not quite sure what to make of this yet but there are quite a few sites reporting it so there you go

So what have we learned today

Do NOT ‘convert’ anyone’s fic/story without first getting permission. Now after a simple search on Wattpad I found quite a few fics that were ‘converted’ from other fandoms, most without giving even a hint of the original author’s name. For example today with @blackleatherboots139 who converted many fics to Camren. Also note, I am not coming for the camren fandom I am simply using what I found and what happened today as an example, I am coming for any person that would dare copy someone’s work without permission.

Nevermind that if the author hasn’t explicitly told you yes that you shouldn’t even have converted their fic and posted it in the first place. If you aren’t even going to give them their due credit then you KNOW somewhere inside that what you did was wrong.

So here’s a PSA this goes for anything fan art, fan videos (including gifs you may have made and posted from a video that you did NOT make), fanfiction and anything you did not make originally. If you do not have permission from the original maker of that content then you should under no circumstances try to copy it and pass it off as your own. Someone put a lot of work into those words or into every stroke of that art or editing needed for that video and you changing a few details like a character’s name or a change of colors DOES NOT GIVE YOU THE RIGHT to take that content and then try and pass it of as your own.

And no putting the word ‘Converted’ on a story still DOES NOT give you that right unless you have gotten permission AS WELL AS given credit to the original content creator. I cannot stress that enough because what I have seen today truly baffled me. Over 89 fics on Wattpad alone copied and ‘converted’ from clexa and shoot and bechloe and glee and supercorp and hollstein and many other fandoms I’m sure. 

THIS IS NOT OK WITHOUT THE ORIGINAL CONTENT MAKER’S PERMISSION if it was ok sites like wattpad and ao3 and ff.net and Youtube and Tumblr would not have an option to report this as theft. 

One of my friends was so upset by the blatant thievery of their hard work that they thought of deleting their stories. and YES this is a form of THEFT and NO i’m not being dramatic but I am quite angry. 

And you know the excuse I heard? “Well other people do the same thing…” Now I know this is cliche but, if someone jumped off a cliff would you do it as well? Guess what those people that also do this? They are also in the wrong. The fact that they also do it does not make it right it simply means they have yet to get caught and reported. 

Just because what you converted/copied was fanfiction or a fan art or a fan video does not make it any less of a problem than if you outright copied copyrighted work from a book or an ad on Tv etc…

Fix You (1/?)

Summary: Emma is a nurse on the med surg floor of her hospital when she meets Killian, a patient recovering from surgery following a traumatic hand injury. With a long road to recovery and a few too many over time shifts, Emma and Killian learn to heal together. Modern/ hospital AU
Rating: M (it’s a slow burn)
Words: 3k
Disclaimer: I’m a student nurse, so most of the science should be right. I researched anything I didn’t know. However, if something is wrong, let me know and I’ll fix it. Or I may have changed it to fit plot lol.
——————————————————————-

It’s ten in the morning and Emma needs another coffee. Or maybe like three more. But there’s no time for coffee right now, because her to do list is currently long enough to stretch into neighboring states. Mr. Johnson in bed seven needs ice chips and caffeine-free Sprite. Mrs. King in bed three needs to get up and void before rounds or Dr. Whale will never send her home. Ms. Brown in bed four needs her blood pressure medication, Mr. Keating in bed five’s IV has been going off for 10 minutes, and her nurse assistant needs help transferring bed six into a wheelchair. She’s still behind on charting and her bladder has been at capacity for three hours.


Nursing was something that was hard, really hard. Despite its challenges, Emma felt like she was home in her navy blue scrubs. She’d been a nurse for five years on the medical-surgical floor and she still loved it. There’s something beautiful in being able to care for someone at their very worst and most vulnerable. Before getting too caught up in her thoughts, she handed off the sprite to her nursing assistant and went to grab a new bag of saline for bed five, promising to catch up with her in fifteen minutes.


