or you're history

anonymous asked:

I want to get into theory and philosophy, but I've read very little. What do I need to read to be able to fully understand foucault, barthes, derrida, etc? Or should I just dive right in?

If you ever get to the point where you “fully understand” any of these dudes you will be doing much better than me, friend, & I would be impressed as hell. I’m not an expert in any of them by any means. 
But since it might be helpful I’ll tell you what we’ve read in my theory courses this semester (we just kind of jumped in, tbh): 

The History of Sexuality; Language, Countermemory, Practice; “What is an Author?” (Foucault)
Image - Music - Text (Barthes)

I love theory but I don’t understand it always 100% of the time. I’m tempted to just tell you to jump in, you’ll find out rather quickly if you’re stimulated by that kind of thing like I am or if you think it’s not worth the time. Which is fine, but it can be a lot of trying to find your way in the dark. Find out who you like, read the people they’re influenced by, and look at who they’re citing in the text, or read more recent people who use them in their own theories. 

I think it gets easier once you’ve read enough of a particular kind of theory & you’re able to understand the overall conversation that’s being had.

[Image: Comic panels of Clint and Kate smiling at each other and signing “Thanks, Hawkeye”]


ofc these losers use the same name sign (codename sign?)

Okay, so, I want to point out that usually directors and producers take great care in choosing what the scene and the background look like, as well as choosing what’s in the camera’s focus.

This is the moment when Buffy tells Cyrus that he’s no different now than before he came out. The people in charge made a conscious decision to include the general audiences sign in the background of this particular scene as a way of reinforcing their statement that being gay is okay. It’s not somthing that affects just adults, it affects kids too and Disney just took it’s first step to normalizing that. Disney channel. One of the biggest kid network out there.

This is the moment that Cyrus admits that coming out to anyone else is terrifying. The producers decided to have a sign in the background stating “You miss the shots you don’t take”, or something similar. They’re basically saying to kids watching that, if you feel like Cyrus, it’s okay. This is normal. Be brave and accept all the parts of you that make you you.

Disney has been very problematic in the past and still has some problems, but this is one thing they’re doing right. Kids will grow up knowing that what they feel is completely normal. This is amazing

Friendly reminder that the invention of pasta dates back to ancient Etruscan civilizations and is not something that we “stole” from Asia. 

The words pasta and lasagna come from the Greek words πάστα and làganon. When they founded Naples, the Greeks also adopted a dish made by the natives, made up by barley-flour pasta and water dried to the sun, called macaria. The existence of a dish similar to modern lasagna is also documented by Cicero. The Romans also had machineries similar to the modern ones used to manufacture the pasta. And there are other proofs of the existence of pasta in ancient times.

The legend about Marco Polo bringing pasta to Italy was started by the Macaroni Journal, in 1938. They wanted to make pasta look more international and take it away from its cultural context (italian-american neighbourhoods, that were seen as places for criminals). This legend has been proved wrong by many historians, but apparently it’s gonna be a long while before people stop believing it.

Human DNA: A history

DNA is an important part of modern crime evidence, but it is important to know when DNA is actually used in history, and the experiments it took to actually get DNA to be the robust science it is today. Hopefully this is helpful for your writing needs!

DNA Timeline

1866 – Gregor Mendel determines the principles of genetic inheritance

1902 – Sir Archibald Edward Garrod associated Mendel’s theories with human disease alkaptonuria (black urine or black bone disease, genetic disorder where the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine)

1944 – Oswald Avery, working with MacLeod and McCarty determines DNA as the “transforming principle”, while working with Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacteria causing pneumonia), it was determined that dead/heat-killed S-strain (which is lethal) can “transform” living R-strain (which is non-lethal) into lethal bacteria

1950 - Chargaff’s rules was developed by Edwin Chargaff, it basically states that there is a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases, that adenine = thymine, and guanine = cytosine, an important rule for base pairings and the DNA double helix structure

1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase experimented with T2 phage and elemental isotopes; phosphorus-32 labelled DNA while sulfur-35 labelled the proteins; the progeny infected unlabelled bacteria, and since phosphorus-32 showed up, it confirmed that DNA is the genetic material

1952 – Rosalind Franklin uses X-ray crystallography to photograph DNA fibres

1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick uses Franklin’s crystallography and previous research material to determine the double helix structure of DNA

1959 – an extra chromosome 21 is linked to Down’s syndrome

1965 – Marshall Nirenberg worked with E.coli bacteria cells to determine how DNA is involved with RNA and protein expressions, he helped decipher the codons of the genetic code

1977 – Frederick Sanger develops a technique for rapid DNA sequencing, the Sanger sequencing is also known as chain termination method based on selectively incorporating chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs)

