outer envelope

M2 9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula : Are stars better appreciated for their art after they die? Actually, stars usually create their most artistic displays as they die. In the case of low-mass stars like our Sun and M2-9 pictured above, the stars transform themselves from normal stars to white dwarfs by casting off their outer gaseous envelopes. The expended gas frequently forms an impressive display called a planetary nebula that fades gradually over thousands of years. M2-9, a butterfly planetary nebula 2100 light-years away shown in representative colors, has wings that tell a strange but incomplete tale. In the center, two stars orbit inside a gaseous disk 10 times the orbit of Pluto. The expelled envelope of the dying star breaks out from the disk creating the bipolar appearance. Much remains unknown about the physical processes that cause planetary nebulae. via NASA

js

Beware of the Big, Bad Wolf

Visible within the center of the Crescent nebula is what’s classified as a Wolf-Rayet star. This star is a staggering 250,000 times brighter than the Sun, 15 times more massive, and 3.3 times larger. Its surface temperature is nearly 70,000° C/ 125,000° F. At just 4.7 million years old, it is already toward the end of it’s life and is shedding its outer envelope, ejecting the equivalent of the Sun’s mass every 10,000 years. Within a few hundred thousand years, it is expected to explode as a supernova.  

(Image Credit: Michael Miller, Jimmy Walker)

7

NGC 7293, better known as the Helix nebula, is the nearest example of a planetary nebula, which is the eventual fate of a star, like our own Sun, as it approaches the end of its life. As it runs out of fuel, the star expels its outer envelope of gas outward to form a nebula like the Helix.
Images: different views of NGC 7293. Credit: ESA, NASA, ESO.

NGC 6888, also known as the Crescent Nebula, is a cosmic bubble about 25 light-years across, blown by winds from its central, bright, massive star. This sharp telescopic portrait uses narrow band image data that isolates light from hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the wind-blown nebula. The oxygen atoms produce the blue-green hue that seems to enshroud the detailed folds and filaments. Visible within the nebula, NGC 6888’s central star is classified as a Wolf-Rayet star (WR 136). The star is shedding its outer envelope in a strong stellar wind, ejecting the equivalent of the Sun’s mass every 10,000 years. The nebula’s complex structures are likely the result of this strong wind interacting with material ejected in an earlier phase. Burning fuel at a prodigious rate and near the end of its stellar life this star should ultimately go out with a bang in a spectacular supernova explosion. Found in the nebula rich constellation Cygnus, NGC 6888 is about 5,000 light-years away.

Object Names: NGC 6888, The Crescent Nebula

Image Type: Astronomical

Credit: Michael Miller, Jimmy Walker

Time And Space

M27: The Dumbbell Nebula : The first hint of what will become of our Sun was discovered inadvertently in 1764. At that time, Charles Messier was compiling a list of diffuse objects not to be confused with comets. The 27th object on Messiers list, now known as M27 or the Dumbbell Nebula, is a planetary nebula, the type of nebula our Sun will produce when nuclear fusion stops in its core. M27 is one of the brightest planetary nebulae on the sky, and can be seen toward the constellation of the Fox with binoculars. It takes light about 1000 years to reach us from M27, shown above in colors emitted by hydrogen and oxygen. Understanding the physics and significance of M27 was well beyond 18th century science. Even today, many things remain mysterious about bipolar planetary nebula like M27, including the physical mechanism that expels a low-mass stars gaseous outer-envelope, leaving an X-ray hot white dwarf. via NASA

js
#spndallas jensen auto experience

So, as you guys know, I take pictures. I love doing it but I struggle with loads of issues in confidence on it. So a bit ago, I decided to order the largest print I’ve ever ordered which is a 16x20. it’s a photo of Jensen singing from PHXcon and I was going to have him sign it but the closer it got to the con, I got nervous and I was honestly a little worried about the size of it and it seeming weird because Jensen does kind of have a recognition with me. 

Anyways, fast forward to me and the girls waiting in line for Jensen and they’re determined to get me to get this large print signed and I was thisclose to chickening out the whole time but Valerie was insistent (she’s the best friend ever). 

