a poster i did years ago featuring Tchô! magazine characters (like Titeuf, Captain Biceps, Lou…) as manga/anime characters (Astro Boy, Grandizer, Candy, Crayon Shin Chan, etc…) … it was a lot of fun to do ^^
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to GOD, Lord of the universe. Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgment. You alone we worship; You alone we ask for help. Guide us in the right path: the path of those whom You blessed; not of those who have deserved wrath, nor of the strayers.
The brain is a privileged organ in the body. So vital to life, the
brain is protected from alterations elsewhere in the body by a highly
regulated gateway known as the blood-brain barrier, which allows only
selected molecules to pass through.
In certain diseases, however,
such as multiple sclerosis, the barrier can be improperly breached.
These “leaks” can allow immune cells and inflammatory molecules to pass
through, causing inflammation that leads to neuronal damage.
new study, researchers have made insights into how the blood-brain
barrier, or BBB, is maintained, identifying a protein key to the
process. Delivering this protein to mice with the rodent equivalent of
MS improved their symptoms.
The research, led by the University of Pennsylvania’s Jorge Ivan Alvarez and Cornelia Podjaski of McGill University and Alexandre Prat of the University of Montreal, appears in the journal Brain.
Alvarez is an assistant professor in Penn’s School of Veterinary Medicine.
He conducted the study with Podjaski and Prat and colleagues from
McGill University and from the University of Montreal, where he
completed a postdoctoral fellowship under the direction of Prat.
Podjaski is currently a researcher with New Nordic Inc. Prat is a
professor in the University of Montreal’s Faculty of Medicine and
directs the Neuroimmunology Laboratory at the Centre Hospitalier de
l’Université de Montréal Research Centre.
In 2011, Alvarez and Prat published a study in Science
that showed that the protein sonic hedgehog, or Shh, is secreted by
central nervous system cells called astrocytes and plays a key role in
blood-brain barrier maintenance, in part by preventing immune cells from
entering the brain.
But the researchers still didn’t have a
complete picture of the signaling events downstream of Shh that mediated
this effect. To learn more, they first used human cells in culture from
the blood-brain barrier, called endothelial cells. They found that
applying Shh to the cells caused levels of a protein called netrin-1 to
In mice bred to lack the molecular receptor for Shh,
netrin-1 expression was reduced, indicating that netrin-1 expression
depends on Shh.
“Netrins are best known to play a role in guiding
the direction of axon growth as well as morphogenesis and tissue
formation,” Alvarez said. “But our work suggested a new role for
netrin-1 in the blood brain barrier.”
Curious as to whether this
might influence MS, they examined BBB cells from the brains of people
who had died from the disease. Normal tissue from these individuals
contained low levels of netrin-1, while the diseased lesions in the
brain had higher levels. The researchers found similar results in a
mouse model of MS called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, or
Next, the team directly measured netrin-1’s effect on BBB
permeability by labeling tracer molecules and found that netrin-1
significantly reduced the movement of molecules across cultures of human
BBB endothelial cells. Further experiments showed that netrin regulates
this process by promoting the expression of the so-called “tight
junction” proteins, which are located between BBB endothelial cells and
are responsible for controlling barrier function. The team also found
that, when in an environment rife with inflammatory signaling molecules,
which would normally compromise the integrity of the BBB, netrin-1 had a
counteracting effect, preventing disruption to the BBB.
bred to lack netrin-1, we observed that proteins normally found in the
blood accumulated in the animals’ brain, another sign that netrin-1
ensured the integrity of the BBB,” Podjaski said.
these findings suggesting netrin-1 protects the BBB, the team tested the
potential of netrin-1 in ameliorating EAE symptoms, which are similar
to those of people with MS.
“By administering netrin-1 to mice
before the EAE disease was induced, we found that animals had less
severe disease, delayed disease onset, fewer lesions in their brain,
fewer markers of inflammation and better maintenance of body weight
compared to mice given a sham treatment,” Podjaski said.
mice, we found the disease outcome is better when they’re treated with
netrin-1, even when delivered after disease processes had begun,”
Alvarez said. “And all those observations held up in vitro as well.”
forward, the researchers hope to further elucidate the pathway through
which Shh and netrin-1 operate, with an aim toward finding more
effective ways to uphold the barrier and perhaps one day treat diseases
“We now know that Sonic is above netrin-1 in the
signaling pathway, but what else is Sonic hedgehog doing?” Prat said.
“We need to complete the puzzle with Sonic first to give us better
#CledePeauBeaute’s Radiant Powder Foundation in action.
Here’s my take on it so far:
#1 It lasts ok if you’re not working up a sweat. If you are, this will break down.
#2 It does not oxidise but it will not really control shine either. So I don’t recommend it for very oily skins.
#3 It doesn’t emphasize flakes but it doesn’t have any hydrating properties. There are times my face felt quite dry wearing just this for hours.
#4 It lasts much better over BB creams and light foundations than over primer alone.
#5 It has medium coverage, doesn’t grab and look cakey over concealer and foundation, and gives a semi-matte glow, so it’s actually perfect as a setting powder if you need a flawless but “natural” coverage.
I recommend it if:
- you have normal or slightly combination skin and want a convenient powder foundation that’s not too matte.
- you are a bit oily or dry and only want to use this as a perfecting setting powder over a liquid foundation suited to your skin type, or don’t mind using a setting/sealing spray over it.
- you are an artist looking for a powder that looks very naturally radiant for a shoot and don’t need it to last more than a few hours.
Of course, your budget has to allow for the $220 upfront price-tag as well.
Makeup colors: exactly what was listed in the previous IG post!
#makeup #fotd #review #foundation #luxemakeup #cledepeausg #cosmetics #beautytip #sg #bblogger #powder #ysl #babydoll
TOU: Don’t claim her as your own or re-upload her anywhere. Differently from my other sims, I don’t mind you changing their facial features. Just don’t be a berryhole. I also love to be tagged when you use her.