Shuu: Duérmete… Cuando estás enferma eres tan molesta, dices cosas de las cuales luego no te acuerdas…

Reiji: -No dijo nada, sintió un ligero rubor aparecer unos segundos en sus mejillas pero de inmediato lo borró e ignoró, poniendo una toalla húmeda en la frente de la chica para bajarle la fiebre, sin decir nada acerca de lo que había oído.-

Ayato: -Se sonrojó de inmediato y desvió la mirada.- Tch, cállate Chichinashi, no sabes lo que dices.

Kanato: -Abrió sus ojos muy grandes, con sorpresa al escuchar eso y se inclinó hacia ella, apretándo a Teddy en sus brazos.¿Oiste eso, Teddy? Sí, creo que dijo que me ama. Que interesante de saber, ¿no, Teddy?

Raito: Nfu~, ¿y es que acaso tienes que estar toda mareaaada~ y enferma para admitirlo y decirmelo, Bitch-chan? -Sonrió, mirando a la chica, acariciandole el cabello ya que estaba al lado de ella mientras mejoraba.- Yo también te amo, huuuuh~.

Subaru: -Las mejillas no tardaron en pintarsele de rojo, y desvió la mirada, sintiéndose muy avergonzado.- T-tch… ya duérmete. -Le dijo, queriendo cambiar el tema, aunque en verdad se lo había tomado por sorpresa.-

Ruki: -Alzó ligeramente la ceja al escucharla y suspiro, poniendo su mano en la frente de la chica.- No sé si creerte, Kachiku. La fiebre parece estarte afectando.

Kou: Owwwwh~, M-Neko-chan esta tan enfermiiiita que dice cosas sin sentido. Fufu~, está bien, está bieeen. Tooodos~ aman al idol Kou. -Dijo sonriendo mientras le acariciaba el cabello.-

Yuma: ¿Pero qué tonterías dices, Mesubuta? -Preguntó, algo sonrojado y mordiendose el labio inferior, dejando el vaso de agua con las pastillas para la fiebre en la mesita de noche de la chica.- Tch, cuando te enfermas te pones tan rara.

Azusa: Hmm…. me gusta escuchar eso, Eve…. -Se agacha a acariciarle la mejilla con suavidad.- …. pero me gustaría más…. que me lo dijeras estando completamente consciente….

Carla: -Alzó ligeramente una de sus cejas al oírla y no dijo nada, al contrario, tan solo rió un poco, causandole gracia el hecho de que ella hubiese dicho eso.- Kisama, eres tan anormal a veces.

Shin: ¡Oi, oi! ¡Cálmate un poco! -Dijo, sonrojado y sintiendo que la chica iba demasiado rápido tan de pronto, tomándolo por sorpresa con esa declaración.-

Corrí hacia ti porque sentí que te perdía y el hielo que se acumulaba a la velocidad de la luz en mi interior se estaba derritiendo. Grité tu nombre casi ahogándome por dentro. Te volteaste. Y que mierda hiciste? Me viste sin mirarme. Me oiste sin escucharme y te fuiste.

Our closest wormy cousins: About 70% of our genes trace their ancestry back to the acorn worm

A team from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and its collaborators has sequenced the genomes of two species of small water creatures called acorn worms and showed that we share more genes with them than we do with many other animals, establishing them as our distant cousins.

The study found that 8,600 families of genes are shared across deuterostomes, a large animal grouping that includes a variety of organisms, ranging from acorn worms to star fishes, from frogs to dogs, to humans. This means that approximately 70% of our genes trace their ancestry back to the original deuterostome. By comparing the genomes of acorn worms to other animals, OIST scientists inferred the presence of these genes in the common ancestor of all deuterostomes, an extinct animal that lived half a billion years ago. This research shows that the pharyngeal gene cluster is unique to the deuterostomes and it could be linked to the development of the pharynx, the region that links the mouth and nose to the esophagus in humans. These findings were published in Nature, summarizing an international collaboration between OIST researchers and teams from the US, UK, Japan, Taiwan and Canada.

Around 550 million years ago, a great variety of animals burst onto the world in an event known as the Cambrian explosion. This evolutionary radiation revealed several new animal body plans, and changed life on Earth forever, as complex animals with specialized guts and behavioural features emerged. Thanks to the genome sequencing of multiple contemporary animals of the deuterostome group, we can go back in time to unveil aspects of the long-lost ancestor of this diverse group of animals.