So Amy gets up there and decides to ask him if he’s team square or team triangle when it comes to pancakes. (because this is something the two of us argue about all the time. we’ve gotten all of twitter involved too) and he tells her he’s team square (long cuts vertical and then horizontal) because he goes ‘three deep’ and that way the syrup can get in there and he just kept saying he goes ‘three deep’ and I told him ‘Nope, you’re doing it wrong, they’re cakes, you have to cut them in triangles the way you cut cake’ and he said ‘three deep’ again and then goes ‘unless we’re talking about another instance, in that case, it’s 9′ and like looked at me and my whole brain short circuited because Jensen FUCKING Ackles is making a dick joke in front of me and I just got out ‘Listen! LISTEN!” and he grins and says ‘did I go too far?’ and everyone else still hasn’t gotten it and Amy went to leave and he says ‘I might have embellished a bit’ and then turns to the volunteer next to him and says ‘8 -9′ or something similar implying he didn’t embellish that much and so he looks down at my print and he stares at it for a minute and then underlines the ‘department of non-verbal conflict resolution’ on his shirt on the print and he just keeps staring at it and I sputter out ‘you make me nervous when you look at it like that!’ and Valerie is next to me and says ‘Hey can you do me a favor? When you go to tweet a photo for dallas, can you just use one of her photos?” and points to me and I’m making weird ‘noooo’ sounds and he looks up truly confused and says ‘Haven’t I??’ and Valerie says ‘noo, you’ve left her out in the cold for years!’ and by this point I’m trying to distract so I go to hand him a card I wrote him and he takes it and starts to open it and I go ‘n-no-no not now!’ cause it’s dumb and kinda embarrassing and he like puts his hand on it and says “is your information in here?” and I said ‘no’ and he goes “is your handle or somewhere I can find your photos in here?’ and I again said ‘no!’ and Valerie says “I can give it to you” and he goes “Alright! Write it down right now!” and hands her back my letter and she writes it on the outer envelope or starts to and I said “okay.. but don’t go too far back!’ because it occurs to me he’s going to have my twitter name and he grins and says ‘why does it get weird?’ and I squeaked out something like “no.. it’s respectful.. but just don’t!” because it’s fangirling obviously and he laughed and Valerie finishes writing and says “Can you read that? It’s amyshaped. Amy. Shaped.” and he nods and looks at me and grins and by this point I’m taking my print to leave and Kat the volunteer next to him says “she takes really great photos” and Jensen said “I know she does!” and I like.. blacked out and muttered a thank you and then left the line and almost immediately burst into tears. Like ugly crying in the seats because he just means that much to me. Valerie came out of her op and came over and hugged me while I cried. 

I started to draw the attention of the mental health volunteers at the con so I left shortly after but that is one fucking auto I’ll never forget. I don’t expect him to actually follow through and tweet a photo but it’s a nice dream. 

NGC 6888: The Crescent Nebula : NGC 6888, also known as the Crescent Nebula, is a cosmic bubble about 25 light-years across, blown by winds from its central, bright, massive star. This sharp telescopic portrait uses narrow band image data that isolates light from hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the wind-blown nebula. The oxygen atoms produce the blue-green hue that seems to enshroud the detailed folds and filaments. Visible within the nebula, NGC 6888s central star is classified as a Wolf-Rayet star . The star is shedding its outer envelope in a strong stellar wind, ejecting the equivalent of the Suns mass every 10,000 years. The nebulas complex structures are likely the result of this strong wind interacting with material ejected in an earlier phase. Burning fuel at a prodigious rate and near the end of its stellar life this star should ultimately go out with a bang in a spectacular supernova explosion. Found in the nebula rich constellation Cygnus, NGC 6888 is about 5,000 light-years away. via NASA

js

The first hint of what will become of our Sun was discovered inadvertently in 1764. At that time, Charles Messier was compiling a list of diffuse objects not to be confused with comets. The 27th object on Messier’s list, now known as M27 or the Dumbbell Nebula, is a planetary nebula, the type of nebula our Sun will produce when nuclear fusion stops in its core. M27 is one of the brightest planetary nebulae on the sky, and can be seen toward the constellation of the Fox (Vulpecula) with binoculars. It takes light about 1000 years to reach us from M27, shown above in colors emitted by hydrogen and oxygen. Understanding the physics and significance of M27 was well beyond 18th century science. Even today, many things remain mysterious about bipolar planetary nebula like M27, including the physical mechanism that expels a low-mass star’s gaseous outer-envelope, leaving an X-ray hot white dwarf.

