november 1978


I use filming as an excuse to take classes. I got my certification in sailing for ‘Wedding Crashers,’ and now I can handle a 26-foot boat. I played a seamstress once, so I took sewing classes. I love dipping into these other lives.

Happy 38th Birthday, Rachel Anne McAdams! (November 17th 1978)


On this day in music history: August 15, 1979 - “In Through The Out Door”, the eighth studio album by Led Zeppelin is released. Produced by Jimmy Page, it is recorded at Polar Studios in Stockholm, Sweden in November - December 1978. Recorded at ABBA’s recording studio while the band are tax exiles from the UK, it features a stronger musical presence from lead singer Robert Plant and bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones. At the time, guitarist Jimmy Page and drummer John Bonham are having their own struggles with alcohol and substance abuse. This results in less group collaboration than on previous albums, with Plant and Jones often working together during the day, while Page and Bonham overdubbing their parts at night. The album cover art (designed by Hipgnosis) is issued with six different variations, and inserted into a brown paper bag with the band name and title rubber stamped on the front, with no indication which cover you are purchasing. On the original press run, the album jackets are coated with a dark finish that can be wiped off with a damp cloth or sponge to reveal the full color image underneath. In July of 2015, the album is remastered and reissued on CD and vinyl, including a boxed Super Deluxe edition with previously unreleased rough mixes of the songs as works in progress. “In Through The Out Door” spends seven weeks at number one on the Billboard Top 200, and is certified 6x Platinum in the US by the RIAA.

Pure Hell photographed in front of Buckingham Palace, London. November 1978.
Photograph Color: Color Type: C-Print
Pure Hell is a punk-rock band, established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1974, during the high point of punk culture in New York City, London and Los Angeles. It has been cited by Bad Brains “as an early influence”.

“Tell me why I’m dressed in this bloody monkey suit again?” 

“Because a happy wife is a happy life Paddy. You’ll get it someday…maybe.”

“And this makes Lily happy because?” 

“She gets to buy a pretty dress, and put on some new shoes. It makes her happy, and if I have to suffer the monkey suit then you do too.” 

Taken by Lily Potter (of James and Sirius) on their way to a ministry ball after months of fighting on the front line of the war.

November 18, 1978

Magazine covers loudly proclaim the horror of over 900 cultists committing mass suicide at Jonestown, Guyana. Most of the cultists drank poisoned cups of Kool-Aid or other sweet drinks and simply lay down on the ground to to die, leaving behind a horrific scene for authorities to discover after several days of scorching weather. The charismatic leader of the self-proclaimed “Peoples Temple”, Reverend Jim Jones, was found dead of a gunshot wound in his hut.

Four Unsolved Mass Murders

The Yogurt Shop Murders

A fire in a I Can’t Believe it’s Yoghurt! shop in Austin, Texas, turned out to be a way more tragic and gruesome scene the night of December 6, 1991. Inside the locked store, police found the bodies of Amy Ayers (13), Jennifer Harbison (17), her sister Sarah Harbison (15) and Eliza Thomas (17). Jennifer and Eliza worked there and the other two girls had gone to help them close so they could have a sleepover. Their bodies were naked and bound with their own clothes, at least one of them had been raped and they all had been shot in the head.

In 1999, four suspects were arrested: Forrest Wellborn and Maurice Pierce had the charges against them soon after. Robert Burns Springsteen and Michael Scott, who had allegedly confessed and implicated the other two, went to trial and were convicted. But in 2006, those convictions were overturned after a judge considered they didn’t have fair trials and that the confessions were coerced. New DNA testing couldn’t match them to the crime scene and they were eventually released, leaving the case unsolved.

The Bowling Alley Massacre

The morning of February 10, 1990, two men described as hispanic went in Las Cruces Bowl, in New Mexico, with the intention to rob the place. In one room they gathered the manager, Stephanie Senac (32), her daughter Melissa Respass (12), Melissa’s friend Amy Houser (13) and cook Ida Holguin while they took about $ 5,000 from the safe. Steve Teran (26), who was the alley’s mechanic, arrived with his two daughters, Valerie (2) and Paula (6) and ran into the scene. The robbers ended up shooting everyone several times. Only Stephanie, Melissa and Ida survived and the killers have never been identified.