Acorn worms are marine creatures that live on the ocean floor and feed by filtering a steady flow of sea water through slits in the region of their gut between mouth and esophagus. These slits are distantly related to the gills of fish, and represent a critical innovation in evolution not shared with animals like flies or earthworms. Since acorn worms occupy such a critical evolutionary position relative to humans the researchers sequenced two distantly related acorn worm species, Ptychodera flava, collected in Hawaii, and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, from the Atlantic Ocean. “Their genomes are necessary to fill the gap in our understanding of the genes shared by the common ancestor of all deuterostomes,” explains Dr Oleg Simakov, lead author of this study.

Indeed, beyond sequencing these two organisms, the team was also interested in identifying ancient gene families that were already present in the deuterostome ancestor. The team compared the genomes of the two acorn worms with the genomes of 32 diverse animals and found that about 8,600 families of genes are homologous, that is, evolutionarily-related, across all deuterostomes and so are confidently inferred to have been present also in the genome of their deuterostome ancestor. Human arms, birds’ wings, cats’ paws and the whales’ flippers are classical examples of homology, because they all derive from the limbs of a common ancestor. As with anatomical structures, genes homology is defined in terms of shared ancestry. Because of later gene duplications and other processes, these 8,600 homologous genes correspond to at least 14,000 genes, or approximately 70%, of the current human genome.

The study also identified clusters of genes that are close together in acorn worm genomes and in the genomes of humans and other vertebrates. The ancient proximity of these gene clusters, preserved over half a billion years, suggests that the genes may function as a unit. One gene cluster connected with the development of the pharynx in vertebrates and acorn worms is particularly interesting. It is shared by all deuterostomes, but not present in non-deuterostome animals such as insects, octopuses, earthworms and flatworms. The pharynx of acorn worms and other animals functions to filter food and to guide it to the digestive system. In humans, this cluster is active in the formation of the thyroid glands and the pharynx. Scientists suggest there is a connection between the function of the modern thyroid and the filter feeding mechanism of acorn worms. This pharyngeal gene cluster contains six genes ordered in a common pattern in all deuterostomes and includes the genes for four proteins that are critical transcriptional regulators that control activation of numerous other genes. Genes ordered in the same way and located next to each other in the chromosomal DNA are linked and transferred together from one generation to the next. Interestingly, not only the DNA that codes for these transcription factor genes is shared among the deuterostomes, but also some of the DNA pieces that are used as binding sites for the transcription factors are conserved among these animals.

“Our analysis of the acorn worm genomes provides a glimpse into our Cambrian ancestors’ complexity and supplies support for the ancient link between the pharyngeal development and the filter feeding life style that ultimately contributed to our evolution,” explains Dr Simakov.

Recently, the OIST team also sequenced the genomes of the octopus and the coral Porites australiensis.

Image: This is a juvenile of Saccoglossus kowalevskii with one of the transcription factors expressed in the pharyngeal region (highlighted in blue).

Credit: Andrew Gillis

WOOT WOOT!! I hit 1300 followers!  I”m so amazed by all the people I have met on here and how great you all are so thanks and stuff like that


Mady (@wtfspemily)- thank you for being the most perfect ,oist towelette ever and being the other pea in my pod and all around being one of the best people and have had the opportunity to call my friend. Ily forever

Misha ( @heathersapples)- probably the sweetest human in all of ever and very funny and loeveable and great and thanks for blessing me with your presence i love you

Lily ( @queerpuff ) -you’re such a genuine person and you make my day so much brighter when you’re in it. I love you and you’re the reason i met all of these amzing people so thanks bro

Natalie ( @3facedmirror )-  You’re wonderful at ranting and talking in general and being really sweet and great and have a pretty great blog too. ily

Kyla ( @emisonislifeok )- you’re so funny and kind and your existence makes mine more enjoyable. als, you’re a great emison shipper and have a bomb blog to show for it

Ayanna ( @ewmushysquash )– you’re a true sweetheart and brig so muh joy to me and everyone else who has had the pleasure of knowing you. Ily and your tumblr is great as well

Kelsey ( @shootroot )-  you make me laugh whenever you’re around and you keep it real and i like that. Also, even if you decide to not blog about pll at all anymore, you’ll always have a special place in my heart and in the gc so ily

Kayley ( @pllsphere )- you’re a great person and blogowner and you slay my life and you’re super cool and just a good human overall so go you and ily

Gabi ( @emisongray )- you’re such a cute and pleasant person and you make me laugh and do the happy when you talk so thanks for that and thanks for being awesome ily and kabi is real

Alison ( @emisonisforever )- you’re the closest thing i have to alison dilaurentis which basically means i love you and cherish you with all my heart. But forreal, you’re such a blessing and you’re super funny and all the good things are you so yeah keep doing what you’re doing bc it’s great

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