old saxon

An Old English word for library was “bōchord”, which literally means “book hoard”, and honestly I really think we should go back to saying that because not only does it sound really fucking cool, but it also sort of implies that librarians are dragons.

Hwær cwom mearg? Hwær cwom mago?
Hwær cwom maþþumgyfa?
Hwær cwom symbla gesetu?
Hwær sindon seledreamas?
Eala beorht bune!
Eala byrnwiga!
Eala þeodnes þrym!
Hu seo þrag gewat,
genap under nihthelm,
swa heo no wære.
—  “Where is the horse? Where the rider?
Where the giver of treasure?
Where the seats of the feast?
Where are the joys of the hall?
Alas for the bright cup!
Alas for the heroic warrior!
Alas for the splendor of the king!
How they have passed away,
Dark under night-cover,
As if they never were.”
- The Wanderer, An Anglo-Saxon poem of lamentation, which was the inspiration for Tolkien’s Lament of the Rohirrim.
Kennings in Old English
  • weorðmyndum - honour (minds worth)
  • heofon-candel - sun (sky candle)
  • heofones gim - sun (sky’s jewel)
  • heofones wynne - dawn (joy of the sky)
  • bānhūs - body (bone house)
  • beadolēoma - sword (battle-light)
  • guð-wine - sword (war friend)
  • wægflota - ship (wave floater)
  • swan-rād - sea (swan road)
  • hron-rāde - sea (whale road)
  • uht-sceaða - dragon (twilight-scather)
  • lyftfloga - dragon (air-flyer)
  • hordcofan - thoughts (treasure-chamber)
  • ferðlocan - mind (spirit-chest) 
  • lēod-gebyrgea - king/ruler (protector of people)
  • heaðo-wædum - armour (battle weeds)
  • lind-hæbbende - warrior (shield possessor)
Comparison of the Germanic Languages

Pronouns: I, Me, You, He, She, We, They

German: Ich, Mir, Du/Sie, Er, Sie, Wir, Sie
Low Saxon: Ekj, Mie, Jie, Hee, See, Wie, See
Old English: Ic, Mé, Ðu/Þu, Hé, Héo, Wé, Hie
Dutch: Ik, Mij, Je/U, Hij, Ze, Wij, Ze
Afrikaans: Ek, Jy/U, Hy, Sy, Ons, Hulle
Frisian: Ik, My, Do, Hy, It, Wy, Sy
Scots: Ah, Me, Ye, He, She, We, They
Faroese: Eg/Jeg, Meg, Tú, Hann, Hon, Vær, Tey
Old Norse: Ek, Mik, Þú, Han, Hon, Vér, Þau
Danish: Jeg, Mig, Du, Han, Hun, Vi, De
Norwegian: Jeg, Meg, Du, Han, Hun, Vi, de
Swedish: Jag, Mig, Du, Han, Hon, Vi, De
Icelandic: Ég, Mig, Þú, Hann, Hún, Við, Þau


Mountain

German: Berg
Low Saxon: Boajch
Old English: Beorg
Dutch: Berg
Afrikaans: Berg
Frisian: Berch
Scots: Montan
Faroese: Fjoll
Old Norse: Fell/Fjall
Danish: Bjerg
Norwegian: Fjell
Swedish: Berg/Fjäll
Icelandic: Fjall


Bread

German: Brot
Low Saxon: Broot
Old English: Bread
Dutch: Brood
Afrikaans: Brood
Frisian: Bole/Brea
Scots: Brede
Faroese: Breyð
Old Norse: Brauð
Danish: Brød
Norwegian: Brød
Swedish: Bröd
Icelandic: Brauð


To Be

German: Sein
Low Saxon: Sennen
Old English: Béon
Dutch: Zijn
Afrikaans: Wees
Frisian: Weze
Scots: Be
Faroese: Vera
Old Norse: Vera
Danish: Være
Norwegian: Være
Swedish: Vara
Icelandic: Vera


To Read

German: Lesen
Low Saxon: Läsen
Old English: Leornian
Dutch: Lezen
Afrikaans: Lees
Frisian: Leze
Scots: Rede/Reed
Faroese: Lesa
Old Norse: (Could not be found)
Danish: Læse
Norwegian: Lese
Swedish: Läsa
Icelandic: Lesa


