october 11th 13th

Hearing with your eyes – A Western style of speech perception

Which parts of a person’s face do you look at when you listen them speak? Lip movements affect the perception of voice information from the ears when listening to someone speak, but native Japanese speakers are mostly unaffected by that part of the face. Recent research from Japan has revealed a clear difference in the brain network activation between two groups of people, native English speakers and native Japanese speakers, during face-to-face vocal communication.

It is known that visual speech information, such as lip movement, affects the perception of voice information from the ears when speaking to someone face-to-face. For example, lip movement can help a person to hear better under noisy conditions. On the contrary, dubbed movie content, where the lip movement conflicts with a speaker’s voice, gives a listener the illusion of hearing another sound. This illusion is called the “McGurk effect.”

According to an analysis of previous behavioral studies, native Japanese speakers are not influenced by visual lip movements as much as native English speakers. To examine this phenomenon further, researchers from Kumamoto University measured and analyzed gaze patterns, brain waves, and reaction times for speech identification between two groups of 20 native Japanese speakers and 20 native English speakers.

The difference was clear. When natural speech is paired with lip movement, native English speakers focus their gaze on a speaker’s lips before the emergence of any sound. The gaze of native Japanese speakers, however, is not as fixed. Furthermore, native English speakers were able to understand speech faster by combining the audio and visual cues, whereas native Japanese speakers showed delayed speech understanding when lip motion was in view.

“Native English speakers attempt to narrow down candidates for incoming sounds by using information from the lips which start moving a few hundreds of milliseconds before vocalizations begin. Native Japanese speakers, on the other hand, place their emphasis only on hearing, and visual information seems to require extra processing,” explained Kumamoto University’s Professor Kaoru Sekiyama, who lead the research.

Kumamoto University researchers then teamed up with researchers from Sapporo Medical University and Japan’s Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) to measure and analyze brain activation patterns using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Their goal was to elucidate differences in brain activity between the two languages.

The functional connectivity in the brain between the area that deals with hearing and the area that deals with visual motion information, the primary auditory and middle temporal areas respectively, was stronger in native English speakers than in native Japanese speakers. This result strongly suggests that auditory and visual information are associated with each other at an early stage of information processing in an English speaker’s brain, whereas the association is made at a later stage in a Japanese speaker’s brain. The functional connectivity between auditory and visual information, and the manner in which the two types of information are processed together was shown to be clearly different between the two different language speakers.

“It has been said that video materials produce better results when studying a foreign language. However, it has also been reported that video materials do not have a very positive effect for native Japanese speakers,” said Professor Sekiyama. “It may be that there are unique ways in which Japanese people process audio information, which are related to what we have shown in our recent research, that are behind this phenomenon.”

These findings were published in the journal “Scientific Reports” on August 11th and October 13th, 2016.

October 11th-13th.

October 11th-13th

Words: 479

All of my October drabbles will be Dean Winchester x Reader. This one is not my best, and I am sorry for that as well as the fact that it is three days combined together. I still hope you enjoy.

“Hayrides, scarecrows, and cornfields, oh my!” “House decorating” and “Cats, cats cats!”

—-

“Hayrides, scarecrows, and cornfields, oh my!” Y/N covered her mouth with a hand, trying to stifle her laughter as she entered the bunker, the boys at her heels. “Well that hunt is one for the books.”

“And a story for another day.” Sam said in a tired tone, flopping down on the sofa in the living area. “Not even half way into October and I’m over it.” Mumbling, he kicked his muddy boots onto the floor.

“Well, I am so not over it!” She announced, heading toward her and Dean’s shared bedroom. “It is decorating time. Before you ask, no. You don’t have to help.” She smiled, answering Dean’s question before he had a chance to get it out. She blew him a kiss before disappearing. “I’ll get you when I’m done so you can see!”

“Man, how’d you fall in love with such an October baby?” Sam joked as his brother followed his lead, kicking off his own boots.

“I don’t know, how did you?” He replied with a raised eyebrow before fetching them both a beer from the kitchen.

Sometime later, Y/N cleared her throat as she stood behind the sofa, pulling the boys from their television show. “I finished our bedroom. Come see!”

The Winchester’s shared a look before following. “Are you planing on decorating more than the bedroom?” Dean asked, giving her an uneasy look.

Her hair bounced up and down as she nodded and he groaned inwardly. They dealt with scary stuff year round, they didn’t need the bunker covered in constant reminders…

As she opened the door and reviled her handy work though, their mouths fell open in shock.

She had decorated their entire room, from the bed, to the fake fireplace she’d wanted for cold nights, to the closet. A clean, white and black theme.

“I want to keep this going through out the other rooms. Is that alright with you two?” She asked.

They just nodded, moving around the room and checking everything out. “This is amazing.” Dean marveled. It had taken her no time to do so much.

Before Sam could agree, a tiny meow sounded from down the hall.

With wide eyes, Y/N stood up straight and looked around wildly. “Was that… a kitten?”

Almost shyly, Dean rubbed the back of his neck and chuckled. “I got a bit carried away with wanting to fast track starting a family with you.”

He left the room for a moment and came back holding a tiny black kitten wrapped in little pink blanket. “Thought this was a better idea that getting you pregnant on purpose.”

One again Sammy rushed from the room, not wanting to see or interrupt their moment.

“I love black cats!” Y/N said, smiling so brightly as she placed a kiss to the kittens head before giving Dean one on the lips. “She gets to sleep with us, right?”

Masterlist

Jacksepticeye on Tour

USA (Solo):

  • End of September, no known venues or dates. TO BE ANNOUNCED.

Europe (Game Grumps):

  • Amsterdam, October 6th.
  • Stockholm, October 8th.
  • Oslo, October 9th.
  • Copenhagen, October 11th.
  • Cardiff, October 13th.
  • London, October 15th.
  • Manchester, October 16th.
  • Dublin, October 18th.