orthographic

I love the whole “question mark in parentheses” thing - not only because it’s so wonderfully versatile, but because it’s an orthographic encoding of something that that requires your entire body to express in person. Like, there’s no discrete expression or tone of voice that does what (?) does; you’ve gotta get your whole bearing into it, often with hand gestures, and yet in print it’s just three little characters. It’s possibly the most beautifully concise expression written English has yet devised.

Portuguese Influence on Japanese

I’m pretty sure I have a similar post on this, but this post is much more in depth because I wrote a whole term paper about this. If you love BOTH of these languages like I do or if you want to learn more about Japanese, stay tuned: 

Some (very brief) History:
In about 1543, the Portuguese arrived on the island of Tanegashima (off the coast of Kyushu) in Japan. The contact of the Portuguese and Japanese resulted in a lot of trade and religious conversion (on the part of the Japanese). For a pop culture context, look up the movie “Silence” with Andrew Garfield. At one point the daimyos promoted having the Portuguese in Japan, but at a later date they didn’t really like them anymore because he wanted to “nationalize” Nagasaki. So they kicked the Portuguese out. 

Linguistics!
Changes from Portuguese → Japanese

Some phonological changes:

Nasality

Portuguese nasal ending -ão translates to Japanese ending -an. Where do you think the word bread (pan パン) in Japanese comes from? Portuguese ‘pão’ bread! 

Epenthesis (insertion)

A consonant-vowel syllable type is the most frequent syllable pattern in Portuguese, however, Portuguese does allow consonant clusters at the beginnings and the ends of syllables. Japanese can only have consonant-vowel structures, but Japanese can also have 1consonant-vowel-2consonant syllable structures IF the second consonant is a nasal ‘n.’ Because of these differences in structure, Japanese has to change something about these words from Portuguese in order for them to fit into the language. One of these repair mechanisms is vowel epenthesis (or insertion). For example, Portuguese ‘cruz’ has a complex onset (’cr’) and a final consonant (’s’) which is not allowed in Japanese. To repair this, Japanese inserts a ‘u’ between the ‘k’ and ‘r’ sound, and an ‘u’ after the ‘s’ which makes it ku.ru.su. 

Consonant changes

Portuguese and Japanese differ on a couple of consonants (i.e. Portuguese has some consonants that “don’t exist” in Japanese phonology, so Japanese has to change these consonants to fit theirs). Some of these changes include:
Portuguese f → h sound 
Portuguese l and r → r (because Japanese has to l/r distinction)
Portuguese v → b when at the beginning of a word (my data had no examples of v or b in the middle of a word so I only placed the conditions that exist). 

I have more data regarding semantic change and orthographic choices (i.e. how Japanese chose to represent certain loan words in kanji). If you’re interested in seeing some of that, let me know. 

But one last interesting point: 

Did you know Japanese kabocha (pumpkin) comes from the Portuguese word for Cambodia? 

Before the Portuguese arrived in Japan, they were in Goa (India) and Macao (China). Supposedly on their route from Goa to Macau, they stopped in Cambodia. I’m thinking that maybe “kabocha” used to be “pumpkin of Cambodia” where, when the Japanese received these pumpkins from the Portuguese, just clipped it and ended up using “kabocha” to refer to the pumpkin. 

Just a fun fact. Because I was floored when I learned this. 

Edit: All data based on romanized orthographic recordings so orthography may not actually correspond with phonemes, etc.

so much soviet jewish history has been ignored, mostly because it’s overshadowed by the tragic fate most faced in the shoah or the postwar era, but omg people should know about them!!!! did you know the soviets allotted 840,000 hectares of land in crimea and ukraine for jewish settling, compared to the 130,000 hectares of land jews owned in palestine in may 1948 when israel was declared a state? did you know soviet jews were at the forefront of yiddish literature and theatre? what about david bergelson, itzik feffer, peretz markish and david hofshteyn, easily some of the most innovative jewish artists in history? did you know some of the leading yiddish linguists in the world were in soviet state-run organizations and produced really amazing orthographical studies and reformed it in a way that made it much more easily understood and, before things took a turn for the worse, were working on transitioning the language to the latin alphabet? what about that there were similar projects, although smaller, for judeo-tat (spoken by mountain jews), judeo-tajik (spoken by bukharan jews), and judeo-georgian (spoken by georgian jews)? those are just a few of the truly incredible things about soviet jewry, they were much more than victims and trapped dissidents and jews who couldn’t follow halakha

Having trouble with consistency when drawing your comic?

