not guilty by reason of insanity

Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI)

Less than 1 in 500 defendants enter a plea of NGRI, and over 90% of defendants that do enter this plea are found guilty. When a defendant is found NGRI they are not released back into society. Rather, he or she is sent to a specialised forensic hospital for a designated period of time. Depending on the offence, this can actually be longer than the sentence would have been if the person was found guilty and incarcerated. As with competency, being unable to understand the nature and consequences of the offence is not an easy threshold to reach. The defendant must be unduly impaired. In most cases these individuals are so out of contact with reality that they were not aware that they had committed a crime or that what they were doing was wrong. Those found NGRI, for this reason, usually have extensive histories of mental illness.

Let’s face it, we bookworms tend to put a lot of pressure on ourselves, when it comes to our reading, because we’re weird like that, but in a good way. And, the truth is that reading should always be fun. Guilt free. ALL THE FUN SO MUCH OF THE FUN BECAUSE WORDS ON PAGES *insert screech* You know what I’m talking about. So I thought that compiling a list of the reasons that bookworms feel guilty and why they should just stop would be a great idea

  1. Not reaching our Goodreads challenge/lowering our goal for the year

In the past few years, the Goodreads challenge has become a staple of measuring achievement when it comes to reading. It has become insanely popular and it’s honestly such a good tool to keep track of everything you’re reading. But it also adds an immense amount of pressure. I’ve been there. When December rolls around and you see that you’re to the Goodreads challenge what Pluto is to being a planet in the Solar System (a.k.a. not even close; also VIVA LA PLUTO because Pluto deserved better smh), the panic sets in. You’re left with two options: lowering your goal or not finishing the challenge. Both make you feel like crap. But honestly, life makes us feel like crap far too many times, thank you very much, so let’s not let reading add to the ever growing pile of crap, am I right?

There’s no reason to feel guilty. If you read one book that year, you’re still a bookworm and it’s still a HUGE achievement. It doesn’t matter if you didn’t reach your challenge. It’s just a stupid tracking tool on the internet, it’s not something to measure your worth as a reader or as a person. You’re still awesome, even if you read just a page. Even one page counts. We’re busy, school and work get in the way 99% of the times. Unexpected life events occur. Shit happens. It’s normal and it’s expected, because life is fun and all that jazz.

Also, may I suggest a great idea: set your goal to one book for the year. Boom! Pressure off. You’ll still be able to see what books you read, how many pages and all that jazz, with the bonus that you don’t feel like hyperventilating every time you open your Goodreads account

  2. Not finishing books (the dreaded DNF)

Let me tell you something right off the bat: life is too short to waste on books that you’re not enjoying. Yes, I know, if you’re like me, you die a little on the inside every time you are at that point where you want to scream at the book you’re reading: BUT WHY ARE YOU NOT GOOD WHY IS THIS HAPPENING TO ME WHO DID I OFFEND IN A PREVIOUS LIFE FML FML. It’s a reality. But let’s face it: you’re not going to enjoy every single book you pick up. It’s just not written in the stars. Which is why it’s perfectly acceptable to just…stop reading it. Put it down. Hug a kitten. Contemplate the universe. Leave it be. Maybe pick it up at a later time, maybe not. But don’t feel guilty. You didn’t disappoint the book, yourself, the book gods or literature as a whole. It just wasn’t meant to be and you should never force yourself to read a book you’re not enjoying. In my case, every time I force myself to keep going with a book I’m not enjoying, I tent to end up in The-Thing-That-Should-Not-Be-Named a.k.a. the Book Slump™. Just…no.

  3. Not reading classics

80% of the classics I’ve read have bored me to tears. I mean. I want me some dragons, magic and lost princesses. There are no such things in most classics (a huge oversight on the part of the writers, but I’m not pointing fingers). I’ve stumbled upon some that I really enjoyed, but too few to really make me actively pursue reading classics. The trouble is that a lot of people cringe so badly when you tell them that you don’t read classics.

