not guilty by reason of insanity

Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI)

Less than 1 in 500 defendants enter a plea of NGRI, and over 90% of defendants that do enter this plea are found guilty. When a defendant is found NGRI they are not released back into society. Rather, he or she is sent to a specialised forensic hospital for a designated period of time. Depending on the offence, this can actually be longer than the sentence would have been if the person was found guilty and incarcerated. As with competency, being unable to understand the nature and consequences of the offence is not an easy threshold to reach. The defendant must be unduly impaired. In most cases these individuals are so out of contact with reality that they were not aware that they had committed a crime or that what they were doing was wrong. Those found NGRI, for this reason, usually have extensive histories of mental illness.

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On July 30, 2008, a carnival worker named Tim McLean (22) boarded a Greyhound coach bus bound for Winnipeg to see his mother. Shortly afterwards another man, Weiguang Li (40) boarded the bus and took a seat near where McLean was listening to music on his earphones.

When the bus was nearing Manitoba, Li suddenly brandished a butcher knife and began stabbing McLean in a frenzy. The driver quickly stopped the bus and got the other passengers safely outside, but Li continued to stab McLean in his chest and face, and then decapitated him. Li took the severed head to the window and showed it to the horrified passengers outside. He was also seen eating strips of flesh from McLean’s corpse.

Police were reluctant to enter the bus due to the fact Li was wielding a knife, so they waited until the killer tried to escape - Li was tasered and handcuffed, and was heard screaming “I must stay on the bus forever”. Tim McLean was stabbed over three dozen times,and police later found his tongue, nose, and ears in Li’s trouser pockets. McLean’s eyes and part of his heart were never recovered; Li presumably consumed them.

Li was arrested and charged with McLean’s murder, but at his trial his lawyer claimed Li was mentally unstable and believed he had been acting on God’s commands. The judge accepted this claim and remanded Li to a psychiatric institution.

This is the administrative extension of the original 1892 building of  Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, New York State’s first forensic asylum, in Beacon.  More asylum than prison, Matteawan’s care model was based upon the Moral Treatment principles that were the backbone of the 19th century asylum system as developed by Kirkbride, Dix, Stribling, and others.  However, the asylum was eventually emptied, and patients deemed “not guilty by reason of insanity” in the state are now treated more or less like prisoners.  And ironically, the rest of the sprawling complex in Beacon has now been transformed into a part of the medium-security Fishkill Correctional Facility.  The treatment of violent criminals and the mentally ill in America has merged in more ways than we should be comfortable with.

Let’s face it, we bookworms tend to put a lot of pressure on ourselves, when it comes to our reading, because we’re weird like that, but in a good way. And, the truth is that reading should always be fun. Guilt free. ALL THE FUN SO MUCH OF THE FUN BECAUSE WORDS ON PAGES *insert screech* You know what I’m talking about. So I thought that compiling a list of the reasons that bookworms feel guilty and why they should just stop would be a great idea

  1. Not reaching our Goodreads challenge/lowering our goal for the year

In the past few years, the Goodreads challenge has become a staple of measuring achievement when it comes to reading. It has become insanely popular and it’s honestly such a good tool to keep track of everything you’re reading. But it also adds an immense amount of pressure. I’ve been there. When December rolls around and you see that you’re to the Goodreads challenge what Pluto is to being a planet in the Solar System (a.k.a. not even close; also VIVA LA PLUTO because Pluto deserved better smh), the panic sets in. You’re left with two options: lowering your goal or not finishing the challenge. Both make you feel like crap. But honestly, life makes us feel like crap far too many times, thank you very much, so let’s not let reading add to the ever growing pile of crap, am I right?

There’s no reason to feel guilty. If you read one book that year, you’re still a bookworm and it’s still a HUGE achievement. It doesn’t matter if you didn’t reach your challenge. It’s just a stupid tracking tool on the internet, it’s not something to measure your worth as a reader or as a person. You’re still awesome, even if you read just a page. Even one page counts. We’re busy, school and work get in the way 99% of the times. Unexpected life events occur. Shit happens. It’s normal and it’s expected, because life is fun and all that jazz.

Also, may I suggest a great idea: set your goal to one book for the year. Boom! Pressure off. You’ll still be able to see what books you read, how many pages and all that jazz, with the bonus that you don’t feel like hyperventilating every time you open your Goodreads account

  2. Not finishing books (the dreaded DNF)

Let me tell you something right off the bat: life is too short to waste on books that you’re not enjoying. Yes, I know, if you’re like me, you die a little on the inside every time you are at that point where you want to scream at the book you’re reading: BUT WHY ARE YOU NOT GOOD WHY IS THIS HAPPENING TO ME WHO DID I OFFEND IN A PREVIOUS LIFE FML FML. It’s a reality. But let’s face it: you’re not going to enjoy every single book you pick up. It’s just not written in the stars. Which is why it’s perfectly acceptable to just…stop reading it. Put it down. Hug a kitten. Contemplate the universe. Leave it be. Maybe pick it up at a later time, maybe not. But don’t feel guilty. You didn’t disappoint the book, yourself, the book gods or literature as a whole. It just wasn’t meant to be and you should never force yourself to read a book you’re not enjoying. In my case, every time I force myself to keep going with a book I’m not enjoying, I tent to end up in The-Thing-That-Should-Not-Be-Named a.k.a. the Book Slump™. Just…no.