Good

German: Gut
Low Saxon: Goot
Old English: Gód
Dutch: Goed
Afrikaans: Goed
Frisian: Goed
Scots: Good/Gud
Faroese: Góður
Old Norse: Goð
Danish: God
Norwegian: God
Swedish: God
Icelandic: Góður


Bad

German: Schlecht
Low Saxon: Schlajcht
Old English: Gódléas
Dutch: Slecht
Afrikaans: Slegte
Frisian: Min
Scots: Bad
Faroese: Illur/Ringur
Old Norse: Illr/Vándr
Danish: Dårlig
Norwegian: Dårlig/Slett
Swedish: Illa/Dålig
Icelandic: Illur/ Vondur
Alternative Gender Neutral Titles (Credit to @genderqueeries )

Mum/Dad

  • Parent; neutral, formal.
  • Per; neutral, short for parent.
  • Par; neutral, short for parent.
  • Dommy; queer, mixture of mommy and daddy (note: sounds like Dom/me, a BDSM term)
  • Maddy; queer, mixture of mummy/mommy and daddy.
  • Muddy; queer, mixture of mummy and daddy.
  • Moddy; queer, mixture of mommy and daddy.
  • Zaza; queer, based on mama and papa/dada.
  • Zither; queer, based on mother and father. (Note, zither is also the name of a musical instrument.)
  • Baba; neutral, based on mama and dada. (Note, baba means dad in some languages and grandmother in others.)
  • Nini; queer, based on the N in NB, similar to mama and papa/dada.
  • Bibi; queer, based on the B in NB, similar to mama and papa/dada.
  • Cennend; neutral, Old English (Anglo-Saxon) meaning parent.
  • Cenn; neutral, short for cennend.

Sister/Brother

  • Sibling; neutral, formal.
  • Sib; neutral, short for sibling as sis and bro are short for sister and brother.
  • Sibster; queer, combination of sibling and sister.
  • Sibter; queer, combination of sibling and brother.

Aunt/Uncle

  • Pibling; neutral, your parent’s sibling.
  • Auncle; queer, combination of aunt and uncle.
  • Cousin; neutral, as sometimes people say aunt/uncle for parents’ cousins, or much older cousins.
  • Titi; neutral, from the Spanish for Aunt (Tia) and Uncle (Tio). (however, it is often a diminutive of aunt.)
  • Zizi; neutral, from the Italian for Aunt (Zia) and Uncle (Zio). (Note: zizi is also a French children’s ‘cute’ word for penis.)
  • Nini; queer, based on the N in NB, similar to Titi/Zizi.
  • Bibi; queer, based on the B in NB, similar to Titi/Zizi.
  • Untie/Unty; queer, combination of uncle and auntie/aunty

Niece/Nephew

  • Nibling; neutral, combination of niece/nephew and sibling.
  • Chibling; neutral, the children of you sibling.
  • Cousin; neutral, as sometimes people say niece/nephew for cousins’ children, or much younger cousins.
  • Sibkid; neutral, short for sibling’s kid.
  • Nephiece; queer, mixture of nephew and niece.
  • Niecew; queer, mixture of niece and nephew.
  • Nieph; queer, mixture of niece and nephew.

Daughter/Son

  • Child; neutral, formal.
  • Offspring; neutral, formal.
  • Sprog; neutral, informal.
  • Oldest; neutral, refers to age instead of sex/gender.
  • Youngest; neutral, refers to age instead of sex/gender.
  • Kid; neutral, informal.

Grandma/Grandpa

  • Grandparent; neutral, formal.
  • Grandwa; queer, based on grandma and grandpa.
  • Grandy; neutral, short for Grandparent, Grandma or Grandpa.
  • Nini; queer, based on the N in NB, similar to nana and papa.
  • Bibi; queer, based on the B in NB, similar to nana and papa.

Granddaugter/Grandson

  • Grandchild; neutral, formal.
  • Grandkid; neutral, informal.

Godmother/Godfather

  • Godparent; neutral, formal.

Goddaughter/Godson

  • Godchild; neutral, formal.
  • Godkid; neutral, informal.

