The Last Emperor of Rome,

The traditional date for the fall of the Western Roman Empire is set at 476 AD.  Other dates can be arguably used, but 476 is a good date to use when looking at Roman history from a simple viewpoint.  The last Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus, ironically named after Romulus, the founder of Rome, and Augustus the first Roman Emperor.  The interesting thing about the story of the last Roman Emperor was that it had little to with Romulus Augustus.  Rather, the de facto last Roman ruler was his father, a military man named Orestes.

By 475 AD the Western Roman Empire had almost crumbled away to dust.  The empire consisted of little more than Italy, with some isolated territories in northwestern Gaul which had declared independence decades before, and some territories in North Africa which again were so far out of reach from the Imperial court that by that point they were managing their own affairs.

The Roman Army was barely Roman, mostly being made up of Germanic mercenaries which the empire could barely afford to pay. The capital of the empire wasn’t even Rome,having been moved to Ravenna in the year 402 because it was a more defensible location.  The Roman Emperor ruled over nothing, rather being a puppet of Germanic rulers such as Ricimer and Gundobad.  Orestes was the Roman magister militum appointed by the Empror Julius Nepos, basically the chief general of the army.  Orestes date of birth is unknown but he had a long military career, at one point being ambassador to and secretary of Attila the Hun, then working his way up the ranks until he became a Roman general.  Orestes wanted to restore the glory of Rome, to bring Rome back to the good old days when emperors were gods, the empire stretched across Europe and Africa, and no one dared mess with the legions.  

On the 31st of October, 475 AD Orestes orchestrated a coup resulting in the overthrow of Nepos.  Orestes had cultivated the loyalty of the mercenaries which made up the Roman Army, but also added some important incentives such as cash bonuses and Italian land.  Orestes sent Nepos packing to Dalmatia, where Nepos would carve out a small rump state in exile until his death in 480 AD.  Rather than naming himself emperor, Orestes chose his 16 year old son Romulus as emperor.  Orestes was half German and believed the Roman people would be more accepting of a new emperor who had more Roman blood.  However, the Roman people didn’t really take the young Romulus Augustus seriously, nicknaming him “Momyllus Augustulus”, Momyllus meaning “little disgrace” and Augustulus meaning “little Augustus”. While Orestes looked to restore the Roman Empire, the truth of the matter was that most Roman commoners were sick and tired of Imperial rule and all the bullshit that went with it such as overbearing taxes, rampant corruption, civil war, idiotic leaders, and a stagnant economy.  In addition, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno also refused to recognize Romulus Augustus as a legitimate emperor, the blessings of the east being necessary for a stable reign.

Neither Orestes nor the “emperor” could really get anything done during their short reign, by that point the Imperial government was so powerless and crippled by lack of funds and corruption it might as well have not existed at all.  Worse yet, the Germanic mercenaries who made up the ranks of the Roman Army were beginning to complain that Orestes wasn’t living up to his promises.  Unfortunately for Orestes, the empire had no cash to spare and no patricians were willing to give up their lands for a bunch of barbarians.  In anger, the mercenaries revolted against Orestes, naming an officer among their ranks named Odoacer to be their leader.  Orestes gathered what few Italian troops he could that were still loyal to him and fled to Piacenza.  However, Orestes small army was no match against Odoacer and his army.  The last loyal Roman forces were easily crushed. Orestes was quickly captured and executed on the 28th of August.  On the 4th of September, 476 Odoacer marched on Revenna and took the city without resistance.  Romulus Augustus also abdicated without a fight. 

Odoacer chose not to name another emperor, instead naming himself King of Italy and dispensing with the old Imperial system entirely.   As for Romulus Augustus, the remainder of his life is unknown to history, but it is rumored that he was granted a state pension by Odoacer and lived out the rest of his life in peace. The Eastern Emperor Zeno gave Odoacer the title of Patrician and demanded that he recognize the rule of Julius Nepos.  Odoacer refused to allow Nepos to return to Italy, and the Eastern Romans were to occupied dealing with the Ostrogoths to do anything about it. Thus, the Western Roman Empire came to an end.

Odoacer Inscription

A commemorative Latin inscription of Odoacer the German, King of Italy, proclaiming his hostility and violence (and Germanness) towards the local cenobitic community.

In situ rock carving with flanged edges.

Made in 477 in the Early Christian catacombs at Salzburg in Austria. Associated with Saint Severinus of Noricum, a holy hermit who advised Odoacer. Notable for mentioning Odoacer, who as a historical figure epitomizes the fall of the Roman Empire. Currently located in St. Peter’s cemetery at Nonnberg Abbey.