  3. Not reading classics

80% of the classics I’ve read have bored me to tears. I mean. I want me some dragons, magic and lost princesses. There are no such things in most classics (a huge oversight on the part of the writers, but I’m not pointing fingers). I’ve stumbled upon some that I really enjoyed, but too few to really make me actively pursue reading classics. The trouble is that a lot of people cringe so badly when you tell them that you don’t read classics.

“So yeah, I don’t really read or like classics”
“OMG HOW DARE YOU I AM OFFENDED”
“Um, I just..don’t really enjoy them/relate to the stories/want to live while I’m reading them”
“BLASPHEMY. SACRILEGE. BEGONE HEATHEN. SHAAAAME”

Whenever people react like this, it puts me off reading classics even more, because I hate judgy people. But I digress. My point is, the amount of classics that you read or don’t read doesn’t indicate how “good” of a reader you are (fyi, there are no good or bad readers imo). It’s just indicative of the genres you enjoy reading. That is all. People who read classics aren’t THE BEST BOOKWORMS™. They’re just people. Like you.

  4. Rereading books

I will shout this from the rooftops: I LOVE REREADING BOOKS. It’s something so refreshing and comfortable to go back to a book universe you fell in love with. To revisit favourite characters and go on adventures with them again. I reread at least a few books every year. Last year, I actively tried to reread at least one book each month. It was so much fun!

Rereading books can get you out of The Slump™. Rereading books is an excellent alternative for when you can’t afford to buy new books because stupid life costs money booooo. Rereading can be so insightful, because you notice so many things you missed on your first (or second, or third or…you get my drift) read. Rereading can be a whole new experience years after reading that book for the first time. Rereading a certain book can be the best for you at a certain time, because everything is familiar and safe. Rereading is absolutely no reason to feel guilty – people usually say they’re wasting time when they’re rereading (um, no), missing out on new releases (they’ll still be there a week later when you finish rereading your favourite book thank you very much), they fear not liking it as much the second time around (fine, I’ll give you this, it’s a possibility, BUT I ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE). Long story short: reread more books 2k17.

  5. Neglecting books because life

We’re bookworms, yes. But we’re also People Who Need To Live and Function in Society. What does this mean? That we sometimes don’t have that much time to read (I know, it’s just so rude). Days may pass when we don’t read at all. Weeks. Sometimes months. Years? (all my college years were spent reading almost academic books exclusively; it was a dark time in my life). But that’s okay. There’s no reason to feel guilty for doing our best to live out lives. Doing that sometimes implies giving up certain things, because we simply don’t have the time or energy to do them. That doesn’t make us bad people or bad readers. Your books will still be waiting for you when you have the time to devote them your full attention. Books don’t judge.

Surprisingly or not, this is just part one. I have many feelings about this particular topic, because I really really want people to read books guilt free. And live the bookworm life to the fullest

I’d love to hear your thoughts on these points. And if there was ever a time you felt guilty for something book related

Happy reading, bookish people <3

Mary

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Nikolai Dzhumagaliev was a soviet serial killer who was apprehended in 1980 after murdering at least 9 people. He earned the moniker ‘metal fang’ and was known to cannibalise his victims who were mostly women. He was actually arrested in the midst of his murder spree that lasted just under 2 years. His arrest was for an entirely unrelated incident, where he accidentally shot a work colleague while heavily intoxicated. During this period of incarceration he was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but was released and went on to murder 3 more people. In relation to his first murder Dzhumagaliev said:

I always loved to hunt, often went hunting, but this was my first time hunting a woman. When I went out on the Uzun-agach-Maibulak track, I saw some young peasant woman. She was alone. I felt my heart pound within me and I ran after her. Hearing my footsteps, she turned around, but I caught up with her and put my arm around her neck, dragged her to the side of the landfill. She resisted, and then I cut her throat with a knife. Then I drank her blood. At this point, from the village appeared Bus Factory. I laid down on the ground and crouched next to the murder. While I was lying in my cold hands. When the bus drove, I warmed my hands on the woman’s body and stripped her naked. I cut the corpse’s breast into strips, removed the ovaries, separated the pelvis and hips; I then folded these pieces into a backpack and carried them home. I melted the fat to fry with, and some parts I pickled. Once I put the parts through a meat grinder and made dumplings. I saved the meat for myself; I never served it to anyone else. Twice I grilled the heart and the kidneys. Grilled meat, too. But it was tough, and cook it for a long time had its own fat. The meat of this woman took me a month to eat. The first time I ate human flesh through the power, and then used.

