oratorians

Litaniae Sancti Philippi Nerii Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.
Christe, audi nos.
Chiste, exaudi nos.
Pater de coelis Deus, miserere nobis.
Fili, Redemptor mundi, Deus, miserere nobis.
Spiritus Sancte, Deus, miserere nobis.
Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus, miserere nobis.

Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis.
Sancta Dei Genitrix, ora pro nobis.
Sancta Virgo virginum, ora pro nobis.

Sancte Philippe, ora pro nobis.
Vas Spiritus Sancti, ora pro nobis.
Apostolus Romae, ora pro nobis.
Consiliarius Pontificis, ora pro nobis.
Vox fatidica, ora pro nobis.
Vir prisci temporis, ora pro nobis.
Sanctus amabilis, ora pro nobis.
Heros umbratilis, ora pro nobis.
Pater suavissimus, ora pro nobis.
Flos puritatis, ora pro nobis.
Martyr charitatis, ora pro nobis.
Cor flammigerum, ora pro nobis.
Discretor spirituum, ora pro nobis.
Gemma sacerdotum, ora pro nobis.
Vitae divinae speculum, ora pro nobis.
Specimen humilitatis, ora pro nobis.
Exemplar simplicitatis, ora pro nobis.
Lux sanctae laetitiae, ora pro nobis.
Imago pueritiae, ora pro nobis.
Forma senectutis, ora pro nobis.
Rector animarum, ora pro nobis.
Piscator fluctuantium, ora pro nobis.
Manuductor pupillorum, ora pro nobis.
Hospes Angelorum, ora pro nobis.

Qui castitatem adolescens coluisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui Romam divinitus petiisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui multos annos in catacumbis delituisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui ipsum Spiritum in cor recepisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui mirabiles ecstases sustinuisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui parvulis amanter serviisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui peregrinantium pedes lavasti, ora pro nobis.
Qui martyrium ardentissime sitiisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui Verbum Dei quotidianum distribuisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui tot corda ad Deum allexisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui sermones dulces cum Maria contulisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui emortuum ab inferis reduxisti, ora pro nobis.
Qui domos tuas in omni regione constituisti, ora pro nobis.

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, parce nobis, Domine.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, exaudi nos, Domine.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.

V. Ora pro nobis, Sancte Philippe.
R. Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi.

Oremus. Deus, qui Beatum Philippum Confessorem tuum Sanctorum tuorum gloria sublimasti; concede propitius, ut cujus commemoratione laetamur, ejus virtutum proficiamus exemplo. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. R. Amen.

Illo nos igne Spiritus Sanctus inflammet (+) quo Sancti Philippi cor mirabiliter penetravit. Litany of St. Philip Neri 
Lord, have mercy. Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy. Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy. Lord, have mercy.
Christ, hear us.
Christ, graciously hear us.
God the Father of Heaven, Have mercy on us.
God the Son, Redeemer of the world, Have mercy on us.
God the Holy Spirit, Have mercy on us.
Holy Trinity, One God, Have mercy on us.

Holy Mary, pray for us.
Holy Mother of God, pray for us.
Holy Virgin of Virgins, pray for us.

Saint Philip, pray for us.
Vessel of the Holy Spirit, pray for us.
Child of Mary, pray for us.
Apostle of Rome, pray for us.
Counselor of Popes, pray for us.
Voice of Prophecy, pray for us.
Man of Primitive Times, pray for us.
Winning Saint, pray for us.
Hidden Hero, pray for us.
Sweetest of Fathers, pray for us.
Martyr of Charity, pray for us.
Heart of Fire, pray for us.
Discerner of Spirits, pray for us.
Choicest of Priests, pray for us.
Mirror of the Divine Life, pray for us.
Pattern of humility, pray for us.
Example of Simplicity, pray for us.
Light of Holy Joy, pray for us.
Image of Childhood, pray for us.
Picture of Old Age, pray for us.
Director of Souls, pray for us.
Gentle Guide of Youth, pray for us.
Patron of thine Own, pray for us.
Thou who observed chastity in thy youth, pray for us.