Lane Bryant Shootings

On February 2, 2008, a Lane Bryant clothing outlet in Tinley Park, Illinois, came under attack. An unidentified man, described as black with cornrowed hair, came in to committ a robbery and ended up shooting and killing store manager Rhoda McFarland (42) and customers Jennifer Bishop (34), Carrie Chiuso (33), Sarah Szafranski (22) and Connie Woolfolk (37). A part time worker was the only survivor.

Burger Chef Murders

Around midnight of November 17, 1978, an employee of a Burger Chef restaurant in Speedway, Indiana, arrived to the venue and found it empty. The four young people working that night, Jayne Friedt (20), Mark Flemmonds (16), Ruth Shelton (18) and Daniel Davis (16), were gone, and so were $500 from the safe. Nothing seemed amiss, so at first police believed the foursome had taken the money to go partying.

Their bodies were found two days later by some hikers in the woods, 20 miles away from the restaurant. Ruth and Daniel had been shot, Jayne had been stabbed. Mark got the worst part, since he had been beaten with a blunt object, possibly a chain, and had ended up falling downhill and asphyxiated with his own blood. He had some bruises that suggested he had been beaten at least one hour before his death, so it’s possibly at one point he tried to escape or fight back.

Police’s theory has always been that at least two, possibly three or four, people committed the murders. There have been several suspects, but no real evidence that can close the case.

okay sorry but i have to do this right now since i haven’t seen enough posts about this man.

this post was made during pride month and i’ve seen tons of posts about it. i’ve seen tons of posts talking about how people in the past have suffered for our rights.

but people rarely bring up names of some of these important people. so, i want to talk about one man named Harvey Milk.

Harvey Milk was the first openly gay politician to be elected to public office in California. other openly gay people had been elected into public office before, but they were elected in other parts of the country, not in California. he won a seat at the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and was elected on the 8th of January, 1978 after several years of campaigning, getting more followers each year.

Harvey Milk was a one of the front runners of the gay rights community in America during the 1970s. he was a peaceful man, using non-violent tactics to spread his message of understanding and love. without him, The Briggs Initiative would’ve been passed. The Briggs Initiative was a bill that would’ve made it illegal for gay people to work in public schools in California.

one of the big reasons as to why he got more followers and supporters was because of his way with words. he spoke like any other person in san francisco, but he used these words in a way that filled them with power. here is the last part of his most famous speech, the Hope Speech, as an example.

he was in office for 11 months. on the 27th of November, 1978, Harvey Milk and San Francisco mayor George Moscone were shot repeatedly by former supervisor Dan White. this did not come as a surprise to Harvey. he’d previously recorded his will on tape, quote, “to be read in the event of my assassination.” in it, he said the iconic words, “If a bullet should enter my brain, let that bullet destroy every closet door.”

the same evening as the assassinations occurred, 25000 to 40000 people joined in a candlelight march from Castro Street, where Harvey Milk became famous, to City Hall. when Dan White was convicted of manslaughter and given the sentence of about 7 years in prison, people were outraged. the White Night Riots begun, a series of riots that happened on the 21st of May, 1979. it’s been called one of the most violent protest by gay americans since the Stonewall riots.

Harvey Milk wanted to shape a better world for everyone. not just homosexuals or heterosexuals, but for everyone, especially the minorities. people of color, the handicapped, the elder, etc. he wanted them to have as big of a voice as anyone else. and he wanted to achieve that through negotiation and non-violent protests. later, he has been called one of the most important figures in the gay liberation movement.

i’ve almost seen nothing about this man during pride month and it’s a real damn shame. because without him, we wouldn’t be able to walk out on the streets, showing ourselves and our pride. so this month, show society your pride with Harvey Milk in mind.