Me: omg Kevin is studying this is going to be cute

Kevin: So last week Sindy with an S was evicted in Dillon’s HOH

Me: mhm

Kevin: On Day 27 Neda was wearing her left sock higher than her right sock

Me: Wait wh-

Kevin: On Day 34 Sindy with an S ate eggs for breakfast while Dillon ate cereal

Me: Um

Kevin: On Day 17 Karen mentioned Mark’s eviction at exactly 6:38 PM 

Me: I..

Kevin:  In 476 C.E. Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome. The order that the Roman Empire had brought to western Europe for 1000 years was no more.

anonymous asked:

why the fuck did you do this? Southern Italy already exists, this is dumb

((R R A N T.

I coiuld have brushed this off as anon hate (but I don’t really think it is, idk), but I will use this as an occasion to explain my point of view about Hima’s Romano.

First of all, the name!

Lovino is NOT an actual italian name, it is a butchering of the italian verb ‘Rovino’, ‘I ruin’ or (this idea is a little joke of mine, an italian confused as you about it), the archaic form 'Lo vino’, “The Wine”.
My Southern Italy’s name is Romano, an actual name with its origin on the Roman Empire’s age.
It comes from Romanus “citizien of Rome”, and many Byzantine emperors and rulers had this name, including the modern poltician Romano Prodi. Vargas is ok, since it is a surname that is widely used in all of the peninsula, from Milan to Palermo.
I would like to give him a second name, now I am set on Ferdinando (widely used in the Kingdom of Naples, the Two Sicilies and modern Naples itself), Enea (Aeneas, the mythological hero) or Achille.

Second point: Family.

Hima sets North Italy as his brother and Grandpa Rome as his, well, grandpa, but I am not too sure about it, nor is the Italian-Hetalia Rp fandom (most of us are history nerds, including me).
First of all, the last time Italy was unified properly before the Risorgimento, was before the fall of Western Rome and during the Kingdom of Ostrogoths/Odoacer, so how can they be brothers, if not under the good ol’ Roman Empire? I am a proud classicist, so I support the idea of them being Rome’s sons like pretty much everyone in the italian fandom.
Who is the mother? There are two: Romano is son to Rome and Ancient Greece, making it Greece’s brother, since Southern Italy’s name itself, Magna Graecia (widely used nowadays, too!), comes from the time when Greek colonies were founded along pretty much all of S. Italy’s coasts, but I will talk more about this next time, N. Italy’s mother may probably be Gallia Cisalpina, so they are 50% brothers.
In the end, according to me, Romano’s family is:
Rome (Dad★), N. Italy, Spain, Portugal, Romania, France, the Italian Regions and Greece (a lot of brothers, yeah?).
He is not 100% Feliciano’s brother, but he loves him anyways.

Third point: looking and acting.

Romano’s design is fine, I’d expect him to be pretty more tanned, and his hair should be curlier, but I am not complaining at all.
I think of him as older, pretty much at Spain’s age, tho.
Acting, here comes the real problem.
Romano is shown to be a stressed, whiny kid who depends on Spain and gets angry for ANYTHING, plus the “Potato Bastard” thing, ugh.
By stereotypes and a good 50% of truth, Southern Italians are more similar to Feliciano rather than being close to Romano. We are, and trust me we actually ARE, more welcoming, open minded and generally always happy about life, go lucky people. By stereotypes, we could say Hima is right on us being very flirty with tourists (I have a lot of friends who only date tourists and random foreigners, fml), pretty much hot headed, and lazy (yes, I won’t lie to myself, most of us are very lazy).
Also, the fact about him and his relationships–
They are pretty fucked up. We do joke a lot about Germany, but we like them! The greatest king Southern Italy had was Holy Roman Emperor of a German Dinasty (Frederick II of Swabia, google it) (i am using this to say something Germano related will come very soon ;)) ), and they invade us in summer with their precious tourists, bringing us money, so yes, WE LOVE YOU GERMANY.
Also Chigi in Italian is not an actual word, it is the name of a roman family and one of the italian government’s palaces in Rome but not anything really-

I will talk more about this another time, anyways! Please, PLEASE SUPPORT NON CANON VERSIONS OF CANON CHARACTERS!

nobody will probably will read this, but I had to))


history meme – italian version // one empire: the roman empire

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa, and Asia. 

The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana (“Roman Peace”). It reached its greatest expanse during the reign of Trajan (98–117 AD). In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified and stabilized under the emperors Aurelian and Diocletian. Christians rose to power in the 4th century, during which time a system of dual rule was developed in the Latin West and Greek East. The Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the late 4th and early 5th century as invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to govern and mount a coordinated defence. Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer.