“So yeah, I don’t really read or like classics”
“Um, I just..don’t really enjoy them/relate to the stories/want to live while I’m reading them”

Whenever people react like this, it puts me off reading classics even more, because I hate judgy people. But I digress. My point is, the amount of classics that you read or don’t read doesn’t indicate how “good” of a reader you are (fyi, there are no good or bad readers imo). It’s just indicative of the genres you enjoy reading. That is all. People who read classics aren’t THE BEST BOOKWORMS™. They’re just people. Like you.

  4. Rereading books

I will shout this from the rooftops: I LOVE REREADING BOOKS. It’s something so refreshing and comfortable to go back to a book universe you fell in love with. To revisit favourite characters and go on adventures with them again. I reread at least a few books every year. Last year, I actively tried to reread at least one book each month. It was so much fun!

Rereading books can get you out of The Slump™. Rereading books is an excellent alternative for when you can’t afford to buy new books because stupid life costs money booooo. Rereading can be so insightful, because you notice so many things you missed on your first (or second, or third or…you get my drift) read. Rereading can be a whole new experience years after reading that book for the first time. Rereading a certain book can be the best for you at a certain time, because everything is familiar and safe. Rereading is absolutely no reason to feel guilty – people usually say they’re wasting time when they’re rereading (um, no), missing out on new releases (they’ll still be there a week later when you finish rereading your favourite book thank you very much), they fear not liking it as much the second time around (fine, I’ll give you this, it’s a possibility, BUT I ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE). Long story short: reread more books 2k17.

  5. Neglecting books because life

We’re bookworms, yes. But we’re also People Who Need To Live and Function in Society. What does this mean? That we sometimes don’t have that much time to read (I know, it’s just so rude). Days may pass when we don’t read at all. Weeks. Sometimes months. Years? (all my college years were spent reading almost academic books exclusively; it was a dark time in my life). But that’s okay. There’s no reason to feel guilty for doing our best to live out lives. Doing that sometimes implies giving up certain things, because we simply don’t have the time or energy to do them. That doesn’t make us bad people or bad readers. Your books will still be waiting for you when you have the time to devote them your full attention. Books don’t judge.

Surprisingly or not, this is just part one. I have many feelings about this particular topic, because I really really want people to read books guilt free. And live the bookworm life to the fullest

I’d love to hear your thoughts on these points. And if there was ever a time you felt guilty for something book related

Happy reading, bookish people <3


Common misconceptions about the "Insanity Defense"

The “Insanity Defense” is the common term for the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity plea/defense/verdict, abbreviated NGRI. 

Assumption: It happens all the time!

Fact: It only seems to happen often because high-profile NGRI cases are widely publicized. The actual number is much, much lower. A study conducted in Wyoming in 1981 found that people assumed the NGRI plea was used in half of all criminal cases and that it was successful in 20% of those cases. In reality, the plea was only entered by 102 of 22,102 felony defendants (roughly 0.5%) over a one-year period and was successful in only one case out of those 102 (roughly 0.00045% of total cases). Furthermore, a survey of the use of the insanity defense in eight states between 1976 and 1985 found that while the general public assumed the NGRI defense was used in 37% of cases, the actual rate was only 0.9%.

Assumption: Criminals found NGRI are immediately released back into the public!

Fact: Defendants found NGRI are remanded into secure psychiatric facilities to receive treatment, often for periods that are longer than incarceration in jail would have been for their crime. Steadman (1993) found that the average time of incarceration in secure psychiatric facilities for NGRI defendants in New York was 28.7 months. However, this data does not reflect all NGRI defendants, as the data was only available for patients that had been found NGRI and released; it did not account for defendants that were found NGRI and were still undergoing psychiatric treatment.

Assumption: The NGRI defense is only for rich people!

Fact: This assumption is probably related to the case of John Hinckley, the man who attempted to assassinate Ronald Reagan and was found NGRI. Hinckley’s family was extremely wealthy and paid tens of thousands of dollars for Hinckley to be evaluated by psychologists and psychiatrists. Because the case was so highly publicized, it became public opinion that it’s only for the rich. In actuality, the court must provide financial assistance and/or the means for psychological/psychiatric evaluation in the event that a defendant wishes to plead NGRI but does not have the financial means to undergo testing.