An interview with Laura Johnston Kohl, a survivor of the Jonestown Massacre

Why did you join Peoples Temple?
The United States was going through critical growing pains in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. In the decade of the 1960s, five American heroes were shot and killed by vigilantes - John Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Bobby Kennedy, Malcolm X, and Medgar Evers - and many more besides these heroes. Then, we got into the war in Vietnam. I did not want the world run by bullies, nor by vigilantes. I tried as a single, naive woman to change some things - but was pretty powerless, it turned out. When I met Jim Jones, and joined Peoples Temple, I thought Jim would protect me, and stand for issues I felt were important. He had adopted children of many races, had gathered a huge interracial congregation, and stood with other leaders of our times - Angela Davis, Cesar Chavez, Dennis Banks, many in the LGBTQ community in San Francisco, and others. It seemed like a perfect fit, even though I was an atheist. Jim’s efforts were to move people into activism.

What was it about Jim Jones that first attracted you to the Temple?
From the first time I met Jim, in Redwood Valley, I was impressed at his inclusion and affection for all of us. He would hug, smile, congratulate, assist and nurture all of us regardless of age, sex, income, education, and life experience. He would be the one to notice the people cleaning up or working hard, or setting up events. His concern seemed genuine. In his own life, he and his wife had adopted five children of many races, sometimes having to fight a system opposed to household integration. They did it. His wife seemed to be as enchanted with him as the rest of us, which I thought was remarkable. And, he had political allies who were my heroes of the time - Angela Davis, Cesar Chavez, Dennis Banks, and others. In San Francisco, we were supportive of all diverse community members. There was not only a vision of what we could be, we could look around and see that we had already arrived in a small measure. Certainly, we had more work to do, but we were an inclusive interracial community, and determined to continue the fight.

The public persona certainly differed with the reality, even at that time. But, I did not see that part.
Some of the literature on the Peoples Temple paints a picture of abusive practices. Such as catharsis sessions, physical beatings and suicide drills even before the move to Guyana. How apparent were they?

I disagree that the catharsis sessions were always abusive. Jim ran the Temple as if he were the Godfather of a huge family. He was in charge. He took people to task if our work was shoddy, or our behavior was off, if he or others noticed issues. To this day, I have “family meetings” with my husband and foster son to resolve issues and organize our lives. Sometimes that happened in the Peoples Temple Family Meetings. The abuse part was to have Jim making a decision, stating a problem, and then not allowing the person to respond, or to refuse to listen to problems that needed resolution within the church. Jim could never be questioned. Never. That is abuse. A healthy catharsis is not abuse. Catharsis was the wrong word for much of what went on in our Family Meetings. We had dictatorship laying down rules, and not allowing discussion or defense. Because Jim took the role of everyone’s “father” he managed the discipline of the members. The beatings were outrageous, and even created life-long disabilities. The suicide drills were an early clue of Jim’s power-tripping. I wrote them off as just one more of his antics to get us more unified and to work harder. I think that the most relevant thing about the suicide drills was that NO ONE COULD EVER HAVE IMAGINED that Jim, the person who got relatives out of prison, who fought in courts for children and adults, who got people legal and medical help, who adopted his own children and seemed to love all children, and who spoke up for human and civil rights would or could EVER take our lives. Every family had had some relative or close friend helped. Everyone had a story.

Former members have described Jonestown as one of the best things that happened to them. Conversely, it has also been likened to a concentration camp. What was your experience of Jonestown? Did people tell you they wanted to leave?
I was one of the members who loved Jonestown. I always felt that there were many positives of our community, and that the problems would be sorted out and resolved once we did not have to work so hard building everything. If you look at a photo of Jonestown - built in just over 3 years, you will see how amazing it became in that short time. We were humping to make it less primitive and more functional and livable. I did not see things that would not be remedied as soon as our full-out building was done. For people who were not happy in Jonestown, it was a prison. You could not leave. Jim asked people to work hard and that after two years, anyone would be free to go. Many were rightly skeptical. Jim did not ever want anyone to leave. He took it as a personal betrayal and defeat. Even when about 20 people wanted to go with Congressman Ryan, he was overwhelmed. Twenty people out of 1,000. His paranoia and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (even besides his drug addiction) did not allow him to see that in perspective. For those of us in Jonestown, since people did not speak about how they wanted to leave (much as in Hitler’s Germany, where parents were reported by their children or neighbors), I had no idea that people seriously wanted out. I was a zealot so no one would have told me.

