obesity treatment

I'm Tired

To summarize the discourse:

>Being fat is not morally bad, what the fuck, don’t say that. Being skinny isn’t bad, either. Being any weight is morally indifferent. It’s a number y'all. Chill.
>Being overweight often plays into a variety of factor and I get that.
>Don’t bully fat people. Stop.
>Don’t bully skinny people. It’s not “okay” because they’re skinny. No. Stop.
>Actually, don’t bully people in general.
>Being obese is a medical condition that is dangerous to your health. One in three Americans is classed as obese. This is a problem.
>Being obese, again, is not a moral value. I don’t hate you (unless you’re an asshole outside of being obese). It’s a number. And it’s an unhealthy one. Look into ways to fix that before it’s too late.
>Institutional mistreatment of fat people’s issues is real. Very real. And must be combatted.
>However, being morbidly obese DOES make many treatments ineffective and surgery on high fat areas is very difficult and risky, as is anesthesia. Being fat may not cause the issue, and losing weight may not fix the issue, but in
many cases, being fat makes the issue worse.

>I DO hate you if you tell people obesity is 100% fine and healthy. I don’t hate you because you’re suffering from a medical condition. I hate you because you’re lying and your lies hurt people.
>I staunchly believe that “HAES” will be seen as the next anti-vaxxers soon. Hopefully sooner rather than later.

>But in general, hating people for their body type is bad. Don’t do it. Don’t be an asshole. Don’t be rude to fat people at gyms. Don’t be rude to skinny girls eating pizza. Don’t be rude to skinny girls eating salads. Don’t bully people. What the fuck even made you think bullying was acceptable.

>Tumblr is a subjective experience you define for yourself. If you don’t like me, or if you don’t like what I put on here, unfollow. I won’t get mad. I won’t care. I’m glad you’re doing what’s best for you, buddy.

  • Men: *are killed, wounded and traumatised in wars all over the world*
  • Whites: *are persecuted in South Africa and banned from owning land in Zimbabwe*
  • Christians: *are targeted by extremist groups in the Middle East and systematically killed*
  • thin people: *are thrown of airplanes to make space for obese passengers and pay taxes for the treatment of obesity-related diseases*
Scientists Catalogue “Parts List” of Brain Cell Types in a Major Appetite Center

Using Harvard-developed technology, scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have catalogued more than 20,000 brain cells in one region of the mouse hypothalamus. The study, published in Nature Neuroscience, revealed some 50 distinct cell types, including a previously undescribed neuron type that may underlie some of the genetic risk of human obesity. This catalog of cell types marks the first time neuroscientists have established a comprehensive “parts list” for this area of the brain. The new information will allow researchers to establish which cells play what role in this region of the brain.

“A lot of functions have already been mapped to large regions of the brain; for example, we know that the hippocampus is important for memory, and we know the hypothalamus is responsible for basic functions like eating and drinking,” said lead author John N. Campbell, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of co-corresponding author, Bradford Lowell, MD, PhD. “But we don’t know what cell types within those regions are responsible. Now with the leaps we’ve had in technology, we can profile every gene in tens of thousands of individual cells simultaneously and start to test those cell types one by one to figure out their functional roles.”

Each cell in an animal’s body carries the same genetic information. Cells take on specific roles by expressing some genes and silencing others. Drop-Seq technology – developed by study co-authors Steven McCarroll, PhD, and Evan Macosko, MD, PhD, both geneticists at Harvard Medical School – makes it possible to assess every gene expressed by individual cells. The automated process means the BIDMC researchers could profile tens of thousands of cells in the same amount of time it once took to profile about a dozen cells by hand.

Campbell and colleagues profiled more than 20,000 adult mouse brain cells in the arcuate hypothalamus (Arc) and the adjoining median eminence (ME) – a region of the brain that controls appetite and other vital functions. The cells’ gene expression profiles help scientists determine their functions.

In addition to identifying 50 new cell types, the researchers also profiled the cell types in adult mice under different feeding conditions: eating at will; high-fat diet (energy surplus); and overnight fasting (energy deficit). The technology allowed the researchers to assess how changes in energy status affected gene expression. The cell types and genes that were sensitive to these changes in energy status provide a number of new targets for obesity treatment.

“Sometimes a cell’s true identity doesn’t come out until you put it through a certain stress,” said co-corresponding author, Linus Tsai, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at BIDMC. “In fasting conditions, for example, we can see whether there is further diversity within the cell types based on how they respond to important physiologic states.”

Finally, the scientists analyzed previous human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that revealed gene variants linked to obesity. Noting which brain cell types express such obesity-related genes, the researchers implicated two novel neuron types in the genetic control of body weight.

Campbell and colleagues have posted their massive data set online, making it available to researchers around the world. The open-source information should accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and shape the research questions asked in the field of obesity research.

“The classic way of doing science is to ask questions and test hypotheses,” said Lowell, who is a professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. “But the brain is so complex, we don’t even know how much we don’t know. This information fills in some of the unknowns so we can make new hypotheses. This work will lead to many discoveries that, without these data, people would never have even known to ask the question.”

Planning to Go on a Diet? One Word of Advice: Don’t.
If you’re one of the 45 million Americans who plan to go on a diet this year, I’ve got one word of advice for you: Don’t. You’ll likely lose weight in the

“This isn’t breaking news; doctors know the holy trinity of obesity treatments—diet, exercise, and medication—don’t work. They know yo-yo dieting is linked to heart disease, insulin resistance, higher blood pressure, inflammation, and, ironically, long-term weight gain. Still, they push the same ineffective treatments, insisting they’ll make you not just thinner but healthier.