Want a cool sculpture of your favorite OC??

Want some merch to sell at a convention table???

Hi, I’m Travis and I’m looking for commission work. Speaking of work, look at those pics above again for a second. Not enough? Quality too low? Check out my instagram, or just browse my tumblr archive.

Did you like that? Well, thanks! So, do you think it’d be cool to have your own art made into a sculpture? Well, shoot me an email with some reference images and I’ll give you a quote!

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Recommended reference! It’d be best if your reference was orthographic (at least front and side, ¾ wouldn’t be bad either) specific textures you might want, close up drawings of important smaller details, etc.

Whatever reference I get, that’s what the thing will look like (most likely*)!

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Process and Pricing:

I sculpt using Castilene, which is a wax. This is NOT the final material of the piece. The sculpt will be molded in silicone and your final piece will be cast in a hard urethane plastic, which means if you’d like to get multiples of your commission then that can happen (note: extras will cost more).

Pricing varies on complexity, size of the piece, etc. As a base sum, expect it to be over $100 USD covering all materials and labor, however it should be noted this price may increase or decrease due to complexity, size of the piece, whether it’s a headsculpt, or a bust, or a full body figure, etc.

Interested at all? Just wanna pick my brain? Shoot me an email at willmctrav@gmail.com

*As I sculpt the figure, I will keep you updated with progress pictures where you may send notes if the pose is looking off, if shapes aren’t quite right, if things aren’t looking perfect for you, etc. However, please be reasonable! There can be some major differences between how something looks two dimensional and how it looks sculpted!

Disclaimers: What you see in my sculpts? That’s what I’m good at. Please don’t commission me for a hyper realistic Hugh Jackman complete with every single pore on his face (or anything in that vein), because it almost definitely won’t turn out good and neither of us will feel good about it.

I’m not gonna make art of licensed properties, unless you own the license. Sorry, I don’t want to be sued!

I retain the right to refuse a commission for any reason whatsoever. Mostly I just don’t want to do lewd art or have to try and interpret bad reference art (or violate copyright laws). If you’re not sure whether your reference fits these categories, just ask.

I’ll likely only be doing one or two of these at a time.

I will charge you after the final sculpt is approved by you and before I cast it. This will ensure that I can cover cost of material and won’t waste time making a mold of something I haven’t been paid for.

Tunghayan natin ang pagbabago, sa paglipas ng mga dantaon, sa imahen ng diwata sa ating mga mito’t alamat. […] Maaari noong unang panaho’y walang kasarian ang mga ito, ‘di kaya’y hindi makabuluhan ang kanilang kasarian. Sa wikang Espanyol, ang kasarian ng tao’y binabatay sa huling titik ng pangngalang tumutukoy dito. Kung a ang huling titik ay nilalapatan ng kasariang pambabae, kung o ay kasariang panlalaki. Ito marahil ang dahilan kung bakit nagkaroon ng kasariang babae ang diwata. Sa wikang Hiligaynon, ang katumbas ng diwata ay tamawo. Tulad ng paglapat ng kasariang babae sa Tagalog na diwata, gayundin nilapatan ng mga Ilonggo ng kasariang lalaki ang tamawo. Dagdag pa, sa guniguni ng karamihan sa mga Ilonggo sa kasalukuyan, pareho lamang ang kapre at ang tamawo. (26)

(Loose translation c/o me for those who can’t read Filipino) Let us examine the change, throughout the centuries, of the image of the diwata in our myths and legends. […] It is possible, that in earlier times these had no gender, or alternately, their gender was not significant. In the Spanish language, a person’s gender is based on the last letter of the name that signifies them. If the final letter is a, then a female gender is ascribed to them, if o, then a male gender. In the Hiligaynon language, the analogue of the diwata is the tamawo. Just as a female gender was ascribed to the Tagalog diwata, the same process of ascribing—this time, of a male gender—was done by the Ilonggo to the tamawo. Additionally, in the imagination of most Ilonggos at present, the kapre and tamawo are one and the same.