As a former member, how do you view the tragic ending of the Peoples Temple?
Jim Jones talked about revolutionary suicide in the death tape, however some scholars view it as mass murder?
The term “Revolutionary Suicide” was coined by Huey Newton, for his book published in the early 1970s. It was the rhetoric of the times, and was used at a time when the disenfranchised poor and people of color were reacting to the abuses of their neighborhoods. Many were saying that if they were to be killed by police or others anyway, they chose to decide the when and where. (That is a rough paraphrase) The deaths in Jonestown were murders. No good came out of the deaths, except that Jim got all the fame and infamy about the community just as he wanted. He never shared leadership.

How was Jim Jones’ behavior?
At the beginning, when I was part of the smaller Redwood Valley Peoples Temple, Jim’s behavior was inclusive, and consistent with the ideas he shared. He did work to get rid of racism within the Temple. Once he moved to San Francisco with many of his members from Redwood Valley, and many new members, I only saw him in public. He was very polished in public. I felt like I knew the “real” Jim Jones and so did not watch him as critically as I should have.

How did you feel inside the community?
The people I met in Peoples Temple were the best, most dedicated and diverse people I have met in my life. Many people made huge sacrifices because we all felt that we could create a safe community for our friends and family, and be a role-model community for the larger world. We worked tirelessly, and felt that each day, we accomplished a lot. I loved the Peoples Temple community, from the communes I lived in and the entire family - which is what it felt like to me.

Was sex an important element?
Jim was married, had a long-time mistress, and continued to have multiple partners over the years. He would justify having sex by telling us why these people “needed” him to show his care or his appreciation for their beauty - really, blaming the victim. And then, he used sex as a further control over that person. I would say that others in the Church were not invited to have multiple partners, and instead earned Jim’s trust be being celibate. He often referred to people as most trustworthy because they were single. He preferred everyone to have a personal connection with him, no room for others or rather, no distraction from others.

When and why did you leave the community?
I did not leave the community. I happened to be working in Georgetown from late October through the deaths in Jonestown on November 18, 1978.

How did Jones maintain such a strong control over the members?
First, Jim Jones was extremely smart. He just outsmarted us by knowing what to say to pull us in. He would speak and be sure he covered exactly what each person or group wanted to hear. I was always political, along with many other members. He would be sure to include politics and a political message in each sermon. Many members were religious, and he would be sure to include that as well. He was well-versed in the bible, although I have a strong opinion that it was useful for him, rather than it being his core belief. Religion was a magnet he could use to draw people in. Then, he would teach and model how activism was essential in interacting with the world.
Second, Jim actually helped nearly every family. He could write letters to get people out of jail or on probation, or get leniency. He helped get people off of drugs, into housing, into communes with shared resources so everyone had a safe place to stay, with enough food. He provided free legal help and got medical attention to members when they had been denied help. Really, every family was impacted by the services provided in Peoples Temple. People could not fathom that he would do them harm when he had so tenderly cared for them or their loves ones over the years. He was powerful because of his deeds. He took care of people.
As a consequence, people did not admit to seeing his flaws. His drug addiction and personality disorder, which worsened in Jonestown, were hidden by his closest nurses/mistresses/secretaries. His reputation was protected vigilantly. Most of us had no clue about how he was disintegrating right in front of us. Even people who did see some problems had no idea that he was so mentally ill that he would kill 917 people and himself.
There had been no precedent in US history of a leader killing nearly 1,000 people. No one in Peoples Temple - or very few, because some did see it on the horizon and left - could have imagined that end. We thought any issues in the community could be fixed as we settled into Jonestown and didn’t have to work so hard.

How did you feel the People’s Temple was taking a stand for social justice?
From the first day, I realized that Jim Jones had an adopted family of all races - Black, Native American, Asian, and his “home grown” son. He and his wife were the first white couple in the State of Indiana to adopt a Black child - Jim Jones Jr. His congregation was the same - mixed race, mixed socio-economic levels, mixed education. This was in the 1960s and 1970s, in a country that JUST passed the Civil Rights Act. Even today, that is not the norm.