It is also important to note that NGRI is not necessarily related to competency to stand trial. Incompentency to Stand Trial (IST) is concerned with the defendants mental faculties and capabilities to understand legal proceedings at the time of the trial. NGRI is concerned with mental faculties and the ability to understand the criminality/wrongfulness of one’s actions at the time of the crime.

(All statistics found in Chapter 8 of Psychology and the Legal System: Seventh Edition by Edie Greene and Kirk Heilburn.)

This Day in True Crime

9 February: mass murder in Wellington, NZ

On 9 February 1997, Stephen Lawrence Anderson (pictured above), a 34-year-old former psychiatric patient, shot and killed six of his family members with a 12-gauge shotgun at a family reunion following an argument with a relative. He was arrested on the same day, but during his trial, he was found not guilty by reason of insanity. In lieu of imprisonment in a penitentiary, Anderson was instead detained to a psychiatric hospital indefinitely.


A Bail Hearing is for individuals who have been arrested and accused of a crime. When a person has been accused of a crime and is detained, the police have 72 hours to present their case to a judge and formally charge the person with the crime, or they must release that person. If they have evidence to proceed with charges, they can book an accused person into jail, where the accused will wait for arraignment. Arraignment is the first step in their case, where they plead guilty, not guilty, or begin the process of pleading not guilty by reason of insanity. If the plea will result in a trial, the judge must make a decision about where the defendant lives while their trial is taking place. Bail is money or property that is pledged towards the court on behalf of the accused through their own resources, their family members, or a bail bondsman in exchange for their release while their trial is in process instead of being locked up in jail. Bail is intended as a measure to ensure that the accused will appear in court after they are released from custody. The amount of bail that a prosecutor can request depends on the crime they are charging a person with. That amount can be paid in cash, or it can be pledged in the form of resources such as property, houses or cars. If the court accepts these items as bail, and the accused becomes a fugitive, the court seizes the property. If the defendant appears in court and obeys the terms and conditions of their bail agreement, the person who posted bail will get their money back when the person is found not guilty or charges are dismissed. In some states, bail money is returned even if the defendant is found guilty, as long as they abided by the terms of bail.  If the accused cannot pay the bail amount, or their families cannot, they remain in jail custody until they are convicted, plead guilty or are released. If the case is very serious, the judge may hold the accused without bail, and the accused will remain in jail custody during their trial

In 1986, Dr. Dorothy Otnow Lewis, a psychiatrist and expert on violent behavior, interviewed Ted Bundy four times per the request of his defense lawyers. These interviews were conducted in an effort to overturn his conviction by determining whether Ted had been mentally competent to stand trial in the Leach case or not. Dr. Lewis also interviewed Ted’s mother, his aunts, and some other family members who remembered Ted as a toddler while he and his mother still lived in Philadelphia. On January 23, 1989, the day before Ted’s execution, Dr. Lewis visited with him for more than four hours. Lewis later wrote in her book, Guilty by Reason of Insanity, that as she left the interview room “he bent down and kissed me on the cheek. With that I put my arms around his neck and kissed him on the cheek exactly as he had kissed me. And that is how I became the last woman to kiss Ted Bundy.”


An extremely rare letter and envelope set from Andrea Yates.  This is part of my personal collection.  In 2001, Yates drowned all 5 of her children in the bathtub.  Initially she was sentenced to life in prison.  However, during her retrial she was found not guilty by reason of insanity and moved to a psychiatric hospital.  In the above letter, she mentions her husband (the father of her children) still visiting her often.

“That day I went back to that apartment, it was like some kind of mystical experience. It was all quiet and still and hot in there. You could smell the dried blood. Particles of dust just seemed to hover in the air. I looked at the place where Jessie had fallen and died, and I got this kind of tingly feeling… Then my father told me to look in her pocket book for the jewelry my cousin wanted, and I dumped Jessie’s pocketbook on the bed and looked through her things. It gave me the weirdest feeling. I mean, I knew her, and these were her things, and she was dead. Murdered. Gone. And I was touching her things” -Richard Ramirez explaining how it felt like returning to the apartment his cousin Mike Ramirez had shared with his wife Jessie following her death. After getting into an argument with Jessie, Mike had taken a .38 caliber revolver and shot her in the face. He was deemed not guilty due to reason of insanity. Richard was present at the time of the murder. 