She knocked gently on the door before walking in. “Hey, Mr. Keating! Is this thing screaming at you again?” she laughed as she gestured to the irritating machine beeping.


“Emma, I told you, you can call me Ted. And yeah, damn thing won’t shut up.” He said with a hint of humor coloring his words as he shifted his arm.


“Okay, Ted,” she acquiesced giving him a tenative smile, feeling just a bit uncomfortable.  “Don’t worry, I’ll fix it and maybe you can get some rest before lunch time?” She typed a few things into the computer in front of her while she made conversation.


“Well I hope so. It was another rough night last night…I had that ditzy red head nurse again.” He grumbled.

 “Take it easy on Ariel, Ted. She just graduated and we all start somewhere. She’s a great nurse.” she said gently. She never quite understood why nurses sometimes tended to eat their young. She’s seen several nurses on her floor berate and bully the students and graduates and frankly, it pissed her off. Every one was new once. And while she meant no disrespect to their experience, sometimes the old nurse Mildred had to be double checked on her dosage, because her eyesight was going out.


“Only for you, nurse Emma.” He smiled. It wasn’t unusal for her to get a little flirtation from the patients, especially the older ones…especially during bed baths. She remembered ranting to her nurse best friend, Mary Margaret, that she’s sure that some of these men really are in fact capable of washing their own private areas. She just smiled back and returned to her task at hand.


“You know the drill, Ted. Name and date of birth” She inspected his wristband as she scanned the information into her computer. Theodore Keating, May 6, 1951. “Any allergies?” When he affirmed no, she clicked the last box and scanned her bag. Making quick work of connecting the bag she hung it up and disposed of the old one. “Alright, should be good for a few hours. I’ll be back here around noon to check your blood sugar and do your insulin, okay?”


“Do you have to do that?” He whined.


“Do you like eating?” She said teasingly, promising to return soon.

 Off to the next patient. It went on like this for much of the afternoon. Passing meds, changing dressings, emptying catheters, and of course charting. Dr. Whale came by and discharged one of her patients and she had about twenty minutes to silently celebrate, before she got the news via an email from her nurse manager, Regina. She sat at her computer in the nursing station, nibbling on a half eaten cherry poptart she found unceremoniously wrapped in tissue paper in her desk drawer. She reread the email for the sixth time, still not quite grasping what she was reading. Of freaking course, why should she get any breaks?


Regina passed by the nurses station in one of her classic sensible pantsuits. A purple blouse peeked out from beneath the black blazer. She had a look on her face that warned against anyone approaching her. Emma had never been great at heeding such warnings.


“Regina!” She called out from her chair.

The woman stopped in her tracks, almost steeling herself to turn around. Emma shot up from her chair and started to walk toward her and finally Regina turned and approached the nurses station.

 “Miss Swan, surely I don’t have to remind you that keeping food at the station is both unsanitary and also not permitted.” Regina said with an exasperated sigh. “You need to keep the food in the break room.”


Emma shot her a pointed look. The only time she ever went into the break room was for those five blissful moments at the beginning of her shift and again at the end of her shift. Her thirty minute lunch break consisted of walking all the way down to the cafeteria, grabbing a grilled cheese and a piece of fruit, waiting in line to pay for it, then walking back up to the floor eating as she goes.

“I know, I know” Regina replied throwing her hands up to assuage Emma’s frustration.. “It’s not so long ago that I was in your shoes, Miss Swan. In any case, did you read my email?”


“Uh, yeah. I did. Why does it say that I’m getting a new admit?”


“Because, Miss Swan, you are” She said with a sarcastic smile.


“Clearly. But my point is that my patient load is already pretty heavy with the six patients I have and so a new admit is just, I don’t know, a lot. Lauren only has 4 patients, can’t she take the new admit?” She asked, knowing it was a long shot.


