old-english

An Old English word for library was “bōchord”, which literally means “book hoard”, and honestly I really think we should go back to saying that because not only does it sound really fucking cool, but it also sort of implies that librarians are dragons.

Comparison of the Germanic Languages

Pronouns: I, Me, You, He, She, We, They

German: Ich, Mir, Du/Sie, Er, Sie, Wir, Sie
Low Saxon: Ekj, Mie, Jie, Hee, See, Wie, See
Old English: Ic, Mé, Ðu/Þu, Hé, Héo, Wé, Hie
Dutch: Ik, Mij, Je/U, Hij, Ze, Wij, Ze
Afrikaans: Ek, Jy/U, Hy, Sy, Ons, Hulle
Frisian: Ik, My, Do, Hy, It, Wy, Sy
Scots: Ah, Me, Ye, He, She, We, They
Faroese: Eg/Jeg, Meg, Tú, Hann, Hon, Vær, Tey
Old Norse: Ek, Mik, Þú, Han, Hon, Vér, Þau
Danish: Jeg, Mig, Du, Han, Hun, Vi, De
Norwegian: Jeg, Meg, Du, Han, Hun, Vi, de
Swedish: Jag, Mig, Du, Han, Hon, Vi, De
Icelandic: Ég, Mig, Þú, Hann, Hún, Við, Þau


Mountain

German: Berg
Low Saxon: Boajch
Old English: Beorg
Dutch: Berg
Afrikaans: Berg
Frisian: Berch
Scots: Montan
Faroese: Fjoll
Old Norse: Fell/Fjall
Danish: Bjerg
Norwegian: Fjell
Swedish: Berg/Fjäll
Icelandic: Fjall


Bread

German: Brot
Low Saxon: Broot
Old English: Bread
Dutch: Brood
Afrikaans: Brood
Frisian: Bole/Brea
Scots: Brede
Faroese: Breyð
Old Norse: Brauð
Danish: Brød
Norwegian: Brød
Swedish: Bröd
Icelandic: Brauð


To Be

German: Sein
Low Saxon: Sennen
Old English: Béon
Dutch: Zijn
Afrikaans: Wees
Frisian: Weze
Scots: Be
Faroese: Vera
Old Norse: Vera
Danish: Være
Norwegian: Være
Swedish: Vara
Icelandic: Vera


To Read

German: Lesen
Low Saxon: Läsen
Old English: Leornian
Dutch: Lezen
Afrikaans: Lees
Frisian: Leze
Scots: Rede/Reed
Faroese: Lesa
Old Norse: (Could not be found)
Danish: Læse
Norwegian: Lese
Swedish: Läsa
Icelandic: Lesa


Good

German: Gut
Low Saxon: Goot
Old English: Gód
Dutch: Goed
Afrikaans: Goed
Frisian: Goed
Scots: Good/Gud
Faroese: Góður
Old Norse: Goð
Danish: God
Norwegian: God
Swedish: God
Icelandic: Góður


Bad

German: Schlecht
Low Saxon: Schlajcht
Old English: Gódléas
Dutch: Slecht
Afrikaans: Slegte
Frisian: Min
Scots: Bad
Faroese: Illur/Ringur
Old Norse: Illr/Vándr
Danish: Dårlig
Norwegian: Dårlig/Slett
Swedish: Illa/Dålig
Icelandic: Illur/ Vondur

Fun fact: Italian hasn’t changed much since Dante. Modern Italians could read ancient texts from 1200 without much difficulty. By comparison, the Beowulf, which was written in Old English about 1000 years ago, is now entirely incomprehensible to modern English readers.

You will say that it’s easier for a Dane to study English than for a Spanish-speaking person to learn English or an Englishman Spanish; but I don’t think this is true, because English is a Latin language as well as a Germanic one. At least half the English vocabulary is Latin. Remember that in English there are two words for every idea: one Saxon and one Latin. You can say ‘Holy Ghost’ or ‘Holy Spirit,’ ‘sacred’ or ‘holy.’ There’s always a slight difference, but one that’s very important for poetry, the difference between ‘dark’ and ‘obscure’ for instance, or ‘regal’ and ‘kingly,’ or ‘fraternal’ and ‘brotherly.’ In the English language almost al words representing abstract ideas come from Latin, and those for concrete ideas from Saxon, but there aren’t so many concrete ideas.
—  Jorge Luis Borges
Mete and drenc (food and drink)

Flǣscmete and fisc (meat and fish)

  • þæt cicenflǣsc - chicken 
  • þæt cūflǣsc - beef
  • þæt scēapflǣsc - mutton
  • þæt swīnflǣsc - pork
  • se fisc - fish
  • se sǣmete - seafood
  • þæt flicce - (joint of) ham
  • þæt mearg - sausage

Wæstmas and wyrta (fruit and vegetables) 

  • se æppel - apple
  • sēo eorðbeorge  - strawberry
  • sēo peru - pear
  • sēo hindberge - raspberry
  • sēo wīnberge - grape (lit. wine berry)
  • sēo cerse - cherry
  • sēo pīse - pea
  • sēo bēan - bean
  • se cawel - cabbage
  • sēo bēte - beetroot
  • sēo more - carrot
  • sēo feldmoru - parsnip
  • se nǣp - turnip
  • þæt hwītlēac - onion

Drencas (drinks)

  • þæt wæter - water
  • þæt ealu/bēor - ale/beer
  • þæt sēaw/wōs - juice  
  • þæt wīn - wine
  • sēo mēolc - milk
  • sēo meodu/medu - mead

sēo butere - butter

sēo cīese - cheese

se hlāf  - bread

þæt ǣg - egg

se swamm - mushroom

þæt hunig - honey