1984 – Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the multi-locus RFLP probes, a method to compare the variations in DNA of different individuals, leading way to genetic fingerprinting

1986 – The first use of DNA testing in a forensic case, using Jeffreys’ multi-locus RFLP probes for DNA typing to catch Colin Pitchfork, who sexually assaulted and murdered Lunda Mann in 1983 and Dawn Ashworth in 1986

1990 – the Human Genome Project begins, with the goal of mapping all of the 3.3 billion bases of the human genome, and the genome of other organisms, this project costed about $2.7 billion (this amount wasn’t calculated for inflation) and took almost 15 years to complete, compare that to now where it will take about $1000 to sequence the human genome and it will take about a day to do so

2013 – it was discovered that identical (monozygotic) twins actually have differences in their genetic make-up, with differences/mutations called Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs)

“Is Bruce in here?” Tim figured he might be— Bruce spent a lot of time in the children’s wing of Wayne Enterprises. There were a dozen or so kids in daycare most weekdays, and Bruce liked to hang out.

Tim liked to hang out too. They had nice snacks, and he’d known most of the kids since they were toddlers. And sometimes naps were mandatory.

“Conference call,” Damian told him. (For someone who claimed to hate naps, snackfood, kids, and humanity in general, Damian also spent a lot of time in the children’s wing.) “I don’t know where.” 

He went back to what he was doing, which was arranging a set of pewter soldiers into a complex model of a battlefield, presumably for the benefit of the preschooler sitting next to him. 

“What’s this?”

“The Battle of Issus, 333 BC.”

“Right, obviously.” Tim decided he was curious, so he settled down on the mats to watch.  Damian finished his model; he pulled a marker from the art table and used it as a pointer. 

“Okay. This is the Macedonian army, outnumbered but in the better tactical position, south of the Pinarus River. Their leader is Alexander the Great. And this—” He pointed to his enemy line. “—is the Achaemenid Empire. They’re about to lose.”

Damian tapped his marker on the Macedonian right. “This is the companion calvary, Alexander’s elite force, and they—” he cut off when he noticed his pupil digging in the toy bin, clearly distracted. The kid came up with a battered Transformer, which he set behind Damian’s lines. 

“Elliot. Alexander did not have robots.”

“But,” said Tim, rummaging through the box himself, “did he have wizards?” He pulled a bearded magician out of the tub and held it up for Damian to see. 

“You know he didn’t.”

Tim passed the wizard to Elliot. “But what if he did?”


“How would that go?”


“Abracadabra, Alexander!” Elliot yelled, gleefully smashing through Damian’s entire left flank.

“Damn it, Drake.” Damian sighed in frustration— not quite the rise Tim was hoping for, but still something. He dropped Elliot’s discarded robot back into the box.

“I don’t know what you were expecting,” Tim told him. “Elliot’s four. He’s too young for— what is this— military history?”

“He was doing fine before you showed up.” Damian started to re-erect his soldiers, but he gave it up after Elliot came in for a second pass. “Which is typical, isn’t it?”

“Good one.”

“Thank you.” Damian crossed his arms. “Fine. I’ll bite. When is he supposed to learn this kind of thing?”

“High school? Maybe never.”

“That can’t be right.”

“Have I ever lied to you?”

“Frequently.” Damian rolled his eyes. “I’m getting a second opinion.”

“I’ll wait.”

Damian checked the room for potential allies. “Thomas?” he called over his shoulder, “You learned military strategy as a kid, right?”

Duke looked up from the book he was reading to a pair of kindergardeners. “Just you, man.”

“Told you.” Tim fished a bag of plastic ninja from the toy box and arranged them pointedly into a row. “How are you still surprised by this kind of thing?”

Damian glared at him. “Okay, first of all? I’m not a— hold on a second. Elliot!”

Elliot froze with a large, plastic dinosaur held aloft over the battlefield. He drew it sheepishly back to his chest. “Sorry.”

“Not in the calvary wing,” Damian told him. “You’ll scare the horses.”

“Here?” Elliot pointed to the front of the phalanx.



“Aim for his center.” Damian turned back to Tim. “Anyway. Why are you still talking to me? I thought we had an agreement about unnecessary contact.”

Keep reading

being a history major


  • spies
  • know two entire dates and everybody thinks you’re the shit
  • All The Gay™
  • period dramas
  • Hamilton


  • you know too much
  • everyone dies
  • historical inaccuracies
  • The Research Rabbithole 
  • everyone thinks it’s boring
  • ain’t war hell
  • umm actually
  • niche interests 
  • nobody gets your references
  • Hamilton
Fedal Cup 2017

I have never shipped them so hard before this.  