Relationship Titles

Girlfriend/Boyfriend (non-serious relationship)

  • Date; neutral, the person you are dating.
  • Datefriend; neutral, the person you are dating, but fitting the boyfriend/girlfriend pattern.
  • Datemate; neutral, a rhyming version of datefriend, the person you are dating.
  • Lover; neutral, often implies sexual relationship, but simply refers to someone you love/who loves you.
  • Boifriend; queer, boi is a particular gender identity.
  • Girlboyfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Boygirlfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Paramour; neutral, someone you are having a sexual relationship with.
  • Bothfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Genderfriend; queer, based on boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Sweetie; neutral, slightly cheesy.
  • Sweetheart; neutral, cheesy or old-fashioned.
  • [name]friend; queer, based on girlfriend and boyfriend.
  • Cuddle Buddy; neutral, cheesy.
  • Birlfriend; queer, mix of boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Feyfriend; neutral, leaning towards queer.
  • Personfriend; neutral, leaning towards queer, based on boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Enbyfriend; queer, based on boyfriend and girfriend. (note: enby comes from NB, non-binary)

Girlfriend/Boyfriend (long-term/serious relationship)

  • Partner; neutral.
  • Significant Other; neutral, quite formal.
  • S.O.; neutral, short for significant other.
  • Other Half; neutral, informal, and implies monogamy.
  • Boifriend; queer, boi is a particular gender identity.
  • Girlboyfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Boygirlfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Paramour; neutral, someone you are having a sexual relationship with.
  • Bothfriend; queer, for bigender or androgynous people, or perhaps binary trans people.
  • Genderfriend; queer, based on boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Sweetie; neutral, slightly cheesy.
  • Sweetheart; neutral, cheesy or old-fashioned.
  • [name]friend; queer, based on girlfriend and boyfriend.
  • Cuddle Buddy; neutral, cheesy.
  • Steady; neutral, as in “going steady” or “steady girlfriend/boyfriend”.
  • Soul Mate; neutral, slightly cheesy, implies belief in soul mates.
  • Birlfriend; queer, mix of boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Feyfriend; neutral, leaning towards queer.
  • Personfriend; neutral, leaning towards queer, based on boyfriend and girlfriend.
  • Loveperson; neutral, a person that you love.
  • Enbyfriend; queer, based on boyfriend and girfriend (note: enby comes from NB, non-binary).
  • Epox; neutral, from the French ‘époux’ which means husband/spouse.
  • Companion; neutral, reference to Doctor Who’s companions, or Firefly’s Companions.
  • Imzadi; neutral, from Star Trek, a Betazed word similar to beloved.

Fiancée/Fiancé

  • Betrothed; neutral, formal.
  • Partner; neutral.
  • Significant Other; neutral, quite formal.
  • S.O.; neutral, short for significant other, a tad formal.
  • Other Half; neutral, informal, implies monogamy.
  • Sweetie; neutral, slightly cheesy.
  • Sweetheart; neutral, cheesy or old-fashioned.
  • Cuddle Buddy; neutral, cheesy.
  • Steady; neutral, as in “going steady” or “steady girlfriend/boyfriend”.
  • Soul Mate; neutral, slightly cheesy, implies belief in soul mates.
  • Loveperson; neutral, a person that you love.
  • Epox; neutral, from the French ‘époux’ which means husband/spouse.
  • Companion; neutral, reference to Doctor Who’s companions, or Firefly’s Companions.
  • Imzadi; neutral, from Star Trek, a Betazed word similar to beloved.

Wife/Husband

  • Spouse; neutral, formal.
  • Partner; neutral.
  • Significant Other; neutral, quite formal.
  • S.O.; neutral, short for significant other, a tad formal.
  • Other Half; neutral, informal.
  • Sweetie; neutral, slightly cheesy.
  • Sweetheart; neutral, cheesy or old-fashioned.
  • Cuddle Buddy; neutral, cheesy.
  • Steady; neutral, as in “going steady” or “steady girlfriend/boyfriend”.
  • Soul Mate; neutral, slightly cheesy, implies belief in soul mates.
  • Loveperson; neutral, a person that you love.
  • Epox; neutral, from the French ‘époux’ which means husband/spouse.
  • Companion; neutral, reference to Doctor Who’s companions, or Firefly’s Companions.
  • Imzadi; neutral, from Star Trek, a Betazed word similar to beloved.

Official Titles

Ms./Mr.

