Aphasia: The disorder that makes you lose your words
It’s hard to imagine being unable to turn thoughts into words. But, if the delicate web of language networks in your brain became disrupted by stroke, illness or trauma, you could find yourself truly at a loss for words. This disorder, called “aphasia,” can impair all aspects of communication. Approximately 1 million people in the U.S. alone suffer from aphasia, with an estimated 80,000 new cases per year. About one-third of stroke survivors suffer from aphasia, making it more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, yet less widely known.
There are several types of aphasia, grouped into two categories: fluent (or “receptive”) aphasia and non-fluent (or “expressive”) aphasia.
People with fluent aphasia may have normal vocal inflection, but use words that lack meaning. They have difficulty comprehending the speech of others and are frequently unable to recognize their own speech errors.
People with non-fluent aphasia, on the other hand, may have good comprehension, but will experience long hesitations between words and make grammatical errors. We all have that “tip-of-the-tongue” feeling from time to time when we can’t think of a word. But having aphasia can make it hard to name simple everyday objects. Even reading and writing can be difficult and frustrating.
It’s important to remember that aphasia does not signify a loss in intelligence. People who have aphasia know what they want to say, but can’t always get their words to come out correctly. They may unintentionally use substitutions, called “paraphasias” – switching related words, like saying dog for cat, or words that sound similar, such as house for horse. Sometimes their words may even be unrecognizable.
So, how does this language-loss happen? The human brain has two hemispheres. In most people, the left hemisphere governs language. We know this because in 1861, the physician Paul Broca studied a patient who lost the ability to use all but a single word: “tan.” During a postmortem study of that patient’s brain, Broca discovered a large lesion in the left hemisphere, now known as “Broca’s area.” Scientists today believe that Broca’s area is responsible in part for naming objects and coordinating the muscles involved in speech. Behind Broca’s area is Wernicke’s area, near the auditory cortex. That’s where the brain attaches meaning to speech sounds. Damage to Wernicke’s area impairs the brain’s ability to comprehend language. Aphasia is caused by injury to one or both of these specialized language areas.
Fortunately, there are other areas of the brain which support these language centers and can assist with communication. Even brain areas that control movement are connected to language. Our other hemisphere contributes to language too, enhancing the rhythm and intonation of our speech. These non-language areas sometimes assist people with aphasia when communication is difficult.
However, when aphasia is acquired from a stroke or brain trauma, language improvement may be achieved through speech therapy. Our brain’s ability to repair itself, known as “brain plasticity,” permits areas surrounding a brain lesion to take over some functions during the recovery process. Scientists have been conducting experiments using new forms of technology, which they believe may encourage brain plasticity in people with aphasia.
Meanwhile, many people with aphasia remain isolated, afraid that others won’t understand them or give them extra time to speak. By offering them the time and flexibility to communicate in whatever way they can, you can help open the door to language again, moving beyond the limitations of aphasia.
This is an expansion of the following idea, written by the lovely @artemis69:
the coffee!AU, where John goes to the same coffee shop every day, and there is this very grumpy, quiet barista that always makes him amazing coffee and keep the best pastries for him. And one day the Sheriff learns that Derek is the one to bake them all, so he decides: this will be my son in law, I need a reason to have this man in my family for at least forty to fifty years. Then he matchmakes with no subtility whatsoever, basically offering his only son on a silver plate, Stiles spluttering all the way (but he takes Derek’s number anyway because the guy is just amazingly cute)
John’s on his regular morning stroll when he stops in his tracks and takes in the brand-new coffee shop, complete with a banner advertising their opening day. The little corner space has been boarded up for over a year, and John had no idea it was opening today.
Any new businesses are a boon for Beacon Hills, especially family-run ones like this one is rumored to be, so John ducks inside. It’s warm and homey, and there’s a pair of young dark-haired people behind the counter, close enough in features that they’re probably siblings. The quiet bickering points that direction, too.
They stop, though, when they see the Sheriff—the uniform tends to have that effect—and he pastes on his public servant smile. “Hi there. I saw this place was open and wanted to come on in and introduce myself. Sheriff John Stilinski.”
“Oh, it’s so nice to meet you,” the woman says, holding out her hand for a shake. A nice strong grip—John likes this girl already. “I’m Laura Hale, and I own this place with my brother Derek, our resident grumpy barista-slash-baker.”
