origin: latin

  • Latin: We don't need a definite article!
  • English: We'll just use the. Simple.
  • French: Le, la, les. For a bit of variety.
  • Ancient Greek: :)
  • Latin: Oh no.
  • Ancient Greek: :) :)
  • English: Don't do it.
  • Ancient Greek: :) :) :)
  • French: Why are you like this?
  • Ancient Greek: ο, του, τω, τον, οι, των, τοις, τους, η, της, τη, την, αι, ταις, τας, το, τα, τω, τοιν
  • Ancient Greek: :)

Hello! I’m creating this list of latin vocab mainly to help myself revise, but also for anyone else who is premed/interested in anatomy. I tried to translate as accurately as I could, but please bear in mind my first language is not English.

body parts

  • caput - head
  • auris - ear
  • facies - face
  • nasus - nose
  • bucca - face
  • mentum - chin
  • collum, cervix - neck
  • truncus - torso
  • thorax - chest
  • venter, abdomen - abdomen
  • membrum superius - upper limb
  • brachium - shoulder
  • antebrachium - forearm
  • carpus - wrist, carpus
  • metacarpus - metacarpus
  • manus - hand
  • palma (vola) manus - palm
  • dorsum manus - back
  • digitus manus - finger
  • membrum inferius - lower limb
  • femur - thigh
  • genu - knee
  • crus - shin
  • pes - foot
  • planta pedis - sole
  • dorsum pedis - back
  • digitus pedis - toe

direction and location (torso)

  • cranialis - head, in the direction of head
  • caudalis - tail, in the direction of tail, down
  • superior - upper
  • inferior - lower
  • anterior - frontal
  • posterior - back
  • ventralis - frontal, in the direction of abdomen
  • dorsalis - back, in the direction of back
  • medialis - closer to the middle
  • lateralis - closer to the side
  • externus - outer
  • internus - inner
  • superficialis - superficial, on the surface
  • profundus - profound, deep
  • dexter - right
  • sinister - left
  • rostralis - upper, frontal

direction and location (limbs)

  • proximalis - closer to torso
  • distalis - further from torso
  • ulnaris - closer to ulna bone
  • radialis - closer to radius bone
  • palmaris - palm
  • dorsalis - back
  • tibialis - closer to tibia bone
  • fibularis - closer to fibula bone
  • pantaris - sole

body and limb movements

  • flexion - bend
  • anteflexion - bend towards front
  • retroflexion - bend towards back
  • lateroflexion - bend on the side
  • extension - stretch
  • adduction - pull towards body
  • abduction - pull away from body
  • elevation - lift
  • pronation - rotation towards inside
  • supination - rotation towards outside
  • circumduction - rotation

The source I took these from also has a list of frequently used anatomical vocab, so if you are interested I could create another post (please let me know). 

A Roman Hymn to Hercules

Vergil, Aeneid 8.285-302

Then the Salian priests come to sing
Around the altars kindled with fires,
Their temples bound with poplar branches,
On one side a chorus of youths, a chorus
Of old men on the other; and in song
They lift up the praises and deeds of Hercules-
How he squeezed and strangled with his hands
The first monsters his stepmother sent, twin snakes;
How he also cast down in war
Mighty cities, Troy and Oechalia; and how
He bore a thousand harsh labors under the yoke
Of King Eurystheus, through unjust Juno’s fates.
“With your hand you slew, unconquered one,
Hylaeus and Pholus, double-formed creatures
Born of clouds; you slew Crete’s monsters
And the tremendous lion under Nemea’s crag.
The Stygian waters trembled in fear at you,
So too did the door-keeper of Orcus, reclining
In his bloody cave atop half-eaten bones;
No sight frightened you, not even Typhoeus himself,
Tall as a mountain, gripping arms; and when
Lerna’s serpent surrounded you
With its mob of heads, you did not lose your wits.
Hail, true offspring of Jove, now added
To the gods to give them glory; come propitious,
With favoring step, to us and to your rites.”

tum Salii ad cantus incensa altaria circum
populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis,

hic iuvenum chorus, ille senum, qui carmine laudes
Herculeas et facta ferunt: ut prima novercae
monstra manu geminosque premens eliserit anguis,
ut bello egregias idem disiecerit urbes,
Troiamque Oechaliamque, ut duros mille labores
rege sub Eurystheo fatis Iunonis iniquae
pertulerit. ‘tu nubigenas, invicte, bimembris
Hylaeumque Pholumque manu, tu Cresia mactas
prodigia et vastum Nemeae sub rupe leonem.
te Stygii tremuere lacus, te ianitor Orci
ossa super recubans antro semesa cruento;
nec te ullae facies, non terruit ipse Typhoeus
arduus arma tenens; non te rationis egentem
Lernaeus turba capitum circumstetit anguis.
salve, vera Iovis proles, decus addite divis,
et nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo.’

Hercules Crowned by Glory, Martin Desjardins, 1671

“Tace,” I tell Aphrodite. “Praecipitare means to cast down headlong. In the middle sense it can mean to cast oneself down headlong. In this case it means the light casts itself below the water, or, more idiomatically, the light sinks beneath the waves.”
“That’s a lot of English words for one Latin word,” Athena points out.
“Well, Latin is an economical language, especially when it comes to destruction.”
Athena gives me a smile that chills me like a rush of lake water. “That’s exactly why we like it,” she says.
—  Carol Goodman, The Lake of Dead Languages
Κλεοβούλου μὲν ἔγωγ᾿ ἐρέω,
Κλεοβούλῳ δ᾿ ἐπιμαίνομαι,
Κλεόβουλον δὲ διοσκέω.
Cleobuli quidem amor mihi vero est,
Cleobulo autem amentia a me data est,
Cleobulum autem videre me gaudium est.
—  Anacreontis fragmentum 359 PMG