Credit: Bill Snyder

Time And Space

NGC 6888, also known as the Crescent Nebula, is a cosmic bubble about 25 light-years across, blown by winds from its central, bright, massive star. This colorful portrait of the nebula uses narrow band image data to show emissions from sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the wind-blown nebula in red, green and blue hues. The star is shedding its outer envelope in a strong stellar wind, ejecting the equivalent of the Sun’s mass every 10,000 years.

(Image Credit: J-P Metsävainio)

M2 9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula : Are stars better appreciated for their art after they die? Actually, stars usually create their most artistic displays as they die. In the case of low-mass stars like our Sun and M2-9 pictured above, the stars transform themselves from normal stars to white dwarfs by casting off their outer gaseous envelopes. The expended gas frequently forms an impressive display called a planetary nebula that fades gradually over thousands of years. M2-9, a butterfly planetary nebula 2100 light-years away shown in representative colors, has wings that tell a strange but incomplete tale. In the center, two stars orbit inside a gaseous disk 10 times the orbit of Pluto. The expelled envelope of the dying star breaks out from the disk creating the bipolar appearance. Much remains unknown about the physical processes that cause planetary nebulae. via NASA

js
match day

You know how I said my top three all felt like they were tied for #1 in my heart? I got my #3, and I absolutely feel like I got my #1. It is a perfect place for me, with the strongest social medicine focus of any of my top programs, and a lot of really inspiring faculty, in a seriously cool city that I’m excited to explore. I am SO happy about it, and really don’t think I would have been any more excited had I matched at my official #1 or #2. So that’s great. 

It was a weird day, though. My medbesties and I picked up our envelopes from the table, and gathered separately from the rest of the group. I hadn’t been nervous at all until the moment I had the envelope in my hand, and then I was suddenly so emotional that I really thought I might pass out or throw up. I snapped a quick picture of the outer envelope during the countdown, and then tore it open. And there was ANOTHER ENVELOPE INSIDE, and I was like, are you trying to fucking kill me right now? Opened the second envelope, and the little card, and saw my match…it was like every feeling all at once. Thrilled to get one of my top choices, a flash of sadness about the places I wouldn’t get to go, but mostly just completely overwhelmed and sort of stunned to finally know. After so much time and work and agony…boom. This. This is what’s next. This is life after med school. Finally. 

At that point time starts for me again, and I find myself in a chaotic room. I look up at one of the world’s best humans, one of my closest medfriends, and she is standing there holding her unopened envelope and shaking. She says she can’t open it. I tell her that yes, she can. She says she really can’t. I put my arm around her shoulders, and watch her hands tremble as she finally tears it open. She reads it. She looks stricken. She shows me, and I recognize the name of a program that I know she loved. After her interview at this place she raved about it. However, I also knew it had moved down her list over the course of the interview season, and was ranked at something like #5. 

I look up at one of my other medbesties and she looks like she just saw a ghost. She is there with her sweet boyfriend, who looks like he just received a prison sentence. She also got her #5. She doesn’t look sad, exactly. She just wasn’t mentally prepared for this. She was disappointed…but still relieved to finally know.

A third…he got his #10. He mainly seemed confused at that point. He had sent and received love letters, he had ranked programs that were not overly competitive…he had worked so hard, and now felt so small. But still. Still relieved to know. Hurt. Relieved. Hurt. Confused. Relieved. Hurt. All of it crossing his face, all at once and repeatedly. 

And this, this is to say nothing of the people who we were missing because they didn’t match and couldn’t bear to be there at what they assumed would be a full-fledged celebration. As it turned out, their sadnesses would have blended into the crazy emotional tornado just fine.

The coordinator asks us to go around and say where we matched, and looks in our direction. My first friend shrinks, can’t seem to speak…doesn’t want to say it out loud. They skip her, and I share my result. Each of these people, many of whom I really dearly love, says the name of a program, a city, a specialty. Some look happy, many look relieved, and many just look shocked. We go to a highly-regarded medical school. We were told we could expect our #1 or #2 pick, most likely. That’s not what happened for most of us. Most of us were still perfectly happy, but many were not, and regardless, EVERYBODY was having a profound, intense, personal, and somewhat jarring experience in a room full of people also having that experience. I’m glad we were together, but holy shit, so many feelings in that room.