Derek rolls his eyes at Laura, but his smile to John is genuine, if small. “Hi, Sheriff. Nice to meet you.”
“Likewise, son,” he says, perusing the case full of tempting sugary treats. “You made these?”
He nods. “Can I get you anything?”
John hums. “A medium coffee, and…any one of these delicious-looking goodies. You pick. Just don’t tell my son,” he adds, and Derek looks up at him.
“I have slightly elevated cholesterol,” he says, stressing the word. “Nothing to worry about, honestly. But he polices my diet. I don’t think he knows about this place yet, though, so this is great.”
Derek hums. His tongs hover over a muffin—lemon poppyseed, it looks like—before moving to another one. Raspberry-almond, according to the sign, and well, John isn’t picky. Derek drops it into a little bag and hands it over.
“Happy to help,” he says.
John thanks him and opens the bag. Laura’s still pouring his coffee, but it smells so damn good that he can’t resist.
“Wow,” he says, his mouth full. “This is delicious.”
Derek looks quietly proud, and Laura claps him on the shoulder as she reaches over to hand John his coffee. “On the house, today, Sheriff,” she says. “Thanks for stopping by.”
“I’ll be back tomorrow,” he promises.
“Thanks, Nina,” John says dryly, leaning back so she can put his plate in front of him.
“You’re welcome, Sheriff,” she says with a friendly smile, ignoring his stink eye.
Stiles just grins at both of them and digs into his French toast. He insists on having their weekly father-son breakfast at Paulie’s Diner because no matter what John orders, Nina will only bring him an egg-white omelet with a dry English muffin. Stiles must have some serious blackmail or be paying her off somehow, and John is, he has to admit, grudgingly impressed.
“Don’t look so bummed out, Pops,” Stiles says, around a mouthful of what’s surely syrup-drenched deliciousness. “At least I let you have turkey bacon.”
“It’s not the same,” he says grumpily, poking at it. “But at least I’m getting a steady stream of baked goods now.”
Stiles glares at him. “Are you serious? From where? I thought I had paid everyone off.”
He knew it. “I’m not telling you,” he says, a little displeased with how childish he sounds.
“Fine,” Stiles says, sniffing. “I’ll figure it out, you know I will.”
He will, John knows. Goddamn, he loves his kid, even if his life goal seems to be depriving John from any and all delicious food. “And speaking of, I met someone the other day,” he starts, and Stiles gasps theatrically, his hand coming up to cover his mouth.
“Is this you crapping all over my dream of having Melissa as my stepmom?”
John sighs at the reminder. Melissa is…well, she seems happy with that Argent guy. Whatever. He’s not bitter.
“Not for me, Jesus,” he says, shaking his head. “For you.”
“Oh my god,” Stiles says, slumping back in the booth. “Eye roll” is too mild, John thinks. It’s more of a whole head roll. “Seriously, Dad, I’m only 25. You don’t have to marry me off quite yet. You’ll get your grandchildren someday, I promise. Stop trying to set me up with people.”
“I’m just trying to be helpful!” John protests. “He seems nice.”
And makes really good treats, he adds in his head. That’ll be a good trait for a son-in-law.
“And who exactly is he?”
John pauses. “I met him at the aforementioned undisclosed location.”
Stiles snorts. “Find out if he actually likes dudes, then get back to me.”
when we get married you can keep your last name if you want babe idc
that's really nice of you and i love that you respect my right to choose in this situation but also i literally cannot wait to be named killian fangbattle. is that not objectively the coolest name ever
Tips for when studying is the last thing you want to do!
1.Write out on sticky notes the name of objects in your room, then go ahead and stick them on everything. Next time you turn on your light, make yourself look (or at least glance) at the word. Next time you open your drawer, look at the note. Any time you turn on your lamp, your laptop charger or your speakers, you’ll always have that vocabulary there and you’ll learn each of them in no time.
2.Play the radio/podcasts or a Korean show for background noise. Most of us don’t like to sit and scroll through Facebook in total silence. I recommend 슈퍼맨이 돌아왔다 (which is available on youtube!) as it is centred around children and any vocabulary you pick up will be helpful. Others include:
• 2 Days 1 Night
• Hello Counselor
• 이웃집 찰스
• Hello Baby
3.Write down phrases on flash cards. Break down the words. Some people have more success reading phrases on flash cards rather than just single vocabulary. Stick these in a place you’ll sit at often, or you could also stick them on items they pertain to just like in tip #1.