From there, we moved on to supporting emerging groups - we spoke up for the LGBTQ community in San Francisco, the American Indian Movement, the Farmworkers, really, all of them. They were us and we were them. We wrote letters to Judges to get family members and community members released from prison, and helped be the voice for the voiceless. That was our mission and we did it tirelessly.

In the late 1960s, I think that was Jim at his “purest.” He always had a borderline personality disorder - and power issues - he wanted all the power, over all of us. But, it really started eroding what he was doing in the early 1970s when he was so successful with the powerful in San Francisco and in California.

What did you see was your role in fighting for social justice?
In high school, I had been active in integrating my neighborhood in Maryland, and in the fight for equality and putting an end to segregation. In college in Connecticut, I worked hard on civil and human rights, and demonstrated to end the war in Vietnam, among other things.

After college, and a brief marriage, I went to Woodstock - but wasn’t interested in being immersed in that culture. Then I lived and worked with the Black Panthers for about 6 months. That did not work for me as a naive, and optimistic young girl.

When I moved to California and met Jim Jones and Peoples Temple - I thought of Jim as a protector who would enable me to continue on with my political activism. That was my life-blood.

How do you think the social issues of the time affected the rise of the People’s Temple?
I know that the society going through such upheaval (with the murders of so many leaders in the 1960s (MLK, the Kennedys, Malcolm X, Medgar Evers), with the war in Vietnam being so unpopular, and with Civil Rights and civil abuses so much in all of our minds made Jim’s rise to a political position meteoric. He was at the right place (SF) and at the right time to become a spokesperson for many of the disenfranchised.

What do you see as the impact of Jonestown on society?
Jonestown had the POTENTIAL to show the world that racism and abuse did not have a role in our society and that we should get rid of both in our communities. Those of us who went to Jonestown thought that we could prove to the world that our kind of mixed and fluid society worked. We thought we could keep our kids safe from drugs, give them a community that valued them, and … That is what we thought. What we didn’t know was that jim had so deteriorated in mental health, and had become so drug-addicted, that he stood in the way of that happening.

Could you describe what the transition into life after the People’s Temple was for you?
When I came back from Guyana, I was totally shell-shocked. I moved back into the San Francisco Temple building on Geary and Fillmore for four months until the Conservator assigned to sell off the assets of Peoples Temple kicked us out. Then, I lived in several different communes of Peoples Temple survivors for the next ten months. The government put a lien on my passport, saying I had to reimburse the $500 they spent to bring me back from Guyana, since I was one of those who received a subpoena to appear before the Grand Jury. I went to work, got a job, and went to school at night. I was putting one foot forward at a time - but not yet determined that I wanted to keep going. It was very difficult and we survivors were not much help to each other or to ourselves.

After a year of trying to make my decision about survival, I moved into a community I had been spending time with - Synanon. Synanon was a residential drug treatment program when it started in the 1950s, but it had become a fully-functioning diverse community with both former drug addicts and “squares” - those who did not become drug addicts. Over the years, there were thousands of residents who passed through. When I moved in in 1980, there were roughly 50% squares and 50% former drug addicts. Synanon took good care of me. However, there are some events mostly from before I moved in that were illegal and problematic. Some of my fellow survivors from Peoples Temple were anxious for me, moving into another “cult.” Synanon closed in 1990, when the IRS rescinded tax status because of profits we were making in selling advertising products.

While in Synanon, I married my current husband, Ron, and my son was born.

In 1990, we moved out. I went back to school and got my California Clear Teaching Credential. I started teaching in 1994. I also became a Quaker in 1994.

After 20 years of keeping my head in the sand, I went to the 20th Anniversary Gathering at Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland, where most of those murdered in Guyana were buried. That was when my healing began - once I realized I would and could never forget. My life in Peoples Temple is part of who I am today. Once I admitted to myself that I am forever changed - somehow, I could work with that and fully move on.