Because of the Empire’s vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe, and by means of European expansionism throughout the modern world. (x)


The Death of Odoacer and the Rise of Theodoric the Great

In a previous post  I wrote about how in 476 AD the German warlord Odoacer had overthrown the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus. After the overthrow of Romulus Augustus, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno wanted Odoacer to recognize a new Western Roman Emperor, in particular one hand picked by Zeno himself. However Odoacer refused, dispensing with the old Imperial system and declaring himself King of Italy. Zeno was greatly angered by this, but with internal revolts and rampaging Goths tearing apart his empire, there wasn’t anything he could do about it.  Ten years later, the Goths were still rampaging through the Eastern Roman Empire, in fact they had laid siege to Constantinople itself.  Things were going badly for Zeno, while the Byzantines were well defended behind the walls of Constantinople and generous supplies were being shipped into the city, it was only a matter of time before rebellions broke out somewhere in the empire, or foreign powers such as the Huns or the Sassanid Persians took advantage of the situation. For the sake of his empire, he had to do something to get those dang Goths off his back. Likewise for the Ostrogothic King Theodoric, besieging Constantinople was no picnic either. Constantinople was perhaps the mostly heavily fortified city in Europe, and many attempts to sack the city would fail miserably.  Thus, Emperor Zeno approached King Theodoric with an offer, one that would kill two birds with one stone.  Odoacer was still on Zeno’s shit list, thus he told Theodoric, “You know, Italy is ripe for the taking and Italian cities are not nearly as well defended as Constantinople.  Why not go to Italy and become their problem?”  Theodoric was like, “OK, that’s sounds cool bye now :) “

In 488 AD Theodoric and the Ostrogoths crossed the Alps and invaded Italy.  Theodoric won victory after victory against Odoacer. By 491 Theodoric had won control of almost all of Italy, with the exception of the old Imperial capital of Ravenna.  Ravenna had been made capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 because the city was surrounded by swamps, with only a few available approaches to the city.  Thus the city was easy to defend.  Theodoric found that laying siege to Ravenna was no better than laying siege to Constantinople.  Despite Odoacer being backed into a corner with few loyal troops left, the war dragged on.  On February 25th, 493 the Bishop of Ravenna finally brokered a peace deal between the two kings in which the two rulers would share power. To celebrate the new peace deal, Theodoric invited Odoacer to a grand banquet.  Those who are avid viewers of the show Game of Thrones can probably predict what happened next.

Originally posted by ridgecastkyle

In the midst of the banquet, Theodoric unexpectedly drew his sword and struck Odoacer right through the collar bone.  Odoacer’s entourage were also grabbed and their throats were cut, while his wife was taken away and stoned to death.  As Odoacer was dying he cried out, “Where is God!?” Theodoric, standing over his body responded, “This is what you did to my friends”. When Odoacer was dead Theodoric remarked, “ There certainly wasn’t a bone in this wretched fellow.”

The Emperor Zeno would give Theodoric the title of Viceroy of Italy.  Thus Theodoric was a subject of Zeno and Italy was officially a part of the Roman Empire once again… but not really.  In reality Theodoric was now King of Italy, and his rule would bring a short lived measure of peace and prosperity the likes of which hadn’t been seen for over a century.  Under Theodoric, Italy would undergo a renaissance, with a revival of trade, commerce, and culture.  Today, Theodoric is known posthumously as “Theodoric the Great”.

Coin depicting Romulus Augustulus, the “last emperor” of the Roman Empire. Ironically named after one of the founders of the city of Rome and nicknamed “little Augustus” after the first emperor, his 11-month reign saw the fall of the western empire (although it had already lost a lot of its territory; of course, the eastern empire would last for almost another millennium).  After Romulus was overthrown in a military coup, the Senate did not appoint a new emperor, instead symbolically accepting Zeno, emperor of the east as their ruler. Odoacer,  germanic general, took power as the King of Italy after Romulus was overthrown. 


Pope Saint Simplicius was Pope from 468 to March 10, 483.

He was born in Tivoli, Italy, the son of a citizen named Castinus. Most of what is known of him is derived from the Liber Pontificalis.

Simplicius defended the action of the Council of Chalcedon against the Eutychian heresy, labored to help the people of Italy against the marauding raids of barbarian invaders, and saw the Heruli mercenaries revolt and proclaim Odoacer king of Italy in 476, having deposedRomulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor. Odoacer made few changes in the administration in Rome, firmly in the hands of its Bishop, St. Simplicius. He worked to maintain the authority of Rome in the West.

Simplicius is credited for the construction of a church named in memory of the virgin and martyr St. Bibiana.

St. Simplicius's feast day is celebrated on March 10, the day of his death.