“What can I say? We’re understaffed and overbooked. The ER is full and patients have to go somewhere.” Regina sighed and ran her manicured hand through her raven hair. “Besides, if I were you, I might consider it a compliment that you’re being chosen over her. It might say something about our trust in your abilities. Have we misplaced that trust, Miss Swan?” She quirked an eyebrow, challengingly.


“Well, no, of course not.” Emma interjected. “It’s just, I’m super busy today.”


“Lauren is on light duty and this patient is definitely not a light duty patient. It’s a little involved. I chose the nurse I think will take care of this patient the best.”

“Alright. Just remember this when it comes time for my raise, okay?” Emma said letting a smile overcome her face.

 It actually felt nice to be appreciated and even to be given additional responsibility. Although, administration had a weird way of showing their appreciation. Extra work and a chocolate chip cookie once a year hardly screamed of their undying gratitude. She had known that they were trying to groom her for hospital administration for quite some time, but she just couldn’t give up patient care. She vowed she’d be on the floor until the day she keeled over.

“Oh, how could I forget?” Regina laughed sardonically. “So, do you want to wait for report from PACU or do you want me to fill you in now?”

 “Fill me in now.” she said immediately. She had cringed thinking of Regina’s comments on ‘not a light duty patient’ and thought maybe she needed as much time as she could to prepare for it.


“Okay. 35 year old male presented by ambulance to ED with traumatic injury to left hand at 0630. Went in for surgery at 0800 and is now in PACU to wake up. Surgery was successful in reattaching the hand, but had complications in reattaching some of the nerves. The site is closed, but of course, make sure you’re checking those dressings often. BP is slightly decreased 107/74, oxygen sats at 88%–he’s receiving 2 liters per nasal canula. Temperature, heart rate, respirations all within limits. Patient is awake and alert, but not quite oriented yet. They said he’s still a little out of it. He’s on a cipro drip to prevent infection. He’s a full code. High fall risk.”


“Great, thanks!” She replied as she dismissed Regina and went to prepare his room.

 She always appreciated the way the room looked right after housekeeping left. Neat corners tucked nicely into the bed sheets.  She admired the view from the seventh floor overlooking the little suburbs and parks. The autumn leaves looked beautiful with their various hues of orange and red. The wind plucked them from their trees and carried them through the breeze. She spotted little children playing in the park in the distance, their mothers chasing after them when they wander too far away. She imagined the cool breeze blowing her hair as she listened to the symphony of children laughing, leaves rustling, and crickets chirping. She really wished she had more time to just sit and enjoy the view with a nice hot chocolate. Wistfully sighing, she turned and adjusted the thermostat and readied a welcome basket for him.

“Killian Jones.” She said under her breath, as she often did when alone. She idly wondered what type of patient he would be. She could generally make it work with anyone, but if she could avoid having one of the rude types that would be freaking great. She tried really hard to connect with all of her patients on some level. She wanted to make sure every one knew that they weren’t just a bed number to her. They weren’t just bed seven with the COPD or bed five with the poorly controlled diabetes. They were names and faces and stories. They had lives before this moment, things that lead them to her care. They had lives to go back to, families and friends who loved them and made them cards. Her heart both ached and warmed every time she saw those handmade cards with the sloppy handwriting and stick figures littering the white walls of the hospital room. How sweet it must be to be loved so dearly. The hospital can be such a lonely and scary place for some people. She resolved to make it a place where people felt safe. Validated. Heard. Genuinely cared for. She tried to make a difference in whatever way she could. “How about you, Mr. Jones? Will I be able to help you?”

Stealing another moment of calm, she took a deep breath, hugged one of the pillows to her chest as she set up the extra pillows on the blue pleather recliner near the hospital bed and then turned on her heel to make sure all her other patients were set for the next hour or so. She briefed her nursing aide and then asked nurse Lauren to help out in case one of her patients needed something while she was admitting Mr. Jones. It could take a while, especially if he’s still loopy.