  • Mx.; queer, from mix or X as opposed to M or F.
  • M.; neutral, short for any and all titles. (note: M. is also short for Monsieur, making it masculine in French speaking countries)
  • Misc.; queer, the word miscellaneous.
  • Msr.; queer, mixture of Ms. and Mr..
  • Mq.; queer, based on the M beginning of Ms./Mr..
  • Ind.; neutral, short for Individual.

Miscellaneous Titles

Ma’am/Sir

  • Comrade; neutral, not suitable for all situations due to leftist/communist connotations.
  • Friend; neutral, very informal.
  • Citizen; neutral.
  • Tiz; neutral, short for citizen.
  • Mirdam; queer, a mix of Sir and Madam, although it still sounds similar to Madam.
  • Mistdam; queer, a mix of Mister and Madam.
  • Sir’ram; queer, a mix of Sir and Ma’am.
  • Laddam; queer, a mix of Lad and Madam.
  • Mir; queer, a mix of Sir and Madam.
  • Sir; neutral, Sir is used neutrally in the military, although this doesn’t work as well outside of that.

King/Queen

  • Monarch; neutral.
  • Ruler; neutral.
  • Sovereign; neutral.
  • Your Majesty; neutral, a way of addressing royalty.
  • Quing; queer, mix of King and Queen.
  • Caln; queer, created word based on the K/Q sound of King and Queen.

Prince/Princess

  • Prin; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Prinxe; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Princet; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Princette; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Princev; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Princen; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Princus; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending.
  • Your Highness; neutral, a way of addressing royalty.
  • Heir; neutral, refers to future monarchy.
  • Princex; queer, based on the Prince/ss ending, POC-coined and POC exclusive.

Lord/Lady

  • Lairde; queer, based on the sound of La in Lady and rd in Lord.
  • Layde; queer, based on the sound of La in Lady and rd in Lord.
  • Ruler; neutral.
  • Liege; neutral, term of address for a Lord/Lady.
  • Sovereign; neutral.
  • Suzerain; neutral, a feudal equivalent of Lord/Lady.
  • Potentate; neutral, a Latin word for someone in power.

Khal/Khaleesi (A Song of Ice and Fire / Game of Thrones)

  • Khalsine; queer.
  • Khalse; queer.
  • Khalof; neutral, created by David J Peterson who developed the Dothraki for the show.

God/Goddess

  • God; neutral.
  • Goddex; queer, based on the God/dess ending.
  • Goddette; queer, based on the God/ess ending.
  • Goddeq; queer, based on the God/ess ending.
  • Deity; neutral, another word meaning god.

Boy/Girl

  • Kid; neutral.
  • Enby; queer, from the sound of NB, non-binary.
  • Neut; neutral, short for neutal.
  • Newt; neutral, variation of neut.
  • Null; queer, refering to someone whose gender is ‘null’.
  • Gul; queer, a mixture of boy and girl.

Fanboy/Fangirl

  • Fanenby; queer, using enby as a replacement for boy/girl.
  • Fanby; queer, a mixture of fanboy/fangirl and enby.


ORIGINAL PAGE

2

You know what I love? 
Names. 
You know what I love more than just names? 
Geographically accurate names.

(Current popular names all over the world)

The following information was found here

Names From The Ancient World

  • Eastern
  • Egypt
  • Greece
  • Rome
  • Africa

Medieval European Names
Medieval English Names

Anglo-Saxon/Old English Names

  • Dithematic Names (Name with two elements)
  • Monothematic Names (Single element names & bynames)
  • Religion (Gods; Goddesses; Calendar)
  • Rulers

CELTIC

  • Ireland 
    [Celtic-Male Origin | Celtic-Female Origin | More]
  • Scotland 
    [Naming Patterns | Celtic Origin | Biblical Origin | More]
  • Wales 
    [Naming Practices | Biblical Origin | Welsh Surnames | More]
  • Brittany 
    [Male | Female | Surnames | More]
  • Old Celtic 
    [Male | Female | Religion | Cornwall | Isle of Man | More]

Modern English First Names

  • The Central Stock of English First Names
  • Linknames (feminine forms of Biblical, Celtic, germanic, Greek, Latin and Modern male names)
  • Saints (calendar of saints, patron saints)
  • Modern Coinages
    Placenames | Blended | Combined | Borrowed Words | Unisex
  • Surname Adaptations (English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh and Foreign surnames used as first names)
  • Themed Names (twins, mulit-births, colors, creatures dates, etc)
  • More