I sat down with my friends. My first friend sobbed on my shoulder briefly, a first step in letting go of her hurt. We all chatted quietly, shared our confusing feelings, and tried to avoid the roving photographers. I was really very happy, but also overwhelmed by the reality of the move I need to make, and in any case, could not celebrate in the presence of so many people feeling so many mixed emotions.  

We were all short on sleep and food. We split up into two camps, the burn-the-crazy exercise camp and the drown-the-crazy beer-and-burrito camp. I went with the beer camp, not because I actually wanted the beer, but to keep that last guy company. He was still in his head more than in his heart, and I was afraid that he was going to start drinking and fall apart. He didn’t. He’s ok. 

Everybody is ok. Later we all ended up in a sunny backyard with babies and dogs and beer and lawn games and friendship. I saw everybody smile and laugh. The emotional storm had passed, we all helped each other to bail out the boats, and everybody was floating in the sunshine. We made it to where we are, together. 

I’m very grateful. 

sincerely,

pairings: qrow/winter
notes:
have some angst aka how much shit can I put qrow through. Some language because Qrow is a whiny baby

There was a letter on his desk, its edges were wrinkled and discolored from his constant worrying, contemplating whether or not to open it. It was torn in places where had picked at the envelope, frustrated with himself and so absolutely angry with her for doing this to them.

Weiss visited a week after the letter arrived and when he opened the door his chest clenched at the sight of her. She looked so much like her sister and Qrow had a pressing urge to slam the door in her face. She forced her way in, every bit as stubborn as her sister and just as strong.

“You haven’t read it.” Weiss noted, reaching out to brush her fingers over the stained and crumpled envelope.

“Don’t need to.” he said, uncapping the flask and bringing the rim to his lips. “Can’t.”

Weiss lifted the letter up gingerly and turned it over in her hands. She had received her own the same time he did. She remembered how her hands had trembled when they broke the official Atlas seal, and how the words had blurred together into an unintelligible mass.

“Not opening it doesn’t change reality, Qrow.” she told him, softly.

“It’ll change everything.” he said darkly, tilting his head back and taking a hearty gulp from his flask.

Weiss set the letter down, a frown on her lips, and turned away.

“I’ll be in touch for the ceremony.” she told him, shortly,

Then she left him alone in the darkness of his apartment. He looked down at the letter, how she had left it seal up with Ironwood’s harried scrawl below it. Opening it wouldn’t make a difference.

Winter wasn’t coming back, letter or no.

Fuck.” he threw the flask across the room and alcohol sprayed out over the floor, effectively soaking the carpet and splashing over the desk.

His hand reached to tangle through his hair. It was a greasy, tangled mess but he ran his fingers through despite the painful tug of knots pulling at his scalp. His fist fell heavily against his desk, leaving the wood splintered beneath his knuckles.

He stretched his fingers in front of his face, watched the skin pull together over exposed flesh and muscle and mend itself until there were only pale white lines remained.

She would be so angry with him if she could see him now. He had a self destructive streak already and this- this was the breaking point. Raven’s sudden leave had started the crack, he remembered those days as a blur of alcohol induced bad decisions and late nights spent pouring over maps and searching for his sister. He gained his footing for Yang’s sake, pulled himself together for Tai, who was barely holding together as it was.

When Summer died it happened again. Qrow’s drinking habit had turned into a daily occurrence after her death. A flask had a near permanent place in his hand in the days following his Summer-less life.

Then the years had passed and Winter showed up and just for a moment he had been able to put down the flask. It had shifted from a momentary diversion to release the ever present tension between them and then suddenly it just became more. Then months passed, then a year, then two and Qrow found himself not being able to imagine his life without her. He was so pissed with himself when he realized how reliant he had become on her, when he realized how much he genuinely wanted her around.

He had hit James across the face when he delivered the letter. There had been no anger when Ironwood straightened, wiping the dribble of blood with the back of his hand. Qrow had thought, fleetingly, that it was cruelly just that Ironwood had his own blood on his hands for once.

Qrow reached for the letter. There were droplets across the envelope, discoloring the white paper with dull amber flecks. He tore at it, putting more strength than necessary into ripping the outer envelope to shreds.

A sheet of paper, folded neatly, fell. He watched it flutter down to the floor, unsure if he wanted to rip it or wanted to read it. He swallowed and lifted the paper.

