outerspace

6

Swirls of Jupiter

Jupiter is a very stormy, turbulent, violent planet. The planet completes a day (or one complete rotation) within roughly 10 hours, which creates massive winds, producing these swirls, and violent storms. The fast rotation coupled with the fact that the planet is nothing but gas greatly multiplies the Coriolis effect. Earth too has a Coriolis effect, this creates the characteristic hurricane shapes and also contributes to the fact that storms will spin the opposite direction in different hemispheres. Luckily, our rotation is slower - our storms are less frequent and less violent than they would be if our days were shorter.

The above images come from the recent Juno mission by NASA.

🌌 25 celestial asks
  • solar system: what is the driving force behind your good deeds?
  • earth: rivers or seas?
  • moon: do you play any instruments?
  • jupiter: how tall are you?
  • sun: if you could live in any past decade, when would it be?
  • mars: do you believe in life on other planets?
  • saturn: favourite song?
  • venus: are you religious?
  • milky way: what’s your favourite chocolate bar?
  • neptune: what’s your favourite music genre?
  • uranus: sexuality?
  • mercury: what’s your favourite school subject?
  • pluto: is pluto a real planet or fake?
  • andromeda galaxy: what’s the farthest you’ve travelled?
  • ceres: how old are you?
  • crab nebula: favourite colour?
  • asteroid belt: favourite accessory?
  • pleiades: star sign?
  • orion nebula: sweet or salty?
  • sirius: favourite fictional character?
  • eris: what’s your dream job?
  • halley’s comet: what’s your opinion on fate?
  • callisto: do you like ice cream?
  • dysnomia: favourite sound?
  • deimos: if you could go to space, would you?
8

Welcome to winter on Mars!
Mars has seasons just like Earth does, so while it’s winter somewhere on Mars, it’s also summer time somewhere on Mars too. Mars has the four seasons Earth has, plus two additional ones, aphelion and perihelion. How does that work with 6 seasons? The additional two are basically just referring to how close the planet is to the sun. Earth’s orbit around the sun is a pretty distinct ring/loop. Mars is significantly more elongated - that’s why sometimes you hear of Mars being closer to Earth sometimes too - these extra seasons are what make it important for launching rovers, and eventually humans, to the red planet, because distance is always changing. This also means warmer and colder versions of the four seasons, depending how close the sun is.

The above images show ice on the surface, but it’s not water ice, it’s dry ice. Carbon dioxide that’s frozen! It will eventually melt (actually, it sublimates, which is just a fancy way of saying it evaporates - it turns from a solid straight into a gas). The dark spots on the icy dunes are actually just the surface poking through as the ice sublimates.

Mars is incredibly cold. Keep in mind, the ice is all frozen CO2, which has a freezing point of -109.3ºF (-78.5ºC), therefore the temeprature had to be AT LEAST that for there to be ice. So no, Canada and North America are not actually colder than Mars, by the way. We’re covered in water ice, which freezes at 32ºF (0ºC). Despite it being cold (I would know after having to aggreesively remove ice and snow from my car almost every day this winter), it’s not nearly as cold as Martian winter. It can get down to about -195ºF (-125ºC) at the poles on Mars. The coldest EVER recorded temp on Earth was -128.9ºF (-89.2ºC) and that was in the heart of Anarctica.


The bottom photo is ice on the surface, as seen from the Viking 2 lander. The images above it are from HiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.