In “Rethinking Thinking,” the “Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinites and the Misrepresentation of Humanity” author Dr. Raymond Tallis writes in The Wall Street Journal about two recent books that look at how “a lumpy bunch of tissue lets us plan, perceive, calculate, reflect, imagine—and exercise free will.”

Neurosciences have intrigued several leaders in technology, market research and academia, including:

Federico Faggin, who designed the Intel 4004, the world’s first microprocessor co-invented by Ted Hoff and Stan Mazur 40 years ago this month. Faggin says computers will be an essential tool for understanding human consciousness, but even if quantum computers arrive soon they will not surpass human intelligence.

Susan Hockfield, a neuroscientist and first woman to become president of MIT, says that collaborate research across different fields of life, physical and engineering sciences will bring the important breakthroughs needed to keep America’s innovation economy in the lead.

David Ginsberg is blending traditional market research with neuroscience techniques to tap into subconscious motivators that drive people to prefer one thing over another, and how that influences they way people make purchasing decisions.