Western European Names

  • France | Naming Practices | Medieval | More
  • Italy | Latin | Medieval | More
  • Germany | Naming Practices | Medieval | More
  • Austria | First Names | Surnames | Rulers
  • Switzerland | First Names | Surnames
  • Netherlands | Naming Practices | Friesland | More
  • Belgium | Naming Practices | Walloon | More
  • Spain | Catalonia | Aragon | Asturias | Galicia | More
  • Portugal | Biblical Origin | Latin Origin | More
  • Basque | Male | Female | Surnames

Eastern European Names

  • Poland | Slavonic Origin | Various | More
  • Hungary | Pronunciation etc | Names | More
  • Czech-Slovak | Czech | Slovak | Czechoslovakia | More
  • Albania | Male | Female | Surnames
  • Bulgaria | First Names | Surnames | More
  • Romania | Male | Female | Surnames
  • Former Yugoslavia
    Former Yugoslavia | Bosnia-Hercegovina | Croatia | Macedonia | Montenegro | Serbia | Slovenia
  • Greece | Greek Origin | Latin Origin | Surnames | More

Scandinavian Names

  • Old Norse | Male | Female | Name Elements | More
  • Norway | Norse Origin | Germanic Origin | Surnames | More
  • Sweden | Norse Origin | Germanic Origin | Surnames | More
  • Denmark | Norse Origin | Various Origin | Surnames | More
  • Iceland | Norse Origin | Various Origin | Surnames | More
  • Faroe Islands | Norse Origin | Foreign Origin | Surnames
  • Finland | Pronunciation | Religion | Finnish | Compounds | More

Former Soviet Union Names

  • Russia | Naming Practices | Slavic Origin | Surnames | More
  • Europe and the Caucasus 
    Ukraine | Belarus | Moldavia | Georgia | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Caucasus
  • Baltic States
    Estonia | Latvia | Lithuania | Finland
  • Asian Republics
    Kazakhstan | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan | Kirghizistan 

African Names

  • Northern Africa | Gen. Names
    Morocco | Algeria | Tunisia | Libya | Egypt | Western Sahara 
  • Eastern Africa | Gen. Names
    Sudan | Ethiopia | Eritrea | Somalia | Djibouti | Uganda | Burundi | Rwanda | Kenya | Tanzania | Swahili 
  • Central Africa | Gen. Names
    Chad | Central African Republic | Cameroon | Equatorial Guinea | Gabon | Congo | Democratic Republic of Congo 
  • Western Africa | Gen. Names
    Mauritania | Mali | Burkina Fasu | Senegal | Gambia | Guinea-Bissau | Guinea | Sierra Leone | Liberia | Ivory Coast | Ghana | Togo | Benin | Niger | Nigeria 
  • Southern Africa | Gen. Names
    Angola | Zambia | Zimbabwe | Malawi | Mozambique | Namibia | Botswana | South Africa | Lesotho | Swaziland
  • African Islands
    Madagascar | Comoro Islands | Mauritius | Cape Verde Islands | Seychelles | Sao Tome and Principe 

Northern Native American Names

  • Native names used in modern America
  • Various Native American Nations
  • Algonquin [Cheyenne, Shawnee, Mohican/Mahican]
  • Apache [Mimbreno, Warm Springs, White Mountain, Bedonkohe, Chiricahua]
  • Iroquois [Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onundagas, Seneca, Tuscaroa]
  • Ojibwa [Ojibway, Potawatomi, Chippewa]
  • Cherokee | Choctaw | Creek | Crow | Hopi | Kiowa | Miwok | Navajo | Nez Perce | Omaha | Osage | Seminole | Sioux | Yakima
  • Inuit

Southern and Central Native American Names

  • Aztec [History, Male, Female, Religion, Calendars, Rulers]
  • Inca [Male, Female, Religion, Calendars]
  • Maya [History, Male, Female, Religion, Calendars]
  • Amazonian [Names from tribes living in the rain forests]

India

  • Hindu Names
    Male Names [A | B | C - K | L- Z] | Female | More
  • Hindu Gods
  • Sikh
  • Others

