after mehmed ii conquered byzantine, he declared himself the roman emperor and protector of the orthodox church (even as to his east, moscow would style itself the third rome) – “in old times, the roman empire was pagan, catholic, and orthodox. now it is muslim.“
The Greek genocide, part of which is known as the Pontic genocide, was the systematic ethnic cleansing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population from its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–23). It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek population of the Empire and it included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary execution, and the destruction ofChristian Orthodox cultural, historical, and religious monuments. According to various sources, several hundred thousand Ottoman Greeks died during this period. Most of the refugees and survivors fled to Greece (amounting to over a quarter of the prior population of Greece). Some, especially those in Eastern provinces, took refuge in the neighbouring Russian Empire. Thus by the end of the 1919–22 Greco-Turkish War, most of the Greeks of Asia Minor had fled or been killed.Those remaining were transferred to Greece under the terms of the later 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which formalized the exodus and barred the return of the refugees. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Armenians, and some scholars and organizations have recognized these events as part of the same genocidal policy.
The Turkish government released a statement which claimed that describing the events as genocide was “without any historical basis”.
The sun casts beautiful light on a castle in Algiers.
This castle marks some of the most important history of the city of Algiers embodied in the extensions of the city and the Casbah towards the sea in the Ottoman period (between the sixteenth and nineteenth century).
Hürrem Sultan (fully: Devletlu İsmetlu Hürrem Haseki Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; c. 1502 – 15 April 1558, also known as Roxelana) was the favorite consort and later the legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and the mother of Şehzade Mehmed, Mihrimah Sultan, Şehzade Abdullah, Sultan Selim II,Şehzade Bayezid, and Şehzade Cihangir. She was one of the most powerful and influential women in the Ottoman history and a prominent figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was “Haseki Sultan” (chief wife of the Sultan) when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan. She achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire.
Hürrem not only became Suleiman’s partner in household, but also in empire affairs. With her intelligence, she acted as Suleiman’s chief advisor on matters of state, and seems to have had an influence upon foreign policy and international politics, made her one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and in the world that time, even when compared with womens who held title valide sultan. In same reason, she became controversial figure in Ottoman history for manipulating and plotting against her politic rivals.
Aside from her political concerns, Hürrem engaged in several major works of public buildings, from Mecca to Jerusalem, perhaps modeling her charitable foundations in part after the caliph Harun al-Rashid’s consort Zubaida. Among her first foundations were amosque, two Koranic schools (madrassa), a fountain, and a women’s hospital near the women’s slave market (Avret Pazary) in Constantinople. It was the first complex constructed in Istanbul by Mimar Sinan in his new position as the chief imperial architect. The fact that it was the third largest building in the capital, after the complexes of Mehmed II (Fatih) and Suleyman (Süleymanie mosque), testifies to Hurrem’s great status. She also built mosque complexes in Adrianopol and Ankara.
She commissioned a bath, the Haseki Hürrem Sultan Hamamı, to serve the community of worshippers in the nearby Hagia Sophia. In Jerusalem she established in 1552 the Haseki SultanImaret, a public soup kitchen to feed the poor and the needy. This soup kitchen was said to have fed at least 500 people twice a day. She also built Imaret Haseki Hürrem, public soup kitchen in Mecca. Some of her embroidery, or at least that done under her supervision, has also survived, examples being given in 1547 to Tahmasp I, the Shah of Iran, and in 1549 to King Sigismund II Augustus.
Why are Europeans so butt hurt on Tumblr when their history of racism is mentioned?
… europeans are not butt hurt, they’re just very annoyed that according to y’all americans european imperialism was the only imperialism that ever existed when
a) half of the continent barely even heard of it,
b) that same half was annexed and subjugated by those same imperialist powers ask the irish or the polish or the slavs or the greeks or anyone which was ever under the ottoman empire,
c) you never mention the ottoman empire period, or the mongol empire, or japanese imperialism, or any other form of colonialism or oppression that happened outside of europe and without europe being part of it,
d) whenever you do this discourse you make it look like europe is the center, beginning and end of Every Horror which is like the most fucking ridiculous western-centric notion in existence,
e) you’re not even aware of your own form of pseudo-imperialism that consists of either **exporting democracy** (these days) or overthrowing regularly elected governments because they’re too left for y’all (ask salvador allende for one) and messing with other people’s politics,
f) you fail to recognize that racism different from your brand exists in europe whenever you start blathering that you can’t be racist against white people and that xenophobia is less bad than racism, ignoring that in europe most of the population has the same skin color therefore there have been forms of racism/oppression/exclusion throughout the centuries that had nothing to do with the quantity of melanin in your skin and all to do with where you came from, your ethnicity or your religion
g) you co-opt every fucking thing ie people talk about the holocaust and you go like OMG YOU ONLY CARE BECAUSE WHITE PEOPLE DIED WHAT ABOUT THE SLAVE TRADE as if it’s comparable or we don’t care about the slave trade
therefore let me pls ask you one question instead
why are a lot of americans on this site so butt-hurt when people point out to them that they aren’t the center of the world and that the entire world does not work or think or function like the US of A?
PS: europe has a lot of racism problems but last I heard no one risked getting shot at by the police on account of their skin color in any country in europe nor of anyone getting into shootouts of any kind. first thing because no one shoots you because of your skin color, second thing because there’s gun control almost everywhere so a lot of time not even the police fucking has a gun. (see the UK.) sayonara.