orotic acid

So apparently this molecule 

is called Erotic Acid

But not actually. Its real name is Orotic acid or commonly called Vitamin B13. It has been misspelled so often in the chemical literature, that it is also known as erotic acid. 

If you add another carbon to it, it becomes homo-erotic acid. xD

This drugs Inhibit...
  • Leflunomide: Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase (DH) [Carbamoyl phosphate --> Orotic Acid]
  • Mycophelonate: Inositol Monophosphate (IMP) DH
  • Ribavirin: IMP DH [IMP --> GMP]
  • Hydroxyurea: Ribonucleotide Reductase [UDP --> dUDP]
  • 6-MP (& Azathioprine): PRPP Amidotrasnferase (de novo purine synthesis) [PRPP --> 5-phopsphoribosylamine --> IMP]
  • Allopurinol: non-competitive inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase [Xanthine --> Uric Acid]. Allosteric Inhibitor of PRPP Amidotrasnferase
  • 5-FU: Thymidylate synthase [dUMP --> dTMP]
  • Pyrimethamine: Dihydrofolate (DHF) Reductase
  • Trimethoprim: DHF Reductase
  • Methotrexate: DHF Reductase [DHF --> THF = no dUMP --> dTMP]
  • Rifampin: DNA dependant RNA polymerase [inhibits sigma (promoter) and rho (terminator)] in RNA transcription
  • Actinomycin: RNA polymerase 2, RNA polymerase α2ββ
  • α-amanitin (amanita phalloid mushroom): RNA polymerase 2
  • Quinolones: DNA topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase
  • Fomepizole: alcohol dehydrogenase
  • Disulfiram: acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
  • Beta-lactams: peptidoglycan cross-linking in cell wall
  • Glycopeptides: peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala-D-ala portion on cell wall
  • Aminoglycosides: initiation complex in protein synthesis & translocation
  • Linezolid: initiation complex in protein synthesis
  • Streptogramins: aminoacyl-tRNA (aa incorporation) in protein synthesis
  • Tetracylins: aminoacyl-tRNA (aa incorporation) in protein synthesis
  • Cloramphenicol: peptide bond formation in protein synthesis
  • Macrolides: translocation in protein synthesis
  • Lincosamides: translocation in protein synthesis
  • Fluoroquinolones: DNA topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) & DNA topoisomerase IV
  • Sulfonamides: dihydropteroate synthase
  • Trimethoprim: dihydrofolate reductase
  • Rifampin, Rifabutin (rifamycins): DNA-dependant RNA-polymerase
  • Ethambutol: arabinosyltransferase, inhibits synthesis of arabingalactan, no cell wall.
  • INH: synthesis of mycolic acids, need bacterial catalase-peroxidase, encoded by KatG gene. Resistant if deletion of KatG gene
  • Azoles: 14alpha-demethylase, thus inhibits ergosterol synthesis from lanosterol
  • Flucytosin: DNA/RNA synhesis, active metabolite inhibits thymidilate synthase (5-FC --> cytosine deaminase --> 5-FU --> 5- Fd-UMP)
  • Echinocandins (-fungin): beta glucan, thus inhibit cell wall synthesis
  • Terbinafine: squalene epoxidase, thus inhibit the formation of squalene epoxide from squalene
  • Griseofulvin: mitosis, interferes microubule fx.
  • Chloroquine: detoxification of heme into hemozoin; heme accumulates, heme toxic for plasmodia.
X-linked Recessive Diseases List
  • Alport’s Sd: "hereditary nephritis", type IV collagen deficiency, alternating thickening & thinning of GBM, COL4A5 mutation, hearing loss, ocular abnormalities (lens & cornea), hematuria (gross or micro) since childhood.
  • Bruton’s Agammaglobulinemia: btk gene defect, no mature B cells or plasma cells, low lymphoid tissue, hepatitis, enterovirus infxs, first 6 months protected by maternal ab (no symptoms)
  • Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy: altered dystrophin gene, later onset than Duchene's, slow progression, relatively normal life span, less severe, rare cardiac involvement.
  • Chronic Granulomatose Disease (CGD): NAPDH oxidase deficiency, recurrent catalase (+) infxs, nitroblue tetrazolium test negative (yellow)
  • Congenital Aqueductus Stenosis: MCC of congenital obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Color blindness (red-green): can't distinguish shades of red and green (usually blue-green)
  • Duchene’s muscular Dystrophy: dystrophin gene mutation (Xp21), absent dystrophyn protein, MC & severe of muscular dystrophies, normal until 5yo, short life span (<30yo), progressive muscle weakness, calf pseudohypertrophy, <3 failure, arrythmias, respiratory insufficiency and infxs (decreased mucociliary clearence). Pneumonias CC of death.
  • Fabry’s Disease: alpha Galactosidase A, Ceramide trihexose accumulation, angiokeratomas, renal failure, peripheral neuropathy.
  • Glucose 6-P Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency: chronic hemolytic anemia, MCC of enzymatic deficiency HA, Heinz bodies, bite cells. Triggers are infections, drugs (antimalarial), fava beans
  • Hemophilia A & B: factor VIII & IX deficiency respectively. PTT prolongation.
  • Hunter Disease: iduronate sulfatase deficiency, heparan sulfate accumulation, no corneal clouding, aggressive behaviour.
  • Inherited Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: V2 receptors in collecting duct don't respond to ADH.
  • Lesch-Nyhan Sd: HGPRT1 deficiency, spastic cerebral palsy, self-mutilation, hyperuricemia, oral crystals in diapers, early death.
  • Menkes Disease: ATP7A gene mutation (copper efflux protein), Cu+ is lysil oxidase cofactor, Cu+ accumulates in intestine & kidneys; deficient in other tissues = deficient collagen cross linking; steely 'kinky' hair, MR, arterial tortuosity, hypotonia.
  • Ornithine Transcarbamoylase Deficiency: urea cycle, orotic aciduria + hyperammonemia (no megaloblastic anemia), orotic acid accumulation, increased glutamine . Cerebral edema, lethargy, vomiting, hyperventilation, convulsions, coma, death.
  • SCID: IL-receptor, Gamma chain deficiency
  • Wiskott Aldrich Sd: combined partial B & T immunodeficiency, IgM deficiency, thrombocytopenia, eczema.