4. Just once a day, when you’re out and about or even just at home, search the dictionary for a word. Say you’re out eating, and you don’t know the word for “to order”. Whip out that phone, search it up and try to commit it to memory. One word a day is 365 words a year, and odds are you’ll pick up more than that anyway!
5.Google Play has a selection of multi-language books. Buy a Korean and English children’s book and try to read it (if you’re up to it). The English translation will always be there, so it’s less brain power for you to go and search up everything you don’t know! Plus, you might learn some small phrases in the process.
6. Watch Korean YouTubers. YouTube is fun to watch, so why not watch it in Korean? - 영국남자 (Korean Englishman) is an English man who is great at Korean, he always has English and Korean subs on. By the end of a few episodes you’ll know what “ 남자답다” and “살아 있네!” Means! - Pony’s Makeup is a great channel if you love makeup. You’ll pick up makeup related vocab and phrases, as well learn new techniques and styles. - Maangchi is a Korean lady who teaches you how to cook Korean food. It’s mostly in English but she talks about Korean words sometimes. - 꿀키 is another cooking channel, however there’s no talking, only the blissful sounds of soup boiling and onions frying! She puts small instructions on her videos in both English and Korean. Take notes!
7. Download a widget on your phone that gives you a new word every time you swipe to unlock. Simple, easy and there in your pocket.
8.Fill your social media with Korean. Follow Korean study blogs (though don’t rely on them 100% as most are run by non-fluent speakers), follow Korean daily vocab twitters and Facebook pages. Everything you see will be Korean and you’ll start to pick up on words that you see all the time.
9.Don’t feel discouraged if you haven’t studied for a week. Don’t feel like you’re the worst at Korean, or that you’re so far behind everyone else. Everyone learns differently and at different paces. Me, I’m competitive and need to absorb as much as is humanly possible in a short amount of time. Others stick to a schedule. Some learn stuff here and there. There is no right and wrong way to learn. Do you. Remember, just one word a day equals 365 a year. 2 words a day is even more!
There are so many words in Korean, however, it is very hard to remember all of them. This is a list of words that I think are essential and that I should always remember. To memorize them just read this everyday. I’ll be adding more whenever I find new words, so keep checking this post for updates. Feel free to use this as a reference as well!
Greetings + Farewells:
안녕히 가세요: Good-bye! (to one who is leaving). Tip: 가 means go.
안녕히 계세요: Good-bye! (to one who is staying).
수고하십니다: Hello! (to someone working)
수고하세요: Good-bye! (to someone working)
수고하셨어요: Thank you for helping me or Well done!
여보세요: Hello! or Hey there! (Hello on the telephone, or when peering into a dark house. Also means Look here!)
만나서 반갑습니다: Nice to meet you; nice to see you.
처음뵙겠습니다: Pleased to make your acquaintance.
또 뵙겠습니다: See you later! (Formal).
또 봐요: See you later! (Polite).
어서 오세요: Welcome!
들어 오세요: Come in!
앉으세요: Please take a seat/sit down.
어떻게 지내세요?: How are you doing?
잘 지내요: I am fine.
그저 그래요: So-so.
모든 것이 괜찮습니다!: It’s all good!
이름이 뭐예요?: What is your name?
성함이 어떻게 되서요?: What is you name? (Formal)
어디에서 오셨어요?: Where are you from?
나는 (insert country here) 사람이에요: I am (insert country here) person.
나 는(insert country + 에) 살고 있습니다: I live in (interest country here).
실례햅니다: Excuse me (for what I’m doing).
실례했습니다: Excuse me (for what I did).
실례하겠습니다: Excuse me (for what I’m about to do).
미안합니다 or 죄송합니다:
I’m Sorry or Excuse me.
아니오, 괜찮아요: Not at all, it’s alright; No, thanks.
Thank you + No problem
고맙습니다: Thank you.
감사합니다: Thank you.
천만에요 or 뭘요: You’re welcome! or Don’t mention it!
Good to remember if you’re ever speaking to a Korean person:
듣기만 하세요: Just listen , please.
따라 하세요: Please repeat (after me).
다 같이: All together.
다시 한번: One more time.
말하세요: Please answer.
다시 말씀해 주세요: Please say it for me again. Please repeat.
크게 말씀해 주세요: Please say it loudly.
천천히 말씀해 주세요: Please say it slowly.
