathy in the emotional and intuitive bodies. It engages the awakening of the ‘Flower of Life’, the spine, which begins to glow in a state of beingness and peace.

5-Meo-DMT discharges the darkness from the darkroom. A bright light is activated and one experi- ences a born-again mentality. This Great White Light, the manifestation of the astral body, enables the self to project externally. At this point, some degree of ‘N-Methyl-D-Aspartare Inhibition’ (NMDA-I) usually occurs. This is a ‘soft form’ of the slowing of the glutamate input signals into the cells. This makes it easier for the nervous system to cause electrons to stop flowing within the cells, allowing for profound meditative trance states. 5-MeO-DMT intercalates with messenger RNA. One can see in 3 dimensional Holon pic- tures, as the thoughts behind language.

“Techniques taught in the Dark Room enable one to read and go beyond the matrix, by unifying all directions, and externalize the soul computer so that one can start to interact with ones own genetic code of the Tree of Life. In this intensive process 5-MeO-DMT activates the entire spine, the Tree of Life. The spine is activated and reprogrammed and you can start to process the illusion of the dream from its binary code into the unified translated Self: the Unity Self. Through 14 days of total light isolation your conscious- ness can be expanded to the wider range of wave emanations and transduce the core hologram of reality that is coherently programming ones nervous system to the Unity Self.”

Many exercises will be practiced during this period: compacting Chi, consciousness and awareness into the nervous system, working with the Silent Self and anchoring the Immortal Body.

The 5-MeO-DMT prepares the nervous system, through its empathetic state of being and self awareness of the nervous system, for the DMT or dimethyltryptamine production of the pineal gland, in psychoactive milligram doses.

‘DMT Stage’ (Day 9 to 12)

When DMT levels reach more than 25 mg, one’s experience can become very visual. DMT is the visual third eye neurotransmitter. It enables the energy body and spirit to journey into hyperspace, beyond third dimensional realms of time and space. It is intensely energizing. “After some 10-12 days one starts to see in infra red, and ultra violet, one can actually run across the room and touch a person, by seeing their heat patterns. The Holon Images exteriorize and one is walking in a Virtual Reality, which appears to be the DNA language macro uploaded, and interactive.”

When you reach the ‘DMT state’ you begin to function consciously from the various psychic centers or chakras. The bodily processes of ‘Healing Love’ are then combined with those of the Dark Room. The human states of true compassion and sexual arousal create a new chemistry and a new vibration within the body. This ‘special’ vibration occurs at a frequency of 8Hz. ‘As in the macrocosm, so it is in the microcosm’; hence if we make love, then all the cells and DNA actually make love as well. The DNA crosses over, like two serpents intertwining in an erotic embrace. You need the orgasmic vibration to arouse this crossover process which leads to the ‘two giving birth to three’; the conception of new cells. The two vital states are compassion and arousal leading to orgasm. Both are inextricably linked to love. When this ‘love-vibration’ reaches the pineal gland a new hormone is produced, which in turn creates whole body conductivity. Only when you feel the waves of orgasmic vibration and unconditional love for the self and others can the process be activated and the essence of the darkroom is magnified.

At this stage of the Dark Room Retreat, the required amount of sleep tends to diminish dramatically. Although the day may last 24 hours, 3 hours of sleep can seem like 12. During this period we will engage in further practices; psychic games and interactivity, Taoist Dream Yoga (advanced levels) and Imagination Expansion.

Knowledge can come from the most unlikely places. For example, I’ll always know that a classy meal of fava beans and liver should be paired with Chianti wine thanks to Hannibal Lecter, the cannibal psychiatrist from The Silence Of The Lambs.

You all of course know what I’m talking about. It’s only the most famous line in the movie. FBI Agent Clarice Starling visits Lecter in a mental hospital because she needs help catching another serial killer, but Lecter is mainly interested in toying with her, so he talks about the time he killed a census worker and “ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice Chianti.” It’s a brilliant scene. It’s chilling, it’s great character development … but did you know that it’s also a joke?

According to a Reddit post, the mental hospital in the movie might had been treating Lecter with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which is a type of antidepressant that’s fallen out of use over the years due to its dangerous side effects and potentially-lethal interactions with certain foods. People who took MAOIs had to be put on a very strict diet that forbade them from eating things like – oh, would you look at this beautiful full circle – liver, beans, and red wine.

5 Brilliant Jokes Almost Everyone Missed In Famous Movies

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Enterobacter cloacae

Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family. Enterobacter cloacae lives in the mesophilic environment with its optimal temperature at 37 °C and uses its peritrichous flagella for movement. This organism is oxidase negative but catalase positive and is facultative anaerobic. In other words, this organism can make ATP by aerobic respiration when oxygen is present but can switch to fermentation in the absence of oxygen.

Enterobacter infections can include bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections (UTIs), endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, CNS infections, and ophthalmic infections. Enterobacter infections can necessitate prolonged hospitalization, multiple and varied imaging studies and laboratory tests, various surgical and nonsurgical procedures, and powerful and expensive antimicrobial agents.

The emergence of drug-resistant Enterobacter organisms has complicated treatment regimens, particularly within nosocomial settings, where such organisms have become increasingly common. Traditional approaches to treating Enterobacter infections involve single-agent antimicrobial therapy, typically with an aminoglycoside, a fluoroquinolone, a cephalosporin, or imipenem.

Key characteristics: Gram(-), catalase(+), oxidase(-), motility(+), indole(-), citrate(+).

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Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is a “comma” shaped Gram-negative bacteria with a single, polar flagellum for movement. There are numerous strains of V. cholerae, some of which are pathogenic and some of which are not. The most wide sweeping pathogenic strain is the Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 El Tor N16961 strain that causes the pandemic disease cholera

The bacteria infects the intestine and increases mucous production causing diarrhea and vomiting which result in extreme dehydration and, if not treated, death. It is usually transmitted through the feces of an infected person, often by way of unclean drinking water or contaminated food. Since water treatment and sanitation is more advanced in the United States, cholera is not nearly as high of a public health threat in the US as it is in densely populated, economically reduced areas like India or sub-Saharan Africa where water and sewage treatment technology is low.

Key characteristics: Gram(-), catalase(+), oxidase(+), sacarose(+), lysine(+), ornithine(+), mannitol(+).

Gel Caps filled with Syrian Rue.

Syrian Rue (these are ground up seeds of the plant) contain what is known as MAO-I (Monoamide Oxidase Inhibitors). When administered they inhibit the body from breaking down certain kinds of alkaloids. This in turn makes it possible to ingest substances orally that otherwise would not be active orally since the body acids would break the alkaloids before they reached the bloodstream. This works for making some substances orally active at all but MAO-I’s are also used to enhance and prolong the effects of just about any drug.