Who sought Rome by Divine guidance, pray for us.
Who hid so long in the catacombs, pray for us.
Who received the Holy Spirit into thy heart, pray for us.
Who experienced such wonderful ecstasies, pray for us.
Who so lovingly served the little ones, pray for us.
Who washed the feet of pilgrims, pray for us.
Who ardently thirsted after martyrdom, pray for us.
Who distributed the daily word of God, pray for us.
Who turned so many hearts to God, pray for us.
Who conversed so sweetly with Mary, pray for us.
Who raised the dead, pray for us.
Who set up thy houses in all lands, pray for us.

Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, Spare us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, Graciously hear us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, Have mercy on us.

V. Remember thy congregation.
R. Which thou hast possessed from the beginning.

Let Us Pray. O God, Who hast exalted blessed Philip, Thy confessor, in the glory of Thy Saints, grant that, as we rejoice in his commemoration, so may we profit by the example of his virtues, through Christ Our Lord. R. Amen.

May the Holy Ghost burn us with the fire (+) that admirably penetrated Saint Philip’s heart.
4

Santa Maria della Vallicella, Rome.

Santa Maria in Vallicella, also called Chiesa Nuova, is a church in Rome, Italy, which today faces onto the main thoroughfare of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the corner of Via della Chiesa Nuova. It is the principal church of the Oratorians, a religious congregation of secular priests, founded by St Philip Neri in 1561 at a time in the 16th century when the Counter Reformation saw the emergence of a number of new religious organisations such as the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the Theatines and the Barnabites.

History

St. Gregory the Great built the first church on the site. By the 12th century, it was dedicated to Santa Maria in Vallicella (“Our Lady in the Little Valley”).

In 1575, Pope Gregory XIII recognised Neri’s group as a religious Congregation and gave them the church and its small attached convent.

St. Philip Neri, helped by Cardinal Pier Donato Cesi and Pope Gregory XIII, had the church rebuilt, starting in 1575. When Pierdonato died, his brother Angelo Cesi, Bishop of Todi, continued his family’s patronage. Initially the architect was Matteo di Città di Castello, but he was replaced later by Martino Longhi the Elder. The nave was completed in 1577, and the church was consecrated in 1599. The facade, designed by Fausto Rughesi, was completed in 1605 or 1606. The Cesi heraldry is still evident in the church.

Interior

The ground plan follows the Counter-Reformation design of churches established at the Gesù; a single main nave with transepts and side chapels, leading towards the High Altar. Neri had intended that the interior be plain with whitewashed walls but it was filled by patrons with various artistic works, mainly during the period from 1620 to 1690, including masterworks by some of the principal artists of those decades in Rome. It is renowned for its altarpieces by Barocci, Pietro da Cortona’s ceilings, and the Rubens slate and copper altarpiece.

Pietro da Cortona’s decorations include the ‘Trinity’ in the dome (painted 1647–51). The prophets 'Isiah’, 'Jeremiah’, 'Daniel’ and 'Ezechiel’ in the four pendentives were painted in 1655–56 and 1659–60 along with his fresco of the 'Assumption of the Virgin’ adorning the apse. There is an implied visual continuum between the dome and the apse fresoes aided by the fact that there is no dome drum; the assumpting Virgin (in the apse) raises her eyes towards Heaven and the Father (in the dome) extends his hand as if bestowing His blessings upon her.

Cortona’s nave vault fresco of the 'Miracle of the Madonna della Vallicella’ was executed in 1664–65. This is clearly set within an elaborated gold frame, a quadro riportato, and is painted with a Venetian influenced view of di sotto in su (from below to above). His designs for the vault decoration around the painting, with elaborate white and gilt stucco work incorporating figurative, geometrical and naturalistic elements, were carried out by Cosimo Fancelli and Ercole Ferrata.

The walls of the nave and transept, as well as the presbytery ceiling, have canvases of Episodes of the Old and New Testament are by Lazzaro Baldi, Giuseppe Ghezzi, Daniele Seiter, Giuseppe Passeri, and Domenico Parodi.

The first altarpiece on the right is a Crucifixion by Pulzone with a ceiling fresco painted by Lanfranco. The third altarpiece is an Ascension by Girolamo Muziano, the fourth, a Pentecost by Giovanni Maria Morandi; the fifth, an Assumption by Cerrini. In the transept is a Coronation of Mary by the Cavaliere d'Arpino, who also painted the first altarpiece (Presentation in the Temple) on the right.