-*-*-*-

It was about twenty minutes later when transport brought him up. She came into the room just in time to assist with transferring him from a gurney onto the hospital bed. She hung the IV bag on the appropriate pole and straightened the lines as best she could. As she turned back to introduce herself, she suddenly froze. Regina had certainly not included this in her report. Killian Jones was hot. Her cheeks flushed, because it was extremely inappropriate to have such thoughts about her patient who is literally putting his life in her hands.

 “Hi, Mr. Jones. My name is Emma Swan. I’m going to be your nurse today. Are you doing okay?” She asked. She wasn’t sure how lucid he was. Could he understand her? Did he know where he was? Did he even know he’d had an accident?

 “I’m doing a lot better than I was five minutes ago, that’s for sure.” He said in a low, husky voice with an unmistakeable lilt. Of fucking course he’s British. Of fucking course. Like he doesn’t have enough strikes in the hot column.


“That’s good to hear! And why’s that?”

 “You’re absolutely bloody beautiful.  We’re going to get married!” He replied in a slurred sing song voice. Her face immediately turned red and a few of the other staff members snickered under their breath. He continued muttering about nuptials and their supposed wedding.


“Looks like you’ve still got some of that anesthesia in your system.” She joked half heartedly. She didn’t want to take advantage of his altered state and humiliate him like she’d seen done in some viral videos. But she also didn’t want to freak him out , so she kept a pleasant smile on her face as she went about the admitting process.


“No, I’ve not.“ He argued a little louder than he’d probably intended. "You are a bloody marvel. So gorgeous. Are you an angel?” His eyes seemed to bug out a little as she heard the slur coming into his voice.


“Oh, you’re sweet. I bet you say that to all the nurses.” She remarked. One of the nursing assistants from PACU huffed.


“Not really, but he’s got a lot of pirate lore to tell of.” the woman said. Emma was thankful for the distraction.


“Pirate lore? Are you a pirate then?” She smiled.

“Aye. I’m the most fearsome pirate to ever sail the seas.” He said, giving her a ‘no duh’ expression.


“Hmm. What’s your pirate name?” She asked thoughtfully, tapping her finger on her chin.


“I reckon I’d make a good Captain Hook” He smiled.

 “No curly mustache or perms though? Interesting choice, Hook.” She teased. She vaguely thought about the implications of her patient comparing himself to a one handed pirate while being treated for a quite similar hand injury. She didn’t want to touch that one with a ten foot pole. Maybe when he was lucid, she could get him to open up and explore those feelings, but certainly not at this point.


“Still devilishly handsome, love.” He tried to wink at her, but ended up squinting both eyes. “Betcha don’t know ’m really good with a sword” he seemed to be trying to make an innuendo, gesticulating wildly with his uninjured hand, but whatever allure he might have was overshadowed by how hilarious it was when a grown man is when put under heavy anesthesia. He was cute, she caught herself thinking.


“Haha, well okay, Captain Hook. Let’s say goodbye to our friends so we can start getting you all checked in, okay?” She laughed, waving the other people off.


“Finally, lass. It’s about time.” He slurred as he reached down to his shirt for buttons that weren’t there. “Argh, what the devil is going on?” He asked as he kept violently grasping at the front of his gown as if buttons would magically appear.


“You’re in a hospital gown.” She explained helpfully. “Do you know you’re in the hospital?”


“Are you quite sure I’m not in heaven?” he quirked an eyebrow and scratched behind his ear.


“Hook, you’ve got to help me here. Do you know where you are?” She made a point to enunciate very clearly.


“I’m in a hospital” He said quietly.


“That’s right. Do you know who I am?”


“You’re a nurse. Emma.” He replied, saying her name like he was tasting it. It was unfamiliar on his lips. He smacked his lips on the second syllable. He repeated the smacking syllable a few times, apparently amused with the sensation. She tried not to laugh.


“That’s me. Do you know your name?”


“Killian Jones.”