한국말로 하세요: Please say it in Korean.
영어로 하지 마세요: Please don’t say it in English.
알겠어요?: Do you understand?
네, 알겠어요: Yes, I understand.
아니오, 모르겠어요: No, I don’t understand.
질문 있어요?: Any questions?
네, 있어요: Yes, I have/Yes, there are.
아니오,없어요: No, I haven’t.
십 분만 쉽시다: Let’s rest for ten minutes.
늦어서 죄송합니다: Sorry I’m late.
“Insert word here” 한국어로 뭐예요?: How do you say “insert word here” in Korean?
“Insert Korean word here” 이라고 해요: You say “insert Korean word here.”
이 게 뭐예요?: What is this?
이 건 제 거 예요: This is my thing.
그 건 제 거 예요: That is my thing.
(Insert name here)는 어디에 있어요?: Where is (insert name here).
제 (Insert object name here)이
있어요?: Where is my (insert object name here).
화장실이 어디에 있어요?: Where is the toilet?
저는 돼지고기가 안 먹어요: I don’t eat pork.
저는 돼지고기가 못 먹어요: I can’t eat pork.
Ways to connect sentences:
그래서: And so…, And then…, Therefore…
그래도: Even so…, Nevertheless
그리고: And also…, And then…
그런데: But…, And then…, By the way…
교수(님): Professor (honorific)
선생(님): Teacher (honorific)
박사(님): Dr., Ph.D (honorific)
아내 or 집사람: Wife (my)
부인: Wife (your/his)
씨: Polite title for name
부모(님): Parents (honorific)
아이 ~ 애: Child
아기 ~ 애기: Baby
아저씨: Mister (way of referring to or addressing a man old enough to be married).
아가씨: Young Lady (way to referring to or address an unmarried young woman).
Things or objects:
제폼: Manufactured good(s)
수입폼: Imported goods
볼펜: Ball pen
전부: The whole thing, total
다: All, everything
전부다: Everything, all of it
말: Language, words
문: Door, gate
가방: Bag, briefcase
집: House, home
기숙사: Dormitory, residence hall
학생회관: Student union [building]
회장실: Toilet, restroom, bathroom, washroom
시청: City Hall
백화점: Department Store
정문: Main gate (e.g., of a university)
가게: Shop, store
역: Train station
저기: Over there
얼마: How many? How much?
원: Korean money unit
바로: Just, right (below, above, etc.), straight (adverb)
있어요: It exists, there is/are
없어요: It does not exist, there is not/aren’t
주세요: Please give
우리: We, our
누가: Who? (as subject)
누구: Who? (non-subject)
무엇, 뭐: What?
아니에요: No; it is not
그러면: Then, in that case, if so
그럼: Then, in that case
이 NOUN: This NOUN
그 NOUN: That NOUN
저 NOUN: Yon NOUN, That NOUN [way] over there
무슨 NOUN: Which/what kind of NOUN?
어느 NOUN: Which/what (one/NOUN)?
분: Person (honorific)
안에: Inside (안 tends to mean the inside of loosely filled spaces: a room, a building, a garden…)
속에: Inside (속 tends to mean the inside of things which are normally well filled or which are easily filled up: a suitcase, a drawer…)
A necklace or other piece of jewelry/object to enchant. I used a hematite necklace, because it enhances memory and intelligence.
Rosemary, for memory and intellect
Peppermint oil, for focus and clarity of mind - A purple candle; purple represents wisdom
A container of some type. I personally use a teacup as my little “cauldron,” but you can use anything from a small bowl to a saucer.
To cast the spell:
I prepared by cleansing my necklace with sage.
Put the rosemary in the container and lay the necklace on top. Light the candle.
Drop a few drops of peppermint oil onto the necklace. If you don’t want oil on your necklace/object, you can rub it on your wrists and smell it or anoint the candle with it.
Hold the necklace/object in your hands and say: “this [necklace/name of object] will help me with memory and concentration as I study and take tests in the following week(s). Blessed be."
Blow out the candle and pass the object through the smoke to consecrate it.
I personally seal my spells with a kiss; you can do this, or you can consider it sealed when you pass it through the smoke.
Wear/carry the necklace/object when studying and taking tests. Since smelling peppermint helps with memory and focus, (it activates the same part of your brain as caffeine does,) I suggest re-anointing or rubbing some on your wrists before tests.