octopus brain

7 Underwater Facts for World Oceans Day

Today is World Oceans Day, a global day of ocean celebration and collaboration for a better future. A healthy world ocean is critical to our survival. Together, let’s honor, help protect, and conserve the world’s oceans!

1. While the Earth’s oceans are known as five separate entities, there is really only one ocean.

2. The ocean contains upwards of 99% of the world’s biosphere, that is, the spaces and places where life exists.

Both above GIFs are from the TED-Ed Lesson How big is the ocean? - Scott Gass

Animation by 20 steps

3. Jellyfish are soft because they are 95% water and are mostly made of a translucent gel-like substance called mesoglea. With such delicate bodies, jellyfish rely on thousands of venom-containing stinging cells called cnidocytes for protection and prey capture.

From the TED-Ed Lesson How does a jellyfish sting? - Neosha S Kashef

Animation by Cinematic

4. Plastics & litter that make their way into our oceans are swiftly carried by currents, ultimately winding up in huge circulating ocean systems called gyres. The earth has five gyres that act as gathering points, but the largest of all is known as the ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch’ and has grown so immense that the oceanic garbage patch can shift from around the size of Texas, to something the size of the United States. 

From the TED-Ed Lesson The nurdles’ quest for ocean domination - Kim Preshoff

Animation by Reflective Films

5. The 200 or so species of octopuses are mollusks belonging to the order Cephalopoda, Greek for ‘head-feet’. Those heads contain impressively large brains, with a brain to body ratio similar to that of other intelligent animals, and a complex nervous system with about as many neurons as that of a dog.

From the TED-Ed Lesson Why the octopus brain is so extraordinary - Cláudio L. Guerra

Animation by Cinematic

6. Some lucky animals are naturally endowed with bioluminescence, or the ability to create light. The firefly, the anglerfish, and a few more surprising creatures use this ability in many ways, including survival, hunting, and mating.

From the TED-Ed Lesson The brilliance of bioluminescence - Leslie Kenna

Animation by Cinematic

7. Sea turtles ultimately grow from the size of a dinner plate to that of a dinner table. In the case of the leatherback sea turtle, this can take up to a decade. Happy World Turtle Day!

From the TED-Ed Lesson The survival of the sea turtle - Scott Gass

Animation by Cinematic Sweden

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From Unbeatable Squirrel Girl #026

Art by Madeline McGrane (“Introduction”), Chip Zdarsky (“A Bird in the Hand”), Tom Fowler and Rico Renzi (“Brain Drain’s Olde-Time-Feel-Good Inspiration Corner”), Carla Speed McNeil and Rico Renzi (“The Wonderful World of Loki”), Michael Cho (“The True Story of Spider-Man”), Rahzzah (“Hey Kraven, Squirrel Girl Showed Me Your Comic, So What The Heck”), Anders Nilsen and Soren Iverson (“Hate and Fear”), Rico Renzi (“Juggernut vs. Bat-Squirrel”), Jim Davis and Rico Renzi (“Galactus Gags”), Rahzzah (“A Spidery World”), Madeline McGrane and Iris Holdren (“Conclusion”)

Written by Erica Henderson (“A Bird in the Hand”) and Ryan North

Requested by @chara-against-bullshit

Metagross is a pretty cool pokémon all around, especially being the signature pokémon of Hoenn’s champion, Steven Stone. Metagross is both powerful and intelligent, possessing four brains which are faster than a supercomputer.

So we have a lot to cover with Metagross: let’s start with its multiple brains! A brain, of course, controls all functions in an animal’s body. Humans only have one, but having multiple brains is not out of the picture. Leeches, for example, have over 30 ganglia which each help control different segments of its body, effectively acting like individual brains. Perhaps more similar to Metagross, an octopus has one central brain the size of a walnut in its head, but it has auxiliary “brains” in each of its arms: for a total of nine brains! This helps each tentacle of the octopus act independently and think for itself. The octopus as whole acts as a network of these brains, which when put together act the same as one large brain would.

Metagross has four arms, so perhaps it has one brain for each arm, like an octopus. Octopi are also infamous for being incredibly intelligent, able to open jars and solve problems with their tentacles.

So how does a brain compare to a supercomputer? There are a few ways we can compare them. 

  1. First, there’s storage: how much information can the brain store? This is measured in bytes.
  2. The next is processing speed: how fast can the information be processed? This is measured in a unit caled megaflops: one million floating point calculations per secound
  3. The last is power: how much enery does it take to run?This is measured in watts.