“Do you know what day it is?” She asked as she began her series of questions. She asked about pain and he’d reported a three, due to the heavy dose of hydrocodone he was on. He answered all of her questions correctly for the most part. She took her penlight and examined his (very blue) eyes, mouth, nose and ears finding nothing really amiss. She was, however, quite impressed by his oral hygiene.

 “Okay, Mr. Jones” She paused. His face scrunched up. “What? What is it?”


“You should call me Killian. Killian’s fine.” He said. “I don’t really like being called by my surname”


“Oh, okay sure. Killian, I need to listen to your heart, lungs, and abdomen, okay? So I’m going to need to uncover some of your skin. But this is a private room and I’m going to respect your privacy, okay? Is that alright?” She pulled at the red stethoscope she’d draped over her shoulders.

 “Love, if you wanted me to defrock, all you had to do was ask.” He grinned. “I’m more than willing to oblige.”

 She shot him a stern look then placed her stethoscope earpieces in her ears and placed the cool metal diaphragm on his chest carefully listening, then moving onto the next place trying to ignore the sensation of running her fingers through his chest hair,

 “Sounds good. Can you roll over onto your side for me?” She ran her fingers down his toned back and placed a thumb on each side of his spine at the base of the lungs. He shivered a little at her touch. “Sorry about the cold hands. Take a deep breath for me?” He breathed in and she felt her thumbs move just a little in each direction. “Good job, go ahead and roll back over.” She looked and listened to his abdomen to see if the anesthesia had worn off enough to hear anything yet. “Killian, I’m going to touch your abdomen, is that okay? You tell me if it hurts”


“I don’t mind one bit love, don’t be afraid to you know, really get into it.” She snorted at that and pressed down on each of the quadrants of his abdomen, not feeling anything of concern. Other than some very impressive definition in his abs. She mentally shushed this part of her that seemed to be cataloguing his attributes. She was a professional, dammit.


“You’re doing a really great job, Killian. I’m almost done.” She encouraged him.


“No rush, Swan.”


“Tell that to the other patients.” She said as she checked pulses. She inspected his injury site closer, noting the weak, but present radial pulse. His skin was a soft pink color juxtaposed to the rest of his really very tan body. He sutures were well approximated and only leaking very little fluid. She wrapped him back up and went back to the hand. Careful not to move it too much, she pinched the skin of the back of his hand and pressed down on the tips of his fingers. They blanched for a few seconds and then turned pink again. She breathed a silent exhale of relief. That was what she wanted. Blood flow. She grabbed his hand and held it for a moment to assess its warmth.


“Holding hands already and we haven’t even had a first date. I’d say it’s going remarkably well.” He smirked in an irritatingly cute way.


She dropped his hand, deciding it was plenty warm. “Oh? I thought we were getting married? Don’t tell me you’re getting cold feet now” He flushed a little in the tips of his ears.


“Offer’s'not off the the table” He grinned. His slurring running the words together in a strangely child like way.


“Alright let’s get you some of these extra pillows for your arm.” She said as she gently lifted his arm and placed the pillows under it. “Make sure you leave this elevated, okay? It’ll help you heal faster.”


“Aye aye.” He nodded.

 “Alright Hook, I’m going to get some heparin for you, but do you think you need anything else?”


“Just maybe some pants please? It’s not exactly comfortable in this bloody gown.” He asked politely in a small voice. His blue eyes looking innocent and so kind. Honestly, if he kept looking at her like this lost little boy, she would do literally anything for him. He was a grown man. A very attractive grown man, her mind instantly corrected her. She resented herself for that thought yet again. It wasn’t often that she felt that kind of immediate connection with someone, let alone a patient.

She thought of the clothes pantry in the break room. She’d discovered it after one too many coffee spills. It consisted of donated scrub tops and bottoms for men and women, free to take.

 “No problem.” She smiled warmly.


She walked out of his room and into the break room to get his things. Taking a moment to breathe deeply, she pondered how completely fucked she was.