In reality, 97 percent of dieters regain everything they lost and then some within three years. Obesity research fails to reflect this truth because it rarely follows people for more than 18 months. This makes most weight-loss studies disingenuous at best and downright deceptive at worst.”

Pre-PET Headgear (Positron Emission Tomography)

In 1961, chemists at brookhavenlab studied how to detect small brain tumors by analyzing the decay of radioactive material injected into the patient’s bloodstream and preferentially absorbed by the tumor. To help them, BNL’s Instrumentation Division built different arrays of detectors, and this circular type proved best. In the 1970’s, BNL helped reconstruct the raw data received by the detectors into an image of the working brain. This breakthrough led to more practical devices for imaging areas of the brain: today’s PET machines. Today, Brookhaven is a leader in addiction research. BNL scientists use PET technology to study major areas of medical research including, drug and alcohol addiction; the development of a new strategy for addiction treatment; obesity and eating disorders; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

via Brookhaven National Laboratory

Let’s talk about the diet industry.  This industry, not counting weight loss surgery, earns those companies $46 BILLION a year.  That’s ridiculous for products that absolutely have no evidence that they work. There is no successful diet.  At all.  So why do people keep trying?  There are so many reasons.  Let’s start with the medical industry that tells a fat person that anything that ails them is because they are fat.  Haven’t experienced this?  Ask a fat person.  But research says that fat people are unhealthy and at danger for multiple health issues, right? There are two things we can look at to determine the legitimacy of research.  Who is doing it and who is paying for it.  You may not know it but the former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, M.D. is the person who declared the “war on obesity”.  He started a program to ‘Shape Up, America!” with money from Jenny Craig, Weight Watchers, and Slim-Fast.  He advertised for them.  James Hill, PhD, is a spokesperson for community groups fighting this “war”.  He is a paid consultant to several pharmaceutical companies that sell diet drugs.  This while also being a member of the National Institute of Health Task Force on Obesity Prevention and Treatment.  There are many incestuous connections between the diet industry, diet research, and government programs that want us to keep fighting something that is a biological mandate as much as freckles are.  I don’t want you to just believe what I say.  I want you to research it, but know that the propaganda is deep and you will need to look hard.  May I suggest the New England Journal of Medicine from January 1998?  Or the 1992 NIH Technology Assessment Panel?  Please check it out.

Sibelium® is a treatment for attacks of vertigo but can trigger depressive disorders.
Anafranil® is a treatment for depression but can trigger convulsions.
Depakine® is a treatment for convulsions but can trigger weight gain.
Anorex® is a treatment for obesity but can trigger tachycardia.
Cordarone® is a treatment for cardiac rhythm disturbances but can trigger hypothyroidism.
Levotoyrox® is a treatment for thyroid insufficiency but can trigger palpitations.
Tildiem® is a treatment for palpitations but can trigger oedema of the ankles.
Modamine® is a treatment for oedema but can trigger vomiting.
Primperan® is a treatment for vomiting but can trigger Parkinson’s disease.
Lepticur® is a treatment for Parkinson’s disease but can trigger constipation.
Contalax® is a treatment for constipation but can trigger abdominal pain and flatulence.
Avafortan® is a treatment for pain and spasms but can trigger agranulocytosis.
Augmentin® is a treatment for agranulocytosis but can trigger candidiasis.
Britane® is a treatment for candidiasis but can trigger coetaneous allergies.
Primalan® is a treatment for uticaria but can trigger glaucoma.
Diamox® is a treatment for glaucoma but can trigger gout.
Votarene® is a treatment for gout but can trigger vertigo.
Sibelium® is a treatment for vertigo but can trigger depressive disorders.
—  From Mithradates VI Eupator by Laetitia Paviani & Mathieu Lehanneur

Plants vs obesity 

Seaweed isn’t technically a plant, but it does have some serious plant power.

Researchers found that alginate from seaweeds, especially kelp, helps to stop the body from digesting fat. And we don’t get the side effects that come with other obesity treatments. Alginate is in lots of foods we eat, but there isn’t enough to do the trick.

Fat busting alginates are easily extracted and incorporated into other foods. When researchers used it in bread, tasters actually preferred the seaweed bread. No seaweed flavour, same great texture, extra fat busting magic.

This is one more way that everyday plants (and seaweed) are doing amazing things. 

Sewage Bacteria Reveal Cities' Obesity Rates

by Brian Owens, Inside Science

Sampling the waste in a city’s sewage system can be a good way to study the microbes that live in the population’s guts – and could even offer a way to monitor public health issues such as obesity, according to new research.

The community of microbes that live in a person’s gut, known as the microbiome, is intricately tied to that person’s health. The microbiome can influence, and be influenced by, a range of characteristics such as weight, disease, diet, exercise, mood and much more. But it can be difficult to draw large-scale conclusions about what constitutes a “healthy gut” because of the financial and privacy implications of sampling large enough numbers of people.

So a team of researchers led by Sandra McLellan at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Mitchell Sogin at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, set out to test whether they would be able to spot human microbes lurking in the soupy mix of municipal sewage systems, and thus sample entire cities at once.

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