As you can see, the world’s fastest supercomputer (in 2011) has 10 times the storage and 4x the processing speed than the human brain, but the human brain needs astronomically less power to run: 0.0002%. The brain is so much more efficient simply due to the size: one brain contains over 200 billion neurons and trillions of synapses. The fastest supercomputer has over 83,000 processors, but takes up significantly more space, meaning it needs much more power to run. To get more computing speed, supercomputers simply need to add more processors. In the current state of technology, processors are as fast as they can get.

So Metagross’ brains are faster than a supercomputer, which means they operate at more than 10 billion megaflops. Super computers, and our brains, use parallel processing to arrive at results. Serial processing, like typical PCs, computers, and calculators use, work on problems linearly, taking steps, and not progressing until the previous step has finished. Parallel processing splits a calculation up into several parts, working on different steps at the same time, which result in a faster calculation overall.

This type of processing is important in the brain for lots of reasons. Take sight, for example. Our brain needs to interpret what our eyes see very quickly: colors, shapes, motion, etc. Parallel processing makes this possible.

Metagross has four brains, which operate like a network to control Metagross. It uses parallel processing, so it is able to work on different steps of a calculation simultaneously, making it faster than a supercomputer.

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The Hecatonchires (“one hundred hands”) system is an octopus-like “wired brain” system with a nearly limitless number of I/O ports. As the name implies, it can control nearly a hundred “arms” separately and simultaneously. You can attach multiple ears to the system, and it will be able to hear and comprehend the input from each one.

Appleseed Databook

“Look close, listen close, think hard. After all, I’ve got eight eyes and a whole five and a half pounds of brain.”

—Briareos Hecatonchires, Masamune Shirow's Appleseed

mnemnems  asked:

I have questions about the amazing Chiquita! I want to know her POV!! Is she intelligent enough to have a two way relationship? Or would she stop the sexual acts if Lance attained a significant other? Is she just comforting Lance however he needs or does she have her own needs too? The fact that her tentacles release after stimulation gave me these thoughts lol. I kind of spewed thoughts there but they're all the same line of thought, I swear. Thank you for giving us Chiquita!! 💖

GOOD I AM MORE THAN HAPPY TO TALK ABOUT MY DARLING CHIQUI. In fact, I actually made a lil fact sheet for her while writing the story, so this might help with better understanding her POV! (…if you can read my messy ass handwriting) There will also be more Chiquita character development in the sequel~

Chiquita is very intelligent, as intelligent as a human and in some ways even more so. She is empathetic to the point of like…almost telepathy, she is perceptive to emotional changes and ‘strange’ behaviors especially in her host but also in others around her. Human pheromones may or may not exist but for argument’s sake let’s say they do, Chiquita can interpret and recognize those very well. 

Chiquita has a consciousness too, and is able to think of Lance fondly and worry about him rather than just caring for him out of instincts only. She is also aware of herself and would easily pass the “mirror test” - her brain is, however, different from a human’s or mammal’s, it would be more similar to an octopus’s in that 3/5 of her neurons are in her tentacles and in that she is able to enter semi-unresponsive or low energy states of “sleep” in order to conserve energy and brain function. This short article explains octopus brains much better!

She and Lance would communicate before Lance got an SO. If he just went ahead and like, hooked up with somebody else, Chiquita has the emotional capacity to be hurt by this and even be upset with Lance. While she would never hurt him, she is her own being and doesn’t cater to his every need; SHE HAS FEELINGS TOO LOL. Literally, she has a complex nervous system and hormones including one similar to the human “cuddle/love hormone,” oxytocin. It’s more similar to cephalotocin, which is found in octopuses and is thought to be the reason why mother octopuses stay with their eggs until they hatch, even though this means the mother octopus dies of starvation. Yes I did research on this, sue me, I think it’s interesting :p

Chiquita does have a libido, however in my notes I mention that her libido is influenced by/reflects her host’s. This is because as a “plant-invertebrate,” she doesn’t reproduce sexually, but as a being that evolved to please and endear itself to others, Friendly Vines evolved to have a sex drive. Lance’s libido is, uh. Well, it’s Lance. So she’s a pretty horny plant lmao. But she is also highly attuned to Lance’s emotions and moods and isn’t in any way controlled by her libido; Lance’s comfort and consent comes first. Unlike humans, Chiquita rarely has times where she’s like “nah no sex rn im good,” she’s eager to please and sex doesn’t require her to put in a ton of effort (usually. sometimes she goes all out haha). So yes, she enjoys sex and has more nerve endings in her more ~private~ tentacles which makes them erogenous zones. She’s also capable of sexual fantasies to a degree! Which will come into play in the sequel ;D

David Doubilet, A Giant Octopus Propels Itself, National Geographic, 1978.