Chapter Two


@myurbandream since you said you had a need of some warm fluffy quiobi tonight - here’s a half-baked excerpt from the monstrosity au that I haven’t actually even named yet. 

@deadcatwithaflamethrower@punsbulletsandpointythings, @lilyrose225writes@obaewankenope - this is the fluff I promised people like 20 years ago, that went and engulfed the SifoDooku piece because asshole fic couldn’t stand to be so fluffy all by its lonesome. This is where it all began. gfdi. 



The plan was simple: sneak a group of fighters and gunships onto the moon orbiting the blockaded planet Sett, concentrate the main attack on the blockade ships, then send in the second wave out from the hiding place carrying supplies to the planet and sending fighters to back up the main attack.

Deceptively simple: in order to somehow land fighters and supplies, then lie in wait, Generals Kenobi and Jinn had been forced to make the approach over the course of several days, from a distance at which they would have been undetected. They’d flown through an asteroid belt holding course to keep the moon between them and the Separatist scouts who patrolled the blockade lines consistently. Whatever was going on on the surface of the planet below, it must have been quite precious to them - a new weapon or droid factory, perhaps.

Once they’d landed, their troubles were still far from over. It was a lucky thing the moon had been the planet’s main supplier of fuel over the years - neither the gunships nor the starfighters had been meant for the sort of journey they’d made. And Sett’s moon was cold as the worst months of Hoth, for good measure.

General Jinn slowly unfolded his large frame, lifting himself out of the cramped starfighter. But it was cold, and the frigid air was not encouraging his efforts. The wind made it still worse. He could just barely make out the distant shapes of - presumably - General Kenobi and a handful of men from the 212th, standing by an outcropping that blocked the fierce gusts, and trudged over in their direction at Cody’s all-clear signal.

By the time he could see them, his eyes were drawn automatically to Obi-Wan, who must have been waiting to speak with the local clan leader. He was shifting from foot to foot, and though he was certainly dressed for the cold, all those wrappings didn’t seem to be doing the trick. It wasn’t quite as windy here behind the rockface, but the air still stung when it shifted even the slightest bit.

“Ah, Qui-Gon,” Obi-Wan smiled, cheeks cold-flushed and snowflakes silvering his beard. “The Shirzai Clan sent word ahead. They apologise for the delay, but they weren’t expecting us for another day or so.”

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Shadowhunter Spoiler Saturday #2

Shadowhunters in Shadowhunters

YES YOU READ RIGHT! HERE BE MAJOR SPOILERS!

The spoilers in this post come straight from different drafts of Shadowhunters scripts.

Same as last week with everything, guys! THESE CAN BE MAJOR SPOILERS SO PLEASE STICK TO THE SAME RULES!

The ground rules are:

1.) Don’t you dare spoil someone who has specifically told you not to spoil it for them.

2.) TAG YOUR SPOILERS.

3.) Unless someone has given you express permission to spoil this for them, DO NOT SPOIL IT!

4.) Make sure, if you share this, YOU LET ANYONE WHO COULD BE READING IT THROUGH YOUR PAGE KNOW THAT SHADOWHUTNERS SPOILERS ARE ABOUNDING IN THIS POST! ALWAYS POST SPOILER WARNINGS!

5.) Respect other people’s opinions. This is mostly for fan sites to know what to look forward to. This is not a post to bash the writers on. I believe they are treating the source material very fairly, and so I don’t accept hate here. You want to complain, go somewhere else and don’t tag either myself or ShadowhunterChat in your hate mail. They are your opinions, and you have a right to them of course. But don’t think that you having an opinion is more important than other people’s self-confidence, opinions, beliefs, etc. TREAT EACH OTHER RESPECTFULLY! And that not only goes for each other in this fandom. Treat the writers, directors, actors, author, every single person in Shadowhunters with the utmost respect. They don’t owe us anything, and none of them had to bring this series back after the movie flopped. Keep that in mind when you are whining over the tiny details that didn’t make it into the show.