In the right presbytery, is the Spada family chapel completed in 1593 by Rainaldi. Inside, a Madonna with Child and Santi Carlo Borromeo and Ignazio di Loyola (1675) was painted by Maratta. In the central presbytery, the bronze ciborium was designed by Ciro Ferri in 1681. The Virgin with child and two lateral paintings, Santi Domitilla, Nereo and Achilleo, Santi Gregorio Magno, Mauro and Papia (1606–08) are among the few works painted by Peter Paul Rubens created specifically for a Roman commission. When installed, the three slate panels are said to have caused a 'stir’ among observers in Rome, who were generally unaccustomed to the Flemish painterly style. The Rubens altarpiece was commissioned by Monsignor Jacopo Serra for 300 scudi.

In the left transept is a Presentation of Mary to the Temple (1593-4) by Federico Barocci. He completed two altarpieces that were highly admired in his time, including one in the Chapel of the Visitation (1583–86).

The sacristy was begun in 1621 based on architectural plans by Mario Arconio and completed by Paolo Maruscelli in 1629. In the sacristy is a marble sculptural group of S. Filippo with an Angel by Alessandro Algardi. The wall frescoes are by Francesco Trevisani and the Benediction by Christ by Cerrini with the ceiling frescoed with Angels carrying the instruments of the Passion (1633–34) by Pietro da Cortona.

The fifth altarpiece on the left is an Annunciation by the Passignano; the fourth, a Visitation by Barocci with the ceiling frescoed with Saints by Saraceni. In the third Adoration by the Shepherds by Durante Alberti and the vault frescoed with a Saint by Cristofano Roncalli. The second altarpiece is an Adoration by the Magi by Cesare Nebbia; the first, a 'Presentation to the Temple by d'Arpino.

One painting that did not stay in its intended chapel is worth recording; Caravaggio’s altarpiece of the Entombment of Christ was commissioned by Alessandro Vittrice, nephew of one of Saint Philip’s friends, and depicted the entombment in a radically naturalistic format, foreign to the grand manner found in the remaining altarpieces. The original is in the Vatican Pinacoteca.

Neri is buried in the chapel to the left of the choir, which is dedicated to him, in a tomb decorated with mother-of-pearl. Designed by Onorio Longhi in 1600, the first octagonal part of the chapel has a central vault painting of St. Philip by Roncalli, and an altarpiece of The Virgin Appearing to St Philip Neri by Guido Reni (now a mosaic copy). In the inner and more removed part of the chapel, Cortona added a lantern to let in more light and the dome was redecorated, perhaps by Ciro Ferri.

Adjacent to the church is the Casa dei Filippini or the House of the Oratorians. There is a marked contrast between the pale travertine facade of the church and the brick built facade of the Casa. The Casa includes the Oratory designed by the Baroque architect, Francesco Borromini.


Rubens, η Παναγία με το Χριστό και τους Αγίους, 1608, Santa Maria della Vallicella.

Rubens, ο άγιος Γρηγόριος με άλλους αγίους. 1607- 1608. S.Maria della Vallicella, Ρώμη.

At the end of 1605 Rubens settled in Rome. Of great significance were his commissions for the Oratorians, who were, with the Jesuits, one of the most important new orders of the Counter-Reformation. In these altarpieces of Rubens’s later period there is a strong affinity with the work of Correggio, another painter of the High Renaissance, who exercised an important influence on the emergence of the Baroque style through his softer modelling and his emotionally charged expressively. That was particularly the case in contemporary Rome, where the style of the leading painters such as Federico Barocci and Annibale Carracci was based in part on Correggio.

The Ecstasy of St Gregory the Great was commissioned for the high-altar painting of the Oratorians’ main church, Santa Maria Vallicella. The compositional structure and the emotionally charged facial expressions and details in movement in Rubens’s first 'modello’ for this altarpiece (Staatliche Museen, Berlin) is inspired by similar altar compositions by Correggio. In the definitive version the construction, influenced by Raphael and antique sculpture, is stronger and more classicist. This painting is without doubt the zenith of the artistic output of Rubens’s Italian years. This majestic veneration of the saints is also one of the most manifest expressions of Counter-Reformation triumphalism in the city of its birth.