What could octopuses possibly have in common with us? After all, they don’t have lungs, spines, or even a plural noun we can all agree on. But what they do have is the ability to solve puzzles, learn through observation, and even use tools – just like some other animals we know. And what makes octopus intelligence so amazing is that it comes from a biological structure completely different from ours.

Learn more about the octopus brain by watching the TED-Ed Lesson Why the octopus brain is so extraordinary - Cláudio L. Guerra

Animation by Cinematic

anonymous asked:

dude, how do you know so much stuff?? like, reading your fic, it's evident you have a huge range of general knowledge – you drop facts about nutrition, chemistry, physics, botany, psychology, geology…are they all just things you've learnt unintentionally over the course of your life? do you do specific research? sorry if this is weird ask, i just find the breadth of your knowledge really impressive haha. (also, your writing is amazing, thankyou for sharing it with us <3)

alkjfdsafsa <3

It’s…a few things. It’s that I have an okay mind for science (it was where my career was supposed to be, except dyscalculia (number dyslexia) made the foundationals almost impossible for me at the time). Like, I just have a good mind for remembering things. I taught myself to read via scientific encyclopedias just as much as I did fiction. I remember being fascinated by On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin at the age of 9, and reading that in the library at lunch with a dictionary next to me.

It’s that I do research for things. Anything science-based usually comes from knowledge I already have. Anything architecture / furniture / etc. based comes from researching as I need. Some of it’s leftover from other stories, I read about 5 tomes on volcanology for a hard science fiction series I never ended up writing. As a result, I have a lot of useless information about volcanoes waiting up my sleeve, along with general geology, because I was trying to construct new planetary systems and I needed to figure out things like where did the sand come from if beaches couldn’t exist due to weather patterns etc. (answer, deep sea mining, making it an incredibly lucrative but dangerous career choice). Ditto knowing too much about the uses of bagasse and bagassosis (byproducts of farming sugar cane that can be used for a whole bevy of things) for a short Solarpunk story I was going to write and never ended up writing, and can now talk to sugar cane producers like I actually know something about it.

(You only need to dig a little deeper to realise I don’t, lol, but I have accidentally fooled people in their chosen professions into thinking that I was also a member of their chosen profession before! The surgeon who removed my tumour at the age of 18 was convinced I was pre-med, because of my ability to grasp the jargon / what he was talking about. Idk, I honestly didn’t think I was doing anything except learning and retaining that information. Glen gets this too, incidentally, the dude I live with - he often gets mistaken for being an academic economist. He is not any kind of economist except an enthusiastic armchair one.)

I read a lot of non-fiction, I enjoy reading books about biology the most? Like I just acquired a new book on the octopus brain that I’m really looking forward to. Some of what I read is like ‘pop science’ and some of it is academic science heavy on the references, and some of it is niche science like my weird art-science book on the spider web and only the spider web (it’s amazing), it mostly just depends on what I feel like. I once took out over 50 books in the library on many of the elements found in the periodic table, including three individual books on Iron and then Platinum. That was also research for that hard science fiction universe, but in the end it was also just because I found it interesting. And then I took notes. Which is a leftover habit from my university days (I did media, I’m too dumb to do any of the hard sciences academically, having a good memory is not being good at hard science), but helps with knowledge retention.

So I just seem to have a pretty okay mind for retaining some of that knowledge. I’m a bit of an autodidact, and if I want to know more about something, I just look it up. I’m that person in a conversation where someone goes ‘oh, well, I don’t really know how that things works so,’ and then I just look it up right there. I’m sure it’s very annoying. Mostly I also have a good mind for words. If someone tells me a paraganglioma is a rare type of tumour found primarily in the head/neck etc. I will never forget that word or how to pronounce or spell it, or that bit of information about it. It didn’t occur to me other people might struggle with that, until later.

But damn does it ever come in handy for writing. :D (Virtually useless for everything else though, lol).

Understanding Octarians:

The non-fiction book, “The Soul of an Octopus” by Sy Montgomery describes how Octopuses change their skin color in certain situations. Based on the context, It’s possible that these colors represent the emotional state of the Cephalopod. I don’t know if the game developers knew this when they designed the Octarians and Octolings but it does add a new layer of meaning. Below the “keep reading” line I’ll be info-dumping everything I learned from the book and what it could mean in Splatoon: 

Keep reading

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Why the octopus brain is so extraordinary - Cláudio L. Guerra

Are Kagune Sentient?

Kagune are one of the many mysteries in the world of Tokyo Ghoul, there’s an excellent post already  by @coromoor that details the workings of the building blocks of Kagune, rc cells. Reding that, and another post  by @sans-san and @oneeyedkingeto , I pieced together what could be another solution behind the mystery of Kagune. How exactly do Kagune act sentiently, or on their own parted from the body?

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