Her handwriting, perfect slanting cursive, was printed across the paper in black ink.

Dear Qrow, if you are receiving this letter then it would seem I have fallen in the line of duty. I want to apologize for leaving you behind but I’m glad you have not met the same fate as I have. You have too many relying on you to give up. Don’t blame the General, I am responsible for myself and therefore responsible for my own life. It will be no one’s fault but my own if I do not guard it well enough. Take care of yourself and please watch over Weiss for me. She will need someone who understands beside her. I love you.’

He crushed the letter in his hands, crumpled it mercilessly in his fist and tossed it aside. A low rasp bubbled from his lips as he brutally ripped her letter. He didn’t realize there were tears until he felt one drop onto the back of his clenched fist.

The pieces fell at his feet and her words scattered all around him.

She was always so practical. She knew something like this would happen- she knew she was a pawn in Ironwood’s grand scheme and yet she put herself so readily in the line of fire. He remembered her telling him once that it was her duty to protect those who couldn’t protect themselves. He had understood that, it was the very same thing he did as a Hunter, but at least he wasn’t stuck beneath the thumb of a power hungry ass.

But he recalled how she smiled when she spoke of her work, how she would light up when discussing her latest accomplishments. He remembered nights when she would collapse in bed after a long day at work and curl into him, exhausted but still able to kiss him and talk in hushed tones beneath the covers.

She liked to hold him when they slept, no matter how ridiculous the difference in size was. He had never minded. He would always wake up with her arms curled around him, their legs tangled and his hand numb beneath her but somehow he still found himself feeling content.

They had turned each other into saps. Who’d of thought.

When he looked back to the shredded pieces he felt almost guilty for ruining it. She would have been pissed to know he ripped up her last wishes.

But why did she have to leave him behind? He had been so sure she wasn’t like the rest, like his sister, like Summer- like every single person he let himself care about.

His stomach rolled when he knelt down into the carpet, knees digging into the floor beneath him, and lifted up a few pieces. He could catch a few glimpses of words, her words, and his throat went tight.

Qrow’s head tilted and his face pressed into his palms. He hated this. He hated the familiar empty feeling in the pit of his stomach. It was the massive gravity of loss that seemed to be ever present in his life.

Damn it. He had thought he was safe. He thought that Winter would be safe. He would have married her, would have started a life with her and gave Yang and Ruby little cousins. They would of had everything- she wasn’t supposed to leave him, at least not like this.

He exhaled heavily, the breathe rattling in his throat. This wasn’t how things were meant to happen.

She was never supposed to leave him behind.

M27: The Dumbbell Nebula 

The first hint of what will become of our Sun was discovered inadvertently in 1764. At that time, Charles Messier was compiling a list of diffuse objects not to be confused with comets. The 27th object on Messier’s list, now known as M27 or the Dumbbell Nebula, is a planetary nebula, the type of nebula our Sun will produce when nuclear fusion stops in its core. M27 is one of the brightest planetary nebulae on the sky, and can be seen toward the constellation of the Fox (Vulpecula) with binoculars. It takes light about 1000 years to reach us from M27, shown above in colors emitted by hydrogen and oxygen.

Understanding the physics and significance of M27 was well beyond 18th century science. Even today, many things remain mysterious about bipolar planetary nebula like M27, including the physical mechanism that expels a low-mass star’s gaseous outer-envelope, leaving an X-ray hot white dwarf.

Hubble Detects Link Between Weak Supernovae and Zombie Stars

A team of astronomers, with the help of the Hubble Space Telescope, have detected a possible “zombie star” left behind as a result of a weak supernova.

Supernovae are violent explosions, signaling the end of a star’s life, and the dying star (usually a white dwarf) is obliterated. In this instance, astronomers believe they have found the zombified remains of the supernova’s progenitor – a surviving portion of a white dwarf star. Since white dwarfs typically do not survive supernovae explosions, any potential remnant is referred to a “zombie star”. In cases like these, the white dwarfs are not fully disrupted, only battered and bruised so-to-speak. 

Astronomers carefully examined previous Hubble images, taken years before the supernova, and were able to identify a white dwarf and its blue companion. Eventually, the companion star shed enough material onto the white dwarf to make the system unstable, igniting a nuclear explosion. The resulting blast was classified as a Type Iax supernova and is less common and dimmer than Type Ia supernovae. Overall, astronomers have identified over 30 of these mini-supernovae (Type Iax), that could potentially leave behind “zombie stars”.