Dr. Kathleen Hagen was a medical professional who killed her parents by asphyxiating them, using a plastic bag and a pillow to smother them as they slept. She had returned to her parents home in order to care for them as their health began to deteriorate with age, but soon the chronic depression that she had been a long term sufferer of began to deepen with the added stress of her parents chronic illness.

Hagen began to experience what are known as ‘command hallucinations’ along with delusions of reference. Command hallucinations are auditory hallucinations that consist of a voice commanding the individual to carry out specific instructions. In this case it was a male voice commanding Hagen to kill her parents in order for the three of them to achieve the happiness that she had so long hoped for.

As a result of these symptoms psychiatrists assessing her for the trial agreed that she was psychotic at the time the crimes took place. The judge determined that she was not guilty by reason of insanity and instead of being sent prison was sent to a state mental health institution for an unspecified period of time.

On February 22nd 2001, 26 year old Donta Page was sentenced for the 1999 rape and murder of Peyton Tuthill in Denver, despite pleading not guilty by reason of insanity. His lawyers argued that he had been left brain damaged as a result of beatings from his mother growing up.

Raised in a horrible environment by a family with a history of mental illnesses, Page had been neglected and physically and sexually abused. At 9 months old, he was thrown from a car window and suffered multiple head injuries which had long term effects lasting throughout his childhood. He was referred for psychological care 19 times, but never once received a treatment session.

Adrian Raine, an expert witness in the case, has revealed that Page’s brain scans revealed he had a noticeable lack of activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex- the area which helps regulate our emotions and control our impulses- compared to a normal brain’s controls. It was this key bio-social point, (that brain activity and the tendencies of a human being can be greatly influenced by environmental factors), which was taken into account and caused a three-judge panel to hand down a life sentence rather than the death penalty.

escaily  asked:

Honestly I only ship reylo for the sin, I mean if you can't have at least one guilty pleasure ship that you crave EXACTLY because it's the worst thing to ever happen to a fandom then what's your inner darkness supposed to do? Ship 3cp0/r2d2?. At this point I don't even bother denying the fact that I ship some screwed up, insane and messed up pairings. (With a side of fluff)

Reylo is the embodiment of sin for me, although I do ship them for many reasons. You are right, they do satisfy that inner dark craving. This is exactly why the Reylo Sin Anthology was created, to celebrate Reyo sin. I hope you continue diving in the Reylo Sin bin with us! Of course with a side of fluff for good measure!


Sheila LaBarre was a multiple murderer who killed two of her boyfriends by beating them to death, before scattering their remains across her New Hampshire farm. While LaBarre admitted to the murders she pled not guilty by reason of insanity. The defences argument was that LaBarre had a psychotic obsession with pedophiles, and that she was operating under the delusion that every man she met was a pedophile, which was why she murdered her two boyfriends. The prosecution, however, argued that she was manipulative, cruel and vindictive, and completely sane.

After a psychological assessment, which found that LaBarre did indeed have a preoccupation and obsession with pedophilia, along with serious anger issues and a high likelihood of a personality disorder, the psychiatrist could not link a mental illness to the cause of her crime. In the end she was determined to be sane, and was given two life sentences in 2008

Experiment number 4~ Baekhyun

Paring: reader x Baekhyun
Description: You are a scientist for the government and you’ve been asked to test a dangerous experiment .

It was the year 2045 and the world has taken a turn for the worst. You were a scientist working for the government and your base was located one the outskirts of California in the middle of the humid dessert. You always loved your job, you loved doing experiments and taking risks. However, there was one experiment you were scared of and that was experiment number 4.

Experiment number 4 was a man who first started out as a known serial killer when police had evidence that he’s been murdering women all over Asia. His body count was over 50 and people wondered how he wasn’t caught sooner, police thought he must’ve left a trace but they never found one. He was only caught when an old women saw him eating a dead body and took video of it.