TAG YOUR SPOILERS

That is all. Continue at your own risk. There will be another notification at the point of no return later in the post.

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@furaitsu has fucked me over with their saigenos fanart featuring Saitama the Egg Construction Worker.

(This is probably never gonna be updated until the end of April, but we can all be hopeful, right? Right.)

UNDER CONSTRUCTION– 01/02
One Punch Man Canon-Divergent AU
In another universe, an egg becomes a construction worker and a toaster does not become THE toaster. But the toaster does admire the egg.

x-posted at AO3 here.

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libutron  asked:

What would be the explanation for the absence of pythons in Madagascar?

This is a fantastic question, and one that is rather contentious, and takes quite a lot of answering. So I’m sorry this has taken weeks to put together, but here is the extremely long answer to the question:

Until recently, it was believed that mainland Africa had only pythons and a single group of boas (sandboas, genus Eryx), while the rest of the boas boas were restricted to the Americas and Madagascar.

Madagascar’s large constricting snakes were assigned in their early descriptions to the Boidae. Indeed, so alike are Madagascar’s boas to those of the Americas that it misled phylogenetic reconstructions of them:

In 1991, based solely on morphological characters (molecular phylogenetics was in its infancy), Kluge found Acrantophis and Sanzinia to be sister to the South American genus Boa. And so he synonymised them, transferring the Malagasy boas to the South American genus, thus rendering a genus Boa with the following members: Boa constrictor (and subspecies thereof), B. madagascariensis, B. dumerili, and B. manditra - Sanzinia madagascariensis obviously couldn’t become Boa madagascariensis, because Acrantophis madagascariensis had already taken that name, so he erected a new name for this species.

As it turns out, moving Madagascar’s boas to the genus Boa was a huge mistake. But Madagascar’s boas are boas (Family Boidae: Subfamily Sanziniinae), they just don’t belong in the genus Boa. A phylogeny produced by Noonan & Chippindale (2006a) showed that the genus Boa belongs to a neotropical clade, together with Epicrates, Eunectes, and Corallus. These are closest related to a group containing Afro-Indian Eryx plus Candoia from Papua New Guinea. These together are then related to the North and Central American boas (Exiliboa+Lichanura+Charina). Finally, sister to this whole group of New World+Australiasian boas is a clade containing Calabaria, Acrantophis, and Sanzinia. This whole group is formalised as Boidae, and is sister to the Pythonidae in the Noonan & Chippindale phylogeny.

Until this point, Calabaria were thought to be allied to pythons and not to boas, but the molecular work of this and subsequent studies showed that to be quite incorrect. So boom, another group of boas is present in Africa. Woo.

All subsequent phylogenies (and several earlier ones that I can’t be bothered to go find) have supported this view that Madagascar’s boas belong in their own genera (Sanzinia and Acrantophis), and yet still Wikipedia would have you believe that they are in Boa. I will fix this in the next few weeks, but in the mean time, ignore it. Focus on my argument here.

In light of more complete taxonomic and genetic sampling by Pyron et al. (2013), it was shown that boas and pythons aren’t even sister groups (which we knew before, but never with quite such nice resolution and such high taxon sampling). Rather Boidae+Calabaridae are sister to a group containing Anomochilidae+Cylindrophiidae+Uropeltidae+Xenopeltidae+Loxocemidae+Pythonidae. Together, these two clades comprise the superfamily Henophidia (ancient snakes), which is paraphyletic with regards to all other snakes except the blind snakes, but shh we can ignore that for now.

Anyway, the important thing is that both of these reports (Noonan & Chippindale 2006a and Pyron et al. 2013) agree on one key point: Madagascar’s boas are unequivocally the oldest radiation of boas.

How, then, did Madagascar’s boas get to Madagascar? Well, Noonan & Chippindale (2006a, 2006b) suggested a vicariant origin; that they were in Madagascar when it broke off from Gondwana as it split. This vicariant origin is further supported by the rapid diversification in deep branches in the boids (Noonan & Chippindale 2006a).

