Mitchell Scott Johnson (born August 11, 1984) and Andrew Douglas Golden (born May 25, 1986) are former middle school students and the perpetrators of the March 24, 1998 massacre at Westside Middle School in unincorporatedCraighead County, Arkansas near the city of Jonesboro, the deadliest massacre at an American middle school. Johnson and Golden fatally shot four students and a teacher with multiple weapons, and both were arrested when they attempted to flee the scene. Ten others were wounded in the shooting. Both Golden and Johnson were charged with the five murders and 10 injuries that were caused by the shooting, and were imprisoned until each turned 21 years of age. Both individuals have had gun-related legal altercations since release.
Note: these are the only two school shooters currently not in custody.
October 30, 1938: Orson Well broadcasts his radio play of H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds, causing mass panic across the United States.
In a study published in book form as The Invasion from Mars (1940), Princeton professor Hadley Cantril calculated that some six million people heard “The War of the Worlds” broadcast. He estimated that 1.7 million listeners believed it to be true, and 1.2 million were sincerely frightened. Media historians Jefferson Pooley and Michael Socolow have since concluded, however, that Cantril’s study has serious flaws. Its estimate of the program’s audience is more than twice as high as any other at the time. Cantril himself conceded this, but argued that unlike Hooper his estimate had attempted to capture the significant portion of the audience that did not have home telephones at that time. Since those respondents were contacted only after the media frenzy, Cantril allowed that their recollections could have been influenced by what they read in the newspapers. Claims that Chase and Sanborn Hour (a show airing at the same time as War of the Worlds) listeners who missed the disclaimer at the beginning when they turned to CBS during a commercial break or musical performance on that show and thus mistook “The War of the Worlds” for a real broadcast inflated the show’s audience and the ensuing alleged panic are impossible to substantiate.