Middle and Near Eastern 

  • Arab/Muslim
    Male | Female | More
  • East
    Iran | Turkey | Kurds | Pakistan | Bangladesh | Afghanistan
  • Jewish Names
    Biblical | Yiddish | Modern | Various | Surnames

  • China 
    Info | Male | Female  
  • Japan 
    Info | Male | Female
  • Korea 
    Info | Male | Female
  • Mongolia
  • Himalayan 
    Nepal | Bhutan | Tibet
  • Indochina 
    Burma | Thailand | Vietnam | Cambodia | Laos
  • South East Asia 
    Indonesia | Malaysia | Brunei | The Philippines

Pacific 

  • Polynesia
    Maori | Samoa | Tonga | French Polynesia | Fiji | Cook Islands | Easter Island | Hawai'i | Australia
  • Micronesia
    Federated States of Micronesia | Kirbati | Marashall Islands | Marianas Islands and Guam | Nauru | Belau
  • Melanesia
    Soloman Islands | Papua New Guinea | Vanuatu | Tuvalu
Why does English still have the “TH” sound?

The interesting thing about this topic is that English is one of two languages of the Germanic family that has retained the feature commonly called the <TH>-sound which stands for the dental fricatives /θ ð/. If you have a look at the map below which highlights the Germanic tongues in red, only Icelandic and British English (from England, Wales, Scotland + Northern Ireland) in darker red sport these sounds. It is also fascinating because there was a time when the ancestors of all these tongues had dental fricatives but lost them over the last centuries.

Then, why did English maintain a sound that was lost in almost all its sister-languages despite centuries of evolution side-by-side?

Grimm’s Law

First, you have to understand that on the whole, Germanic languages phonetically stand out from the rest of the Indo-European languages for a set of processes that made original IE sounds move one step closer towards fricatives. These evolutions were named Grimm’s Law, after Jacob Grimm discovered this phenomenon in 1875. This is a brief summary of what happened during the splitting of Germanic away from common IE:

This translates into these instances:

  • Greek: Podos/ Latin: Pedis/ Sanskrit: Pada vs English: Foot/ Danish: Fod/ Gothic:Fotus.
  • Greek: Tritos/ Welsh: Trydydd/ Russian: Tretij vs English: Third/ Old Saxon:  Thriddio/ Icelandic:  Þriðji.

There are many more examples but the most relevant here is of course the change of alveolar/dental stops /t d/ into the dental fricatives /θ ð/. This is the first steps in explaining the presence of dental fricatives in English. They descend from a millennia-old process that saw these sounds develop in all Germanic languages.

Verner’s Law

When Grimm’s Law was accepted, a new problem arose; some words clearly didn’t fit within the frame hypothesised by Grimm. For example, Proto-Indo-European pa’tēr turned into father instead of the expected fader while PIE ‘brahtēr gave brother like Grimm’s Law predicted. The alternation can also be found in different forms of verbs. So of course, Grimm must have missed something. It turned out that the solution lies in the change of accents in Proto-Germanic. While stress was relatively free (meaning rather unpredictable) in PIE, PG stress shifted and was placed on the root of the word. The evolution of the phonemes did not affect the consonant if it was word-initial or right behind a stressed vowel. The evolution of these consonants are illustrated in the table below:

This is the reason why PIE /t/ became [θ] and then [ð] in PG for *fadēr while *brōþēr remained untouched. This event helped increase the number  of instances of dental fricatives in Proto-Germanic. But it still doesn’t account for English dental fricatives. Be patient.

High German Consonant Shift  

A new phenomenon took place in the southern dialects of German in the 5th century that consisted in a large-scale shift in the consonantal system. By the mid-5th century, Old English had already been brought to Britain and thus remained utterly unaffected by these changes whose relevant features are the following:

  • θ > d
  • β > b
  • ð > d
  • ɣ > g

As you can see, the dental fricatives evolved into stops and were consequently lost in the phonology. The HGCS was not restricted to German as certain elements can be found as well in Dutch, Low German and Scandinavian Germanic. Probably under the influence of German in the following centuries, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish lost their own dental fricatives as there were multiple and intense cultural and linguistic exchanges between German and “Scandinavian”.

While English, isolated geographically from the rest of Europe and from Germanic influence because of Roman and Norman Conquest, kept /θ ð/. It’s interesting to note that Britons did not have as much as Romans and Normans the inclination to write. Manuscripts by monks may have helped bring a certain standardisation to the language.

