occupy the port

Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence - 1918.

1918 :

1918, Oct 30

Signing of the Armistice of Mudros,
 i) opening up the Straits,
 ii) guaranteeing access to the Black Sea,
 iii) providing for Allied occupation of the fortresses along the Dardanelles and Bosphorus,
 iv) foreseeing immediate demobilisation of Turkish troops, except where  necessary to preserve order,
 v) placing Allies in control of all the railroads,
 vi) Article VII: giving the Allies “the right to occupy any strategic  points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of  the Allies”.

1918, Oct 31

Mustafa Kemal Pasha takes over  the command of the Yildirim Army Group (Syrian front) from Otto Liman von Sanders.

1918, Nov 01

Last congress of the Committee of Union and Progress gathers in Istanbul

1918, Nov 02

Enver PashaTalat PashaCemal Pasha and others  leading names of the Committee of Union and Progress leave Istanbul.

1918, Nov 07

British troops occupy Musul.[1]

1918, Nov 08

Grand vizier Ahmed Izzet Pasha and his  government resign.

1918, Nov 09

British troops occupy İskenderun and the two sides of the Dardanelles.

1918, Nov 11

A new Ottoman government is  formed under the Grand vizier Ahmed Tevfik Pasha.

1918, Nov 12

A French brigade enters  Istanbul to begin the Allied occupation of the city and its immediate  dependencies (the two opposite peninsulas). A fleet consisting of British, French,  Italian and Greek ships embarks additional troops the next day.

1918, Nov 13

Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived at Haydarpasha Station from Adana.

1918, Nov 14

Joint French-Greek troops  cross the Meriç River and occupy the town of Uzunköprü in Eastern Thrace as well as the railway axis till the train station of Hadımköy near Çatalca on the  outskirts of Istanbul.

1918, Nov 14

First Kars Congress  organized by representatives of the Turkish-Muslim majority population in  Kars region te define actions to be taken in view of the retreat of Ottoman  forces.

1918, Nov 15

Ottoman troops withdraw from Baku, which will be occupied by  British troops in the following days, and also evacuate Musul occupied by  the British after the armistice.

1918, Nov 18

Ottoman troops withdraw from Tabriz (Tebriz).

1918, Nov 28

Kâzım Karabekir Pasha  arrives to Istanbul from Kars.

1918, Nov 30

Second Kars Congress .

1918, Dec 1

The first “Association for Defence of National Rights (Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)” -of Muslim subjects of  the Ottoman Empire in view of the peace treaty to come- is founded in İzmir, to be followed by similar  associations for Thrace and the Eastern Provinces in the following days.

1918, Dec 06

British troops based in Syria occupy Kilis,

1918, Dec 07

French troops occupy Antakya.

1918, Dec 17

French navy embark troops in Mersin which will occupy the important port city.

1918, Dec 19

French troops occupy Tarsus and Ceyhan and face the  first exchanges of fire in Dörtyol in one of the opening acts of what will later be termed the Franco-Turkish War.

1918, Dec 20

French troops occupy AdanaÇukurova’s largest city with central  importance for southern Turkey.

1918, Dec 21

Closure of the Ottoman Parliament by the  sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin putting an end to its third term that was dominated by  the Committee of Union and Progress under a single party regime.

1918, Dec 21

“Adana Association for  Defense of National Rights” is founded.

1918, Dec 23

French troops occupy Osmaniye and Islahiye in a move  that will extend till Pozantı in Gülek Pass (Cilicia Gates) on December 27, thus acquiring  control over Çukurova. In the  same days, British troops occupyBatum.

1918, Dec 30

Following a visit to Paris in  November to present Greece’s territorial claims to the Peace Conference to be  opened, Venizelos reasserts these claims in a memorandum addressed to the British  Premier, Lloyd George and covering  all of Western Anatolia, from  opposite Rhodes (or Castellorizo) to the Sea of Marmara.

I got bored, so here’s a sketch of Adam Young, aka Owl City. I have so much gratitude towards this man for his amazing music that has heavily influenced so much of my art and my stories.

So Mr. Young, if you ever read this. (Haha!) you are the bomb.com :)

November 4, 1915 - China Moves Towards Imperial Restoration

Pictured - Yuan Shikai, the Chinese general who went from republican president to emperor.

The Chinese Qing Empire was overthrown in 1911 in a revolution spearheaded by republican doctor Sun Yat-sen, who was then elected the first president of the Republic of China.  The Chinese Revolution was the final boiling over of discontent caused by decades of imperial corruption and weakness in the face of Western imperialists.  Sun and his party, the Kuomintang or KMT,  followed a policy he called the Three Principles of the People:  Western-style democracy, ethnic equality, and free-trade.  But his new republic’s power was challenged and limited by generals who spread throughout China’s vast provinces, each controlling personal armies which they wielded in bids for power. 

One of these warlords was Yuan Shikai.  Politically astute but entirely self-serving, Yuan supplanted the militarily impotent Sun as President in 1912, and successfully moderated the other generals to keep a grip on power.  Japan, however, was harder to keep on good terms, especially after the Japanese occupied the German port of Tsingtao in 1914.  The Japanese immediately used their local power to bully more accommodations from China.  In January 1915 they presented the Chinese a list of twenty-one demands, including a lease on Tsingtao, but most crucially several demands that would radically undermine Chinese sovereignty, including requiring Japanese advisers to serve over the Chinese army and police forces.  

Shikai accommodated the Japanese and other foreigners.  Knowing China’s weakness, Yuan played his limited diplomatic cards skillfully, leaking the demands to Westerners and dragging out negotiations as long as possible.  In the meantime, he sought to increase his own power by becoming the head of a restored Chinese Empire.  An electoral college of cronies approved of the measure in a vote, but the move alienated allies and the republicans.  Yuan acceded to the throne in December as the first emperor of the new Empire of China, but lacking friends or much semblance of legality it tumbled back down in March of the next year.  Yuan’s foolhardy scheme was part of what set back Chinese republicanism irreparably and doomed China to decades of warlordism, a Japanese invasion, and the eventual civil war