— 

Lucero, Rosario Cruz. “Ang Talinhaga ni Mariang Makiling: Isang Panimulang Makapilipinong Teoriyang Feminista (The Trope of Mariang Makiling: Toward a Filipino Feminist Theory).” Ang Bayan sa Labas Ng Maynila (The Nation Beyond Manila). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. 2007. 22-40. Print.

see, this is why i have a lot of beef with the whole “pilipinx”/”filipinx” label: philippine languages aren’t gendered. look at our pronouns (siya as opposed to he or she or ellos or ella) or our adjectives (matapang or matahimik as opposed to bella or corto or pequeña) there is no need to create a new term, affix a new letter, for something that wasn’t gendered in the first place. this is definitely not the case with latinx people, given that the european languages that have dominated their linguistic sphere (primarily spanish and portuguese) are heavily gendered. so let the latinxs have “latinx”, that is valid in accordance to their linguistic habitus. but we are coming from a completely different linguistic context (yes, spanish and english have influenced our languages, but not to an extent of near or complete erasure or replacement), thus we are filipino.

i cite the above example to point out the fact that there are things that aren’t as rigidly gendered as we think, especially when we take them by face value with regards to the letters that make up their names or labels. because of our fixation on the genderedness of names as introduced to us, concepts in our consciousness such as the diwata or tamawo changed over time and “gained” gender simply because of an outsider orthographic rule.

another thing: f for the language, p for the people (at least within the philippine language, filipino: wikang filipino, taong pilipino). in english, you have philippine and filipino. also, please do not blindly make the assumption that the use of p over f “decolonizes” the term! there are, in fact, philippine languages that have been using the letter f (like ivatan and ibanag) before the spaniards set foot on our land and “introduced” the letter to our orthography! the basis of this assumption is primarily tagalog-centric. the philippines is definitely comprised of more than just the tagalogs.

there are also a couple of pilipinx-spawned labels such as “ilocanx” or “cebuanx” going around. if the above arguments aren’t enough, take into consideration that not all ethnic identities follow that naming pattern that we quickly assume to be rigidly gendered: what about the kapampangan people? the ivatan? the waray? the pangasinense? heck, the tagalog? where does the x go? tagalxg? t’bolx? yakxn?

it is impossible to completely decolonize the word “filipino” as a term, if at all, since the demonym is in itself a colonial invention, and the philippines as we know it the didn’t exist until the islands were arbitrarily united by the spaniards. if you’re going to criticize or problematize the label “filipino” or “pilipino”, do not do so by the axis of gender, because within the context of the term, it is not a pressing—daresay relevant—concern. instead, you may want to focus on how it attempts to encompass and speak over the numerous ethnic identities of millions of people from batanes to tawi-tawi for the sake of a collective national identity. but the notion of gender with regards to the label “filipino” is not a very significant issue to raise. the use of “filipino” does not erase or speak over women or people of indigenous genders. so there is no need to make a big deal about it.

plus, note the word she uses to describe her feminist theory: filipino. it doesn’t take away much from her argument, does it?

edit: fixed some typos in the quote hehe (12/22/15 23:49 gmt+8)

anonymous asked:

Hey there! Your Dean, Cas, Sam hair tutorials were extremely helpful; thank you! If it isn't too much trouble, do you mind making a similar tutorial for their face structures and eyes? Thanks!

No problem!! For eyes Dean’s is sort of a rounded parallelogram, Cas’ is more angled/droopy and Sam’s is pretty almond shaped. If you keep these shapes in mind you can stylize their eyes while still keeping it recognizable.

For facial structures, generally Dean has more rounded features, Cas’ is more square and Sam’s is more angular/sharp. 

Dean’s face is pretty standard, the kind you’ll see in art book examples and stuff haha. I think one thing to look out for is the dip under his bottom lip in profile view. And his forehead’s a bit slanted too!

Cas’ face appears wider/blockier and from the side it’s pretty much just a straight line down. His nose is pretty sharp though

Sam’s got a stronger jaw and his cheeks are more hollow. From the side you can see he’s got a pretty prominent brow and sharp nose on an otherwise flat plane.

Hope this helps!