Two additional and contradictory phenomena took place in Middle English where /d/ changed to [ð] and /ð/ to [d]. This is why fader changed to father and murðer changed to murder. The sequence of /d/ + unstressed ending -er triggered its evolution to [ð].

In short, dental fricatives appeared in Proto-Germanic via Grimm’s Law and Verner’s Law and Old English managed to maintain [θ] and [ð] because it left the continent before the effects of the High German Consonant Shift could be felt. Its geographical isolation (being on an island) certainly helped protect the relic of the Germanic legacy.

I saw once that Welsh may have had an influence on the upholding of these sounds since both languages had them. However, Latin and French were much more powerful influences on English but that did not impact the keeping of the dental fricatives so a foreign language influence is not really believable. However, French might have contributed to the phonemisation of [ð]. Before French came to Britain, /z v ð/ were only the voiced allophones of /s f θ/. By introducing new graphemes for sounds that were not “official” in English, it turned them into unquestionable elements of the phonology of English.

Isolation may be the biggest driving force on the upholding of these sounds since Icelandic, in a relative similar position, is the only other Germanic language with dental fricatives.

Further reading:

High German Consonant Shift

Grimm’s Law

Verner’s Law

Icelandic Phonology

Introductions
  1. hū hātest ðū? - What is your name?
  2. hū eald eart ðū? - How old are you?
  3. hū eald is hē/hēo? - How old is he/she?
  4. hæfst ðū bearn? - Do you have children?
  5. hæfst ðū brōðor/sweostor? - Do you have brothers/sisters?

ic hāte/hē, hēo, hit hāteð/hīe hātað - I am/he, she, it is/they are called (also: mīn nama is… - my name is…)

ic eom/hē, hēo is…. gēar eald - I am/he, she is… years old (numbers vocabulary post 1-20, 21-50)

sind …. menn in mīnum cynne - There are… people in my family

ic hæbbe… - I have… (family vocabulary post) 

Adjectives

  • gēa/gīese, nā/nese - yes, no
  • and/ond/ac - and/but
  • oððe - or
  • swiðe/ful/wel - very
  • sumes - quite
  • forðǣm þe - because

anonymous asked:

What do you mean "This is etymologically incorrect and silly and it makes me angry" (this is not in a rude way,just a question because the answer should informe me) i think this definitivamente sounds rude,and its not my intention 😔 if so sorry 😑

Mankind has nothing to do with male people just like the word woMAN has nothing to do with being a male person. Man or mann meant human person both male and female in Old Saxon, while wif and wer were the words for woman and man respectfully. The etymology of woman literally suggests that its formed of the words wif and man, literally female human. The shift in meaning mann > male person is quite recent, and equals the same change that saw Latin shift from vir (adult male) to homo (earthling, human being, person). So when people are saying man or uomo, they’re actually using its original ad truer meaning of mann meaning human, they are not excluding feMALE huMANs. Furthermore, -kind in mankind means species, so techincally when you say mankind you’re referring to the human species, not to a male kind, and surely not to a kind man. Cf. kin, kindred, akin, etc.

So to say that the history of man (humans), that is to say mankind, is named after male people is rather simplicistic and dangerous, especially because it misleads people to believe that it’s true.

Improvements I think could have been made to Twilight

1. I’m not sure that Bella’s reasons for moving to Forks are entirely convincing. Perhaps she could be moving in order to deal with the vampire problem the town has.

2. On that note, vampires are over-done. To spice things up a bit, Edward could instead be an unidentifiable swamp-thing. 

3. We don’t really hear enough about Bella’s past in Phoenix - maybe she lost a swimming contest because she stopped to fight some sea monsters?

4. The series really delves into the distinction between hero and monster, but I feel that it could use a musing on the nature of good kingship.

5. Instead of thinking Edward hanging about in her room as she sleeps is cute, Bella maybe should rip his arm off and then hang said arm from the roof of her house as a trophy.

6. I don’t think Esme gets enough character development. Possibly she could attack Bella in response to her conflict with Edward?

7. Jessica is too much of a bitch. Lending Bella a sword for her fight with Esme would add depth to her otherwise one-dimensional character.