However, the age of the African clade (Calabaria+Acrantophis+Sanzinia) suggested by Noonan & Chippindale (2006a, 2006b) is 30 million years after Madagascar lost contact with Antarctica, and through Antartica, South America; and 11 million years after Madagascar lost contact with India and became isolated (Samonds et al. 2013). It would be prudent therefore to interpret this as either incorrect inferrence by Noonan & Chippindale in both papers, or indication of oceanic dispersal. I lean towards the results of Noonan & Chippindale being wrong because of the way they calculated their clade ages (poor outgroup choice with an incorrect date).

After the split from Africa, Madagascar maintained connection with India and, through a land bridge connecting to Antarctica, was connected to South America, and could continue to exchange species with it for at least a few million years (Noonan & Chippindale 2006a; Samonds et al. 2013). This left Madagascar with its own boas, one of which apparently dispersed to Africa to give rise to Calabaria. Not until much later did Madagascar’s modern boa genera arise on the island.

Today, most authors (e.g. Pyron et al. 2013; Reynolds et al. 2014) tend to assume that Calabaria, which is a troublesome group, genetically, is actually basal to all boas, and do not include it in the true boas. They do not, however ,make any comment on the implications of this, in terms of origins.

Bizarrely, the Round Island Boa (Casarea dussumieri) is not related to those of Madagascar at all (Round Island is very close to Madagascar - just north of Mauritius), but is instead most closely related to a Malaysian lineage, and only distantly related to other constrictors at all (Reynolds et al. 2014). How it fits into this picture is very unclear.

The implication then is that pythons and boas split long before Madagascar broke off from Africa. Very recent (read: not yet physically published but available online) research by Reynolds et al. (2014) has suggested an origin for the modern pythons in what is today northern Africa, whence they then spread south, north, and east. The boas, on the other hand, are suggested to have arisen in southern Gondwana by some authors (Reynolds et al. 2014) and Asia by others (Noonan & Sites 2010).

But the problem is that Reynolds et al. (2014), and indeed all authors working on the relationships of the Henophidian snakes, have not attempted to figure out where and when the other families arose. Thus, we have no idea where the ancestors were at the time of the split of Gondwana. All we can postulate is that Madagascar had boas when it split off (perhaps getting them after Africa was isolated from the rest of Gondwana via land bridges to Antarctica+South America; Samonds et al. 2013), while pythons were further up in Africa somewhere. Then, when pythons radiated down into Africa, they didn’t make it across to Madagascar - or if they did, they went extinct soon afterwards.

tl;dr: Nobody knows for sure. Nobody has really even tried to find out. Probably because it’s not a very interesting question (relatively speaking).

References:

Kluge, A. G. (1991) ‘Boine snake phylogeny and research cycles’ Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 178:1-58

Noonan, B. P. & P T. Chippindale (2006a) ‘Dispersal and vicariance: The complex evolutionary history of boid snakes’ Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:347-358

Noonan, B. P. & P T. Chippindale (2006b) ‘Vicariant Origin of Malagasy Reptiles Supports Late Cretaceous Antarctic Land Bridge’ The American Naturalist 168(6):730-741

Noonan, B. P. & J. W. Sites Jr. (2010) ‘Tracing the origins of iguanid lizards and boine snakes of the Pacific’ The American Naturalist 175(1):61-72

Pyron, R. A., F. T. Burbrink & J. J. Wiens (2013) ‘A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes’ BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:93

Reynolds, R. G., M. L. Niemiller & L. J. Revell (2014) ‘Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling’ Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71:201-213

Samonds, K. E., L. R. Godfrey, J. R. Ali, S. M. Goodman, M. Vences, M. R. Sutherland, M. T. Irwin & D. W. Krause (2013) ‘Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar’s extant vertebrate fauna’ PLoS One 8(4):e62086