At his trail the judge proved him guilty on reasons of insanity. While he was at the the asylum patients and doctors have reported him doing strange activity when he had incredible strength, speed, and vision like no other. Rumor has it that he has the power to control light.

Few days prior you had a meeting with your boss which resulted in your boss demanding you conduct an experiment on number 4. You cried and begged but your boss wouldn’t budge. All your Co workers were scared of him and you were the best in the whole base.

Today was the day you start the experiment, the only thing that your boss gave you was a sheet of information for experiment number 4. The only thing on the sheet was his name and all the crimes he did.

You walked in the room and saw him looking out the window, you grabbed a chair and sat it in front of him.
“Hi baekhyun I’m Dr. (Y/l/N), I will be doing an experiment on you”.
Baekhyun just looked at you and smirked and turned back to the window. You instantly felt scared and pulled on your tight dress and lab coat trying to release the anxiety within .
You stood up from your chair and walked to a table which had all the supplies needed.

“Um okay baekhyun I need to test your blood Mass first so if
You would be so kind as t-”
You were cut off when baekhyun backed you up against the wall. He put both hands of the side of your head and dipped his head down to your neck. You felt his breath on your neck and felt his lips gently kissed the skin.

“You smell very lovely Dr (Y/L/N)”
“It’s just (Y/N) call me (y/N)
He said your name back slowly his voice getting deeper with lust. His eyes changed to a light purple and you felt scared. You tried to cover yourself as much as possible and avoided all eye contact.
"Your scared of me aren’t you”
You didn’t respond
“I can smell the fear off you baby girl, you’ve must have the rumors”
“ your a monster ” you said confidently
“Why did you kill all those women?”
He chuckled darkly and and cupped your face
“Oh jagi , I never killed anyone. Where are you getting these silly rumors from?”
You again didn’t respond and looked down biting your lip
“You know when I first came to this base, I was kinda scared of what they would do to me, every scientist that came in here were scared and never bother to look at me. And that’s when I saw you. Your so beautiful and precious, it made me wonder what your in here for. And then I saw you wearing a lab coat and I vowed to stay away thinking you were like them. But seeing those tight dresses on you, the way they capture your curves, it made me want you more”

“You like me?”
He chuckled darkly once more and nodded his head smirking.
“ tomorrow I’m planning on busting out of here. But I’m not leaving until I get what I want. ”
“I’m so hungry jagi, feed me please”
You didn’t know what he meant and your innocence got the best of you when you pulled out a protein bar from your coat pocket and handed it to him. His eyes turned a dark purple and he slapped the bar from your hand
“That’s not what I’m hungry for”
He roughly put his lips on yours and took your lab coat off, all in motion. You wanted to pull away but you couldn’t , hell you didn’t want to. Your body was on fire and every touch made your shiver in pleasure. He put both hands on your ass making you wrap your legs around his waist. He carried you and put you on the end of the experiment table. He lifted your dress up ripped your panties off. He kissed and suckered the inside of your thighs. You tried to hold back a moan but he bit your thigh.
“Jagi these rooms are sound proof, don’t hold back”
You nodded and moan. He kissed the center of you slit and your body shivered as your grabbed his hair. He licked every inch of your slit leaving nothing untouched. You then felt his thick lips around your clit as he was sucking hard,without mercy. Your back arched
“Uhhhhh baekhyun ”
He sucked harder and put a finger in your entrance, fingering your pussy viciously. You gasped and and groaned
“Uhhhhh fuck!!!!!”
He took his fingers out and replaced them with his tongue. You felt his tongue go deep inside your entrance and swirled around making shapes. You began panting hard and you both laced fingers. He tongue fuck you a couple of times before he began fingering you again. You couldn’t hold it in anymore. You arched your back and moaned. You squirted all over the place as your eyes watered with pleasure.
At the sight of you squirting baekhyun bit his lips and climbed on top if you. As he was biting your neck you flipped him over and began quickly bouncing on his member. He digged his finger nails into your hips which caused you to move faster and swirl your hips around. He growled and thrusted up inside you, meeting your Thrust which caused you to moan louder than you did before. You both came hard. And fell on top of his chest from exhaustion.