These particular stellar explosions are important in our understanding of Type Ia supernovae. For decades, astronomers have searched for star systems that produce Type Ia explosions. These cosmic explosions are important, as they serve as cosmic mile markers, and help us measure the Universe’s expansion and vast cosmic distances. 

Currently, astronomers have not conclusively identified the Type Ia progenitor. Since there are many similarities between Type Ia’s and Type Iax’s, it’s important we understand this type of white dwarf explosion. For every one Type Iax explosion, there are five Type Ia’s and Type Iax’s only release between one and fifty percent the amount of energy as a Type Ia explosion. 

Approximately 110 million light-years from Earth, in the galaxy NGC 1309, lies the weak supernova, SN 2012Z. Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys first captured images of this would-be explosion prior to its outburst. Then in January 2012, the Lick Observatory Supernova Search caught the stellar explosion on camera. These two surveys provided astronomers with before-and-after images to compare. 

The Hubble images were subsequently sharpened, and astronomers were pleasantly surprised to see the progenitor system. They expected any system would be too faint to observe, as was the case in previous searches for Type Ia progenitors. Analysis and comparisons with computer simulations, researchers concluded that they were looking at a star that shed its outer hydrogen envelope, revealing a helium core. 

Astronomers plan to employ Hubble again next year to observe the area, after the supernova’s light has faded, hoping to see any potential “zombie star” and helium companion in order to confirm their hypothesis. They also hope these finding will lead to improved models of white dwarf explosions, as well as a better understanding of the relationship between Type Ia, Type Iax explosions, and their host systems.

Another example of a Type Iax explosion has been located in the galaxy UGC 12682. Hubble images of the supernova 2008ha were recorded in January 2013, four years after the explosion occurred. In the images, astronomers could see an object but so far have been able to tell if it is the zombie star, or its companion. 

This second finding shows us how diverse these explosions can be. SN 2012Z is one of the most powerful examples, while SN 2008ha is one of the weakest. Such diversity could be directly related to how each star explodes. Since the white dwarf is not completely obliterated, some explosions could eject a small amount of material, while some could eject a lot more. 

Image & Source Credit: NASA/Hubble 

IC 418: The Spirograph Nebula
Dubbed the Spirograph Nebula for its resemblance to drawings from a cyclical drawing tool, planetary nebula IC 418 shows patterns that are not well understood. Perhaps they are related to chaotic winds from the variable central star, which changes brightness unpredictably in just a few hours. By contrast, evidence indicates that only a few million years ago, IC 418 was probably a well-understood star similar to our Sun. Only a few thousand years ago, IC 418 was probably a common red giant star. Since running out of nuclear fuel, though, the outer envelope has begun expanding outward leaving a hot remnant core destined to become a white-dwarf star, visible in the image center. The light from the central core excites surrounding atoms in the nebula causing them to glow. IC 418 lies about 2000 light-years away and spans 0.3 light-years across. This false-color image taken from the Hubble Space Telescope reveals the unusual details.

Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgement: R. Sahai (JPL) et al.

Paul Nelson, Oscar Nitzchke, Frantz Jourdain, Palais de la Découverte Project, Paris, France, Aerial perspective, (1938)

Ink, color ink, graphite, and color pencil on paper mounted on board

After taking his license at the Ècole des Beaux-Arts in 1927, Nelson became a member of the School of Paris, the eclectic group of modernist architects that also included Robert Mallet-Stevens. His project for the Palais de la Découverte, represented in this perspective drawing, arose after the scientific exhibit at Paris’s 1937 International Exposition greatly impressed authorities in the French government. As a result, Nelson and his colleagues Oscar Nitzchke and Frantz Jourdain were commissioned to produce a study for a permanent science museum in the city. The project, unfortunately never realized, envisioned a structure that was as functional as it was monumental, the outer envelope being designed to contain diverse exhibits with quite different spatial needs. Tensile cables anchored in the central ovoid shell support the circular cantilevered roof. The architects" ideals and aspirations are evident in the clear lines of the drawing, which portrays a building for a positivist, technocratic institution.

- Paola Antonelli from, “Envisioning Architecture: Drawings from The Museum of Modern Art”, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2002