otp: spacetime

Stretching SpaceTime

According to general relativity, the sun’s mass makes an imprint on the fabric of spacetime that keeps the planets in orbit. A neutron star leaves a greater mark. But a black hole is so dense that it creates a pit deep enough to prevent light from escaping.

Image credit: James Provost  

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If The Universe Is Expanding, Then Why Aren’t We?

“You might then ask, at what distance does the expansion start to take over? That happens when you average over a volume so large that the density of matter inside the volume has a gravitational self-attraction weaker than the expansion’s pull. From atomic nuclei up, the larger the volume you average over, the smaller the average density. But it is only somewhere beyond the scales of galaxy clusters that expansion takes over. On very short distances, when the nuclear and electromagnetic forces aren’t neutralized, these also act against the pull of gravity. This safely prevents atoms and molecules from being torn apart by the universe’s expansion.”

The Universe is expanding. The farther away a galaxy is, the faster it appears to be receding from us. The standard story tells us that space itself is expanding, and that’s the cause, but it’s only natural to wonder if perhaps space is static, and everything else within it isn’t shrinking instead? Many laypersons choose to go this route, and question the entire field of cosmology as a result. But is this fair? Or is this a road to not only ruin, but to physical inconsistencies? Could we flip the story on its head, and do some sort of test to see if atoms, the planet, or some other ‘local’ entity is shrinking, instead? Or, using the principle of relativity, could we declare that all frames are equally valid, and choose a frame where space isn’t expanding, after all?

These are all interesting thoughts, but there’s only one correct, valid, and consistent way to view the Universe. Sabine Hossenfelder has the explanation!

“The Esa animation was created from a computer model of what how the fabric of our universe would change as a result of a titanic collision between black holes”

“What a collision between two black holes would look like if we could see gravitational waves. These elusive waves are ripples in the fabric of space-time which could reveal how the universe was created nearly 14 billion years ago.”

Full video of simulation here

The Space-Time Continuum in BBC’s Sherlock Part II: Reflection and Reproduction

So, @tjlcisthenewsexy made some great comments on the original The Space-Time Continnum in BBC’s Sherlock meta and I started to reply, but then I had a big breakthrough and I feel it needs its own post.

The amount of parallels and direct homages to previous episodes in Series Four are more than numerous at this point. There are so many that its almost like they are re-doing entire episodes. Well, they are. The reason and method of which was confounding me for awhile, but I figured out the reason with my original Space-Time meta, and the method I just discovered this morning.

Here is a basic timeline of episodes in BBC’s Sherlock

Now, accounting for what we learned in The Space-Time Continuum Part I meta, here is some additional information:

The glass in TAB serves as a reflection or mirror between Series three and Series Four, which is why the Series MIRROR each other, as in literally mirror. 

EDIT TO ADD: @tjlcisthenewsexy pointed out the awesome phrasing that Molly gives us in HLV during Sherlock’s MP fall after being shot. She wonders if he should go forwards or backwards. This moment could easily be considered a second zero null vector because it is at this point Sherlock decides to start going backwards-towards TRF. Didn’t it seem odd how quickly he forgave Mary and how quickly The Watson’s marriage was back on track? That’s because he started rewinding the state of their relationship to the beginning of that episode!!!

(Interesting Side Note about Peppers Ghost, the parlor trick used in TAB. (Taken from Wikipedia)

The basic trick involves a stage that is specially arranged into two rooms, one that people can see into or the stage as a whole, and a second that is hidden to the side, the “blue room”. A plate of glass (or Plexiglas or plastic film) is placed somewhere in the main room at an angle that reflects the view of the blue room towards the audience. Generally this is arranged with the blue room to one side of the stage, and the plate on the stage rotated around its vertical axis at 45 degrees.[2] Care must be taken to make the glass as invisible as possible, normally hiding the lower edge in patterning on the floor and ensuring lights do not reflect off it.

When the lights are bright in the main room and dark in the blue room, the reflected image cannot be seen. When the lighting in the blue room is increased, often with the main room lights dimming to make the effect more pronounced, the reflection becomes visible and the objects within the blue room seem to appear in thin air. A common variation uses two blue rooms, one behind the glass and one to the side, which can be switched visible or invisible by alternating the lighting. (x)

This would explain Blue light hell @skulls-and-tea!! Every time we see a blue light, what we are witnessing is a reflection of something else from the series!)


So, the three episodes of each series literally reflect each other like this:

So the episode breakdown would look like this:

Do you see how the series are literal reflections of each other? There is of course still parallels to each of the episodes outside of this flow chart (like illusions to Sumatra in TEH and TST), but that can be accounted for by the fact that time isn’t actually linear. While these series reflect eachother as a basic method of understanding, the space of each episode still exists all in one time, so there will still be homages to “other” space-times.

The reflection of the two series explains why The Six thatchers is so similar to His Last Vow, with the guns and the slo-mo gunshot and Mary’s secret assassin storyline and would help a lot of us EMPers who are so attached to HLV being the beginning of EMP realize why we thought this so vehemently after TST. TLD and TSoT are connected by their emotional focus and their progression of John and Sherlock’s relationship. They are also linked by the only two JohnLock hugs in existence. TEH and TFP are very similar in the countdown/bomb motifs, bond-esque baddie plots, A focus on Mycroft and Sherlock’s relationship, and the inclusion of The Holmes parents. 