Some of the highlights:

  • both of them in suits, acting like fools in love as always
  • both of them cheering on the team
  • Rog touching Rafa’s leg
  • the two beautiful selfies to die for
  • Rafa saying that he’s lucky to have Rog next to him on the court
  • them looking like twinzies and walking in sync
  • the talks before and during the match
  • Rog saying that he’s there to help him with the net
  • the high and low fives
  • yours or mine moment (and then they low five and laugh about it)
  • Rog making Rafa smile after he makes a mistake that he’s kinda (always) annoyed about
  • the hugs!!!
  • Roger’s tweet that said that he could get used to playing on the same side of the net with Rafa
  • Rafa-the-alpha on the court and Rog is the one outside it, when it comes to the interviews
  • Rog giggling like a kid at Rafa during the press-conference
  • Rog calling Rafa “baby” (killed me)

  • Rafa supporting Rog and cheering twice as much for him to beat Kyrgios after he lost to Isner (cause of course Rog was there for him)
  • Rafa, the first one to jump up whenever Federer wins a point (the man loves to jump)
  • Rafa giving Rog advice during the last game (he said something like “if you’re feeling it, do it” and it was probably about playing more aggressive)
  • Rafa not caring if he’s too loud and screaming couple of “come on” in the last 15 minutes
  • when he won the last ball, Rog wasn’t even looking at his wife (who i adore dearly though), he just locked eyes with Rafa and then they ran to each other
  • Rafa jumping into Federer’s arms like a kid he is
  • Rog happily embracing him like it was suppose to happen
  • seeing them celebrating, sharing the trophy and drinking champagne from it
  • bonus: the looks that they gave each other
  • special thanks to Nike for the cool outfits that complemented the boys
  • also special thanks to Rafa’s ass (what a great view) (and plus the time he pulled up his shorts in frustration)
  • on a serious note: this is an incredible moment in the history of tennis, i am so happy i got to witness it all

My girl made him wait ‘til the hours of the night
Then hit you with the, “You know it’s mid, right?”
Can’t be on time for the free rides
Can’t be my type, I’m a low life
Crammed in some time, now I’m your whole life
Can’t make those calls in the low light
Are you ready to go? We gon’ be waitin’ in line
Yeah you look good, would I fuck? Yeah
Did I? Almost
Back home with that, almost
Back home with that, next time
Bags with all that Rally’s in 'em
Trades with all the valley (come on!)
Top chopped down like blades came through the valley

Despite our history
Somewhere in your nights, you’re stuck when you think of me
Despite the life I lead
All this life in me
Spirits watch me, pants down
Can’t be 'barrassed of it
I feel their smiles on me (smiles on me)
I feel their smiles on me (smile on me)
I feel their smiles on me (lens on me right now)
Oh yeah, oh yeah

Throw team on back like I tatted the Mariah (know I got some sins on me)
Then get the scream mask for the vert ride (ridin’)
Weed smoke in the sky, picture what I’m realizin’ (got some sins on me)
Ain’t seen rainbows in the sky since college
This thing won’t last unless we’re both lyin’ (both lyin’)
Fake flowers, no water needed
Real life drowned by the weekend
No wins, call it timeless
No ends 'cause you’re timeless (timeless!)

Despite our history, yeah
Somewhere in your nights, you’re stuck when you think of me
Despite the life I lead
All this life in me (all this life)
Spirits watch me, pants down
Can’t be 'barrassed of it
I feel their smiles on me (on me, on me, on me)
I feel their smiles on me
I feel their smiles on me

Lionel got a lens, Janet got a lens
Matthew got a lens on me right now, yeah
Cleve got a lens, Kevin got a lens
Know I got some sins on me right now
On me
On me, on me
On me, on me
On me, on me
On me, on me
On me, on me

Ayy roll up this
Yeah, cameras, cameras on me, I need tints (watch, tints)
Smilin’ but inside I’m feelin’ bent (watch, tints)
Come direct, please I can’t take no hints (yah!, yeah)
Bicycles and pegs, yeah
Ride low, duck the feds, watch
Du-rag on my head, yeah
Money on my head, yeah
Cameras, cameras on me when I’m bent
Mix the waterfall right behind the tent (yeah)
Backseat, spacious, I pulled up, spaceship, yeah
This ain’t Vegas
Yeah this here vacant yeah
Black skin bastard
Tad bit savage
Cause a tad bit havoc
When I come through, damage
Hop out, roll, pop it, pour
Planet froze, chain Keisha Cole (froze)
Molly help me sleep, yeah, Xannies make her sleep, yeah
93, 93, 93, spot

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