In the early 2000s, I started public speaking. I wrote and published my book JONESTOWN SURVIVOR: An Insider’s Look in 2010. I continue speaking about Peoples Temple and my experiences.

How would you like history to remember the people of Jonestown?
The people of Peoples Temple were wonderfully committed and optimistic people who wanted a better world and who were willing to make great sacrifices to bring it about. We were so determined, we failed to watch Jim enough, especially at the end. In Jonestown, his mental and physical health deteriorated, and he and his secretaries/mistresses/nurses were able to hide the disintegration.

In your opinion, what do you think is the historical significance of Jonestown and the People’s Temple?
There is an enormous historical significance of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Here are just a FEW:

Leaders can never be given absolute loyalty.

Insanity can be very well hidden.

There is no time and place where critical thinking and observation can be turned off.

There are certain behaviors of cult-leaders that are recognizable:

Wanting to take members away from family and loved ones who are not a part of the group

Moving the group to a remote location

Creating a we/they belief system

Refusing any questioning or corrections of the leaders

Keeping members exhausted and poor

Never assigning anyone as a replacement

Really, it is a very long list.

Are there any misconceptions about the People’s Temple that you would like to correct?
There are many misconceptions. The primary one that I always want to address is the nature of the membership. We were bright, hardworking, and optimistic people. It was unimaginable to us that Jim Jones, who had gotten our family members out of jail, into the hospital, into shared housing where there was enough food, and kids into safer environments - and so much more. It was just not possible that the same person would become so mentally imbalanced that he would murder or assist in murdering 918 people.

ya so s3 trailer

as yall know we kinda run out of content to rely on so i went wild

the season 3 trailer

ok so first we have the boys water fight. isak is sitting there, watching them. the water doesn’t touch him, just passing by him. also, water: transparent. both the things symbolize how isak sexuality was something he alway thought about and knew it was there, but couldn't quite figure. it passed by him. he saw through it.

next, we have the milk. or, we have jonas throwing the milk at isak.
let’s take a look at milk.
in my opinion, the milk part (and the trailer itself) had a really sexual vibe. but there’s more to it.
Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California “ (Wikipedia) the milk is also white, a color that represents enlightenment and truth.
the milk represents homosexuality, in a very obvious way.
jonas threw the milk at isak. this was meant to represent jonas helping isak to discover his sexuality, could be also the crush on s1 or the talk and support on s3.
isak look is following the milk. he almost seems… interested? curious? he is not trying to fight it or stop it from happening.

when the milk hits him, he closes his eyes but stands still. this part is representing isaks denial of his sexuality, “I’m not gay like you”, “I’m not gay”, even though in his heart he knows he is. the milk crushing over isak represent how fast and clear and all at once isak sexuality had hit him.

the last part, and favorite, is when isak looks up to the camera, completely covered in milk, with a “deal with it” look. completely sure and proud in his sexuallity, completely covered in it, as we see isak in the end of the season.

do you ever feel proud of your baby?

March 22

Abe Sapien began his life as Langdon Everett Caul, a Victorian scientist and businessman who became involved with the Oannes Society, an occult organization who believed in life and all knowledge having come from the sea. After retrieving a strange jellyfish-like deity from an underwater ruin, Caul and the other members performed an arcane ritual that inadvertently ended with the creature’s release and Caul being turned into an ichthyo sapien. Believing him to be Oannes reborn, the society sealed the developing icthyo sapien’s body in a tube of water in the hidden laboratory beneath a Washington, D.C.. hospital until such time as he was fully formed. Forced to abandon the site by the outbreak of the American Civil War, the Society never found occasion to return for Caul, and there he stayed until he was found by workmen in November 1978. With no memory of his life before, the icthyo sapien received a new name. Abe Sapien was taken to the Bureau for Paranormal Research and Defense (BPRD) for a gruelling round of research by curious BPRD scientists, and was saved from vivisection by an empathetic Hellboy. Thereafter, Abe entered the ranks of the BPRD as a valued field agent. He first appeared in Hellboy: Seeds of Destruction (March 22, 1994).