“Don’t Leave….. please ”
“After what we just did, I Don’t think I want to jagi”

Christian Nielsen was a mass murderer who killed four people over a period of four days, having shot them before dismembering their bodies using a chainsaw,  a hacksaw and an ax, before burning the remains. Nielsen was unable to offer an explanation for the murders during the trial.

Initially Nielsen entered a plea of Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity. However, when he was assessed by two separate forensic psychologists they both concluded that he did not meet the legal standard for insanity. Instead they stated that he had Schizoid Personality Disorder, which meant he found it difficult to express his emotions and convey remorse, as blunted affect is a hallmark symptom of the disorder.

Nielsen changed his NGRI plea to a guilty plea shortly before the jury selection of his trial, and he was sentenced to life in prison for the crimes. 

“Killing prostitutes had become an obsession with me. I could not stop myself… It was like a drug.“Peter Sutcliffe (dubbed the Yorkshire Ripper), born on June 2, 1946 is an English serial killer who was ultimately convicted of murdering thirteen women in 1981. He claimed that the voice of God himself had sent him to murder various prostitutes. At his trial, he pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity. He is currently serving twenty concurrent sentences of life imprisonment in Broadmoor High Security Hospital.


Images of serial killer Robert Napper as a child with his siblings. Napper earned the name the ‘Plumstead Ripper’ in his adulthood when he raped, murdered and mutilated three victims. The most notable murder he committed occurred in Plumstead, where he stabbed and killed 27 year old Samantha Bissett, before targeting her four year old daughter. The daughter, Jazmine, was sexually assaulted before she was smothered to death.

Napper was arrested and charged for these murders but was convicted only of manslaughter. The reason for this was that Napper was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, as well as being found to have Asperger’s syndrome. This lead to hospitalisation in Broadmoor for an indefinite period of time.


On 24 June 2012 people who lived on 15th floor of an apartment building in the town of Dolgoprudny heard heartbreaking scream of a little boy: “Mom, please, don’t throw me out of window!” It was 7 years old Vova Ryabkov who just witnessed how his 27 years old mother Galina Ryabkoba threw out of a 15th floor window his younger brother, 4 years old Rodion. After throwing both boys to their death Galina calmly went outside and sat on a bench, smoking a cigarette. When bystanders asked what happened, she answered: “Oh, I just threw them out of the window”. Soon the police arrived. Galina Ryabkoba resisted arrest and asked police officers to shoot her. She explained the murderers by saying that she was tired with her sons and they are “angels on heaven now anyway”. Galina Ryabkoba was found not guilty by the reason of insanity and sentenced to compulsory treatment.


Mother Killer Avoided Jail
Isabella Guzman

On the 28th of August 2013 in Colorado, 18 year old Isabella Guzman brutally stabbed her mother Yun Mi Hoy 151 times. After the murder, Isabella ran to clean up at a public bathroom, she claimed she was raped.

It’s claimed Isabella’s behaviour in the weeks before the murder became threatening and violent. Just days before, Guzman spat on her mother and sent her an email saying “you will pay”, this maybe to do with an incident where boys were seen jumping into the family garden, these are believed to be her boyfriends.

In 2014, Isabella Guzman was found guilty by reasons of insanity, and sentenced to a psychiatric ward.


Mass Murderers and Mental Illness.

Souza (2002), in her study of psychopathology and mass murder, found that most mass murderers, unlike serial killers, have a history of mental illness. The most likely diagnoses of mass murderers prior to their killings were schizophrenia (paranoid type), bipolar disorder and/or severe depression. She found that although mass murderers will most likely have a history of both childhood trauma and violent behaviour, most do not have any significant history of institutionalisation. However, most mass murderers were found to have had several major life events that precipitated the murders. Once an offender is charged with multiple murders, the ‘not guilty by reason of insanity’ defence may be used as the defence strategy. However, as far as the criminal courts are concerned, insanity is a legal term and not a psychiatric distinction - therefore a pre-existing diagnosis of mental illness does not necessarily meet the legal criteria for the insanity defence.