Rubens considered this commission as the confirmation of his reputation as a painter in Rome. Yet the picture was not hung in the place for which it was intended, because it reflected the light entering the church too strongly. For this reason the canvas was replaced by a new version on slate. This was quite different from the first painting; its composition was divided over three separate panels. This work, still in its original place in Santa Maria Vallicella, was ready in autumn 1608. Immediately afterwards Rubens returned to Antwerp. He took the rejected canvas with him and placed it above the tomb of his mother, Maria Pijpelinckx, who had died while he was on his way home.

(source: web gallery of art)

Στην πρώτη εκτέλεση, η πολυτελής ενδυμασία του Γρηγορίου απεικονίζεται με αξιοσημείωτη απτικότητα. Ο Γρηγόριος περιστοιχίζεται από τους αγίους: Δομιτίλλα, Nereus, Achilleus και στρέφει το βλέμμα του στην κορυφή μιας θριαμβικής αψίδας, όπου είναι τοποθετημένη η αναπαράσταση της Παναγίας με τον μικρό Χριστό, επιβεβαιώνοντας το θρίαμβο της πίστης των Αγίων Μαρτύρων.

Η αψίδα ενδεχομένως παραπέμπει στην αρχαία Ρώμη, στο παγανιστικό παρελθόν και κατ’επέκταση στον Προτεσταντισμό, έναντι του οποίου θριαμβεύει η πίστη της καθολικής εκκλησίας, μέσα στον πίνακα.

Η αντικατάσταση της αρχικής εικόνας από το τρίπτυχο, το οποίο φιλοξενείται μέχρι σήμερα στην εκκλησία: Η τελική εικόνα είναι διαφορετική ως προς την οργάνωση/ τον τρόπο επικοινωνίας με το θεατή. Στον κεντρικό πίνακα του τρίπτυχου, άγγελοι και ερωτιδείς περιστοιχίζουν τη θαυματουργή εικόνα της Παναγίας και του Χριστού, έχοντας τα βλέμματά τους στραμμένα προς αυτή.  Ο χώρος είναι ουράνιος, μεταφυσικός, μη-γήινος, θεϊκός, μυστηριακός. Αντίθετα, οι άλλες δυο σκηνές διαδραματίζονται σε έναν γήινο χώρο. Οι Άγιοι είτε επικοινωνούν μεταξύ τους με το βλέμμα, είτε κοιτάζουν το θεατή, είτε την εικόνα της Παναγίας. Τα ιστορικά πρόσωπα (οι Άγιοι) , τοποθετημένοι ξεχωριστά μέσα στον πίνακα, κατευθύνουν το βλέμμα του θεατή προς την θαυματουργή εικόνα. Μια ιεραρχική παρουσίαση μέσα στα πλαίσια της θρησκευτικής καθολοκής πίστης: οι άγιοι μεσολαβούν ανάμεσα στους δυο κόσμους, τον μυστηριακό/ουράνιο και τον γήινο.

*Εύγλωττη, άμεση παρουσίαση της θρησκευτικής σκηνής, που εξυπηρετεί την απεικόνιση του μηνύματος της καθολικής εκκλησίας.


Στο Μπαρόκ παρατηρούμε δυναμική κίνηση, έντονη σωματικότητα των μορφών, που έχουν γήινη υπόσταση, πατούν τα πόδια τους γερά στο έδαφος, απτικότητα, όγκους, λεπτομέρειες, περιγραφικότητα (πχ. στις θαλασσογραφίες) με μεγάλη επιμονή, περίπλοκη σύνθεση, πολυπλοκότητα στην σχέση των μορφών, συμπλέγματα σωμάτων (η σφαγή των Αθώων), έντονα διαπλεκόμενες μορφές, περιγραφή υφής, έντονα τοπικά λαμπερά χρώματα (Rubens), πιο φυσικά χρώματα, γήινα χρώματα της σάρκας (σε αντίθεση με τα ροζ χρώματα του Μανιερισμού), chiaroscuro (Caravaggio). Δεν υπάρχει σαφήνεια στην οργάνωση, όπως θα βλέπαμε λ.χ στο “Sposalizio” του Ραφαήλ, αλλά έντονα συμπλέγματα σωμάτων, σύνθετοι χώροι, που συνθέτουν μια άλλου είδους σαφήνεια σε σχέση με την αναγεννησιακή τέχνη. Ο Rubens λειτουργεί ως βιβλίο των αγραμμάτων και καταγράφει τα πάντα με λεπτομέρειες, ενώ στον Rembrandt υπάρχει κάποιου είδους αφαιρετικότητα.