8. Jacob is a fairly boring name. Wiglaf is far more unusual.

Beltane Correspondences

Activities and Rituals: fertilize, nurture and boost existing goals, games, activities of pleasure, leaping bonfires, making garlands, May Pole dance, planting seeds, walking one’s property, feasting

Colors: Red, White, Brown, Pink, Green

Tools: Broom, May Pole, cauldron

Stones/Gems: Emerald, malachite, amber, orange carnelian, sapphire, rose quartz

Symbols & Decorations: May Pole, fires, fertility, flowers, growing things, ploughs, cauldrons of flowers

Foods: plant-based dairy, bread, cereals

Flowers, Herbs: Lily of the valley, foxglove, rose, broom, Hawthorne, Dittany of Crete, elder, mint, mugwort, thyme, yarrow, almond tree/shrub, clover, ivy, marigold, meadowsweet, rowan, sorrel, woodruff

Deities: Aphrodite, Artemis, Bast, Diana, Faunus, Flora, Maia, Pan,
the Horned God, Venus, and all Gods and Goddesses who preside over fertility.

Animals: Swallow, dove, swan, Cats, lynx, leopard

Other Names: Cetsamhain (opposite Samhain),May Day, Fairy Day,Sacred Thorn Day, Rood Day, Roodmas (the Christian term for Rood Day, Old Beltane, Beltaine, Beltain, Baltane, Walpurgis Night, Floriala (Roman feast of flowers from April 29 to May 1), Walpurgisnacht (Germanic-feast of St. Walpurga), Thrimilce (Anglo-saxon), Bloumaand (Old Dutch)

So guys. I’m thinking of making a replica of Excalibur from Merlin, BUT the runes on the sword in the show (as far as I can tell) seem to translate to gibberish???? They do not spell out any English or Old English words. So, there are two options I have to choose from when it comes to engraving the runes on my sword. 

1) Simply keep the aesthetic and write the runes as they appear rather than make them translate to something.

These are the best two pictures of Excalibur’s inscriptions. They read like this:

This (as accurately as I possibly could) translates to:
ahefemeupþiithstr
and
asetememuneuiifon

Not only do both of these mean absolutely nothing in English, but they do not seem to correlate with any Old English words either. They do, however, both contain the word me in English and mé in Old English (which means me) suggesting that they did try to make it at least look like it said “Lift me up, cast me away” as it is supposed to. 

2) I could, instead, use properly translated words and runes that resemble the markings on the sword. 

These markings translate to:
ahefan mé ufeweard
and
áweorpanforþweg

As you can see, these runes have a similar, but not exact, variation of letters as the aesthetic runes on the sword in the show. I tried to find similar looking words in Old English so that it would still resemble the original runes but still have it read as “Lift me up, cast me away.”

ahefan means “heave up, lift up, raise” and ufeweard means “upward, ascending, upper, higher, up, later” 

áweorpan means “to throw, throw away, cast down, cast out, cast aside” and  forþweg means “an onward course, a going forth, departure journey, away”

ahefan is extremely close to the first six letters of the original runes “ahefem” and you can probably imagine my crushed dreams as I got to the second to last letter and realized that the word didn’t match the runes as I was trying to figure it out if they translated to anything. 


I find it strange that a show with typically accurate runes and outstanding uses of dead languages just wrote gibberish on one of their main props. More evidence that makes me truly believe it isn’t any actual words is the string of vowels towards the end of the second line of runes “asetememuneuiifon” and the cluster of constants at the end of the first “ahefemeupþiithstr”. Then there’s the double i’s. From what I’ve learnt about Old English so far, there seems to be little to no double letters, it being a very phonetic language. Furthermore, Anglo-Saxon runes are an alphabet, not a language, which means that each symbol is based on phonetics (example being that the symbol sigel is only associated with the s sound, not the letter, and can be applied to C’s that make the s sound), so it would make little sense for their to be two of the same symbol side by side. Additionally, they use the letters t and h as a pair as well as the letter þ which makes the th sound. It would be one thing if they did not use the letter þ, but the letter is acknowledged and leaves little reasoning as to why they would use the th combination instead of the Old English letter. 

Anywho, let me know what you think. I’m also thinking about getting a tattoo of the words one day and I’m definitely wary about getting the gibberish from the show permanently printed on my skin, rather than runes that actually translate to something. As for the prop, I’m on the line about which direction I should go so leave a comment or message me with what you think! Thanks!