Now, if you notice, Series Three and Four also has A LOT of parallels to Series Two, but they don’t work as a mirror! Series 3 & 4 are not a reflection of Series 2, but a reproduction of it! If Sherlock is working is way through how to defeat Moriarty at point zero, then he will need to work through all the steps (Absolute Past) that led him to that point- (i.e Series 1 and more specifically, Series 2). So the entirety of Series 3 & 4 is a retelling of Series 2, folded in on itself. Why? Because TIME IS NOT LINEAR! For the visual learners (that’s me) this explanation would look something like this:

Its a circle, folded in on itself. Its literally the space-time continuum come to life!! If we want to break it down episode by episode I made table for that! (I’m really getting a lot of use out of Word today)

This is just a short list off the top of my head, so Im sure there is more- feel free to add on! Like John being kidnapped ASiB, TEH, and TFP!  

As I stated before, there will definitely be parallels within every episode to every other episode because time has folded and twisted in on itself in Sherlock’s mind. Its all existing at once. So the parallels in ASiB to TST or in TRF to TFP, are purposeful and a reminder that time is not linear. 

I hope these charts helped explain the theory a little more!

Tagging some people that I think might enjoy it based on their comments on the first part!

@ebaeschnbliah @isitandwonder @longsnowsmoon5 @loveismyrevolution 

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Is Time Travel Possible, According To Science?

“You can witness the evolution and destruction of humanity; the end of the Earth and Sun; the dissociation of our galaxy; the heat death of the Universe itself. So long as you have enough power in your space ship, you can travel as far into the future as you like.”

Have you ever wondered about time travel? Perhaps you have your destination in the far future, and want to see how it all turns out? Maybe you want to return to the past, and alter the future or present by your actions there? Or maybe you want to freeze time altogether? If you want to know whether it’s possible, the physics of relativity holds the answer. Special relativity allows us to control our motion through time by manipulating our motion through space. The more we move through space, the less we move through time, allowing us to travel as far as we want into the future, limited only by our energy available for space travel. But going to the past requires some specific solutions to general relativity, which may (or may not) describe our physical Universe.

What’s the status of traveling through time? Come get the scientific story (with a brand new podcast) today!

Every time you make a decision, you tear a hole in the fabric of spacetime and enter a new parallel dimension. Not making a decision causes the same to happen. You may have thought that doing this requires a shaman, hallucinogenic drugs, or a time machine (or all three), but actually it stems from free will, is so subtle you never notice it, and happens all the time.

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The Big Bang Wasn’t The Beginning, After All

“The Universe began not with a whimper, but with a bang! At least, that’s what you’re commonly told: the Universe and everything in it came into existence at the moment of the Big Bang. Space, time, and all the matter and energy within began from a singular point, and then expanded and cooled, giving rise over billions of years to the atoms, stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies spread out across the billions of light years that make up our observable Universe. It’s a compelling, beautiful picture that explains so much of what we see, from the present large-scale structure of the Universe’s two trillion galaxies to the leftover glow of radiation permeating all of existence. Unfortunately, it’s also wrong, and scientists have known this for almost 40 years.”

Did the Universe begin with the Big Bang? When we discovered the cosmic microwave background, and its properties matched exactly the prediction of the Big Bang theory, it was a watershed moment for cosmology. For the first time, we had uncovered the origins to the entire Universe, having learned where all of this came from at long last. Emerging from a hot, dense, expanding, and cooling state, the matter-and-radiation-filled early Universe gave rise to everything we see today. Except there were a few pesky problems that the Big Bang couldn’t explain. If the Universe truly emerged from an arbitrarily hot, dense state, and if space and time themselves were born at that exact moment, the Universe would have signatures that we simply don’t see. Instead, theorists came up with an alternative beginning: cosmic inflation. Inflation made a bold prediction about the scale and magnitude of the fluctuations that should arise from this early state, and when our technology finally caught up to our imaginations, we measured them.

It turns out that the Universe didn’t begin from the Big Bang at all. It happened, but it wasn’t the beginning! Find out what came before, and how we know.

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Find out how time and space switch roles when we move beyond the event horizon of the black hole.

Looking on Light Years
6 x 8 Oil Study

This new study will be up on Every Day Original tomorrow morning (12/21/16) at 11:45 eastern time.

An extraordinarily fascinating aspect of the reality that we live in is that the deeper we look into space, the deeper we are looking back in time! Though awfully fast, light does not move instantaneously. It travels an astonishing 9.461 trillion kilometers in one Earth year. Yet the depths of visible space are so vast that we can see light arriving at earth now that left it’s source 13.8 billion years ago at the beginning of time (red shifted as it may be). All the light arriving from in between there and here is a history of the universe, waiting for us to learn from. We may not be able to change the past, but we can peer deep into it’s chronology.

danielx9  asked:

What happens when antimatter falls into a normal matter black hole?

You get … the same. (Yeah, awful boring response.)

Black holes are formed because of the curvature of spacetime, not because of the matter itself.

Then, both matter and antimatter are affected by its pull in the same way: they are both in the same space-time, and they both fall.

You’re probably thinking: “But when it reaches the end, it does annihilate part of the matter, right?”. Assuming that was the case (because we really can’t know what happens inside an event horizon yet).. yes, but it still doesn’t matter: the energy is conserved and so the gravitational pull (spacetime curvature) is conserved.

Sorry for the anti-climatic response.

New telescope attachment allows ground-based observations of new worlds

A new, low-cost attachment to telescopes allows previously unachievable precision in ground-based observations of exoplanets – planets beyond our solar system. With the new attachment, ground-based telescopes can produce measurements of light intensity that rival the highest quality photometric observations from space. Penn State astronomers, in close collaboration with the nanofabrication labs at RPC Photonics in Rochester, New York, created custom “beam-shaping” diffusers – carefully structured micro-optic devices that spread incoming light across an image – that are capable of minimizing distortions from the Earth’s atmosphere that can reduce the precision of ground-based observations. A paper describing the effectiveness of the diffusers appears online on October 5, 2017, in the Astrophysical Journal.

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