He was arrested again when he killed and dismembered a friend while he had multiple people visiting him in his home. His guests witnessed the crime and went fled in terror, contacting the police. Whenever the police arrived Dzhumagaliev  was on his knees, naked and covered in blood. The police were so stunned by this image and the bizarre nature of the crime that he managed to flee and was arrested the next day at a cousins house. 

At his trial he was found not guilty by reason of insanity and sentenced to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

Debunking The Myths of Serial Killers

There are many myths that surround these morbidly fascinating people. Here are a few of the stereotypes explained to better know how these killers operate:

Myth 1: All Serial Killers Are Men 
On the contrary, about 17 percent of all serial homicides in the United States are committed by women. Women, however, have a completely different motive than men. Male serial killers are usually motivated by sex, whereas most female serial killers are motivated by monetary gain or revenge.

Myth 2: All Serial Killers Are White
This may seem to be true because white serial killers make up the majority of the morbid icons of popular culture, but there are plenty of African American, Hispanic, and Asian American serial killers. In fact, African Americans represent about 20 percent of serial killers.

Myth 3: All Serial Killers Are Dysfunctional Loners
Many like Ted Bundy, Dennis Rader, and Gary Ridgway lead seemingly normal lives and have healthy social bonds with other people.

Myth 4: All Serial Killers Travel Widely
Although there are a number of drifter killers in the United States, a lot of them stalk and kill within their comfort zones, which is often defined by an anchor point, such as a place of residence or place of employment. Crime statistics reveal that serial killers are most likely to commit their first murder very close to their residence.

Myth 5: All Serial Killers Are Mentally Ill 
Psychopathy doesn’t mean psychosis. A very small number of serial killers have or ever will win the NGRI (not guilty by reason of insanity) plea. Ed Gein is one of the very few who was actually found to be insane.

Myth 6: All Serial Killers Want To Be Caught 
Serial Killers love the act of killing, so why would they want to be caught? Many take satisfaction in their success and even go so far as to taunt the police like the Zodiac Killer, BTK, and the Son of Sam did.

Myth 7: All Serial Killer Victims Are Female
Just like not all serial killers are male, not all serial killer victims are female. In reality, men comprise about 30 percent of serial killer victims.

Source: Why We Love Serial Killers: The Curious Appeal of the World’s Most Savage Monsters by Scott Bonn

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Wife Sets Husband On Fire, Uses ‘Battered Woman’ Defense

Francine Hughes entered the history books in 1977 for being the one of the first women to successfully use a 'battered wife’ defence to met the standard for temporary insanity. On March 9, 1977, the Dansville housewife urged her four children to wait in the car while she sprinkled petrol around her husband’s bed. She then set the house alight, killing James Hughes and burning their house to the ground. She then calmly drove herself to the police station and confessed her crime.

Francine had been married to James 'Mickey’ Hughes since she was sixteen. He regularly beat her, whipped her while she was pregnant, and monitored her movements whenever she left the house. Francine divorced James in 1971 yet continued to live with him out of fear he would hurt their youngest children. After being injured in a car crash, James was often unemployed and always present at the house. He beat Francine over the slightest perceived provocation, such as dinner not being served quick enough, or the kitchen not ordered to his liking. When Francine tried to escape his abuse by enrolling in secretary school, James burnt her schoolbooks and broke the neck of their daughter’s pet cat.

On the day of his murder, Francine had returned home from shopping to find James drunk and irritated. He refused to allow her to cook dinner for the children, and beat her with a can opener whilst threatening to kill her. A neighbour called the police, but they refused to arrest James as they hadn’t seen him beat Francine. After they left James swept the meal Francine prepared onto the floor, and twisted her arm behind her back whilst she cleaned it up. After Francine finished he tipped a rubbish bin over her head and forced her to clean that as well.

Finally James fell asleep in their bedroom, and Francine plotted to quietly escape the house with her children. Eventually she decided it was too risky to escape, and herded her children into the car while she set James on fire.

Francine’s case became a cause célèbre for the women’s right movement, as she was the first wife who claimed male violence had led her to kill. She was examined by over five doctors, who more or less concluded that Francine met the criteria for temporary insanity. Many witnesses backed up her claims of unimaginable abuse lasting years, and her testimony satisfied the court that Francine acted out of sheer desperation and a desire to protect her children. She was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and acquitted of all charges.

Fathers who killed their kids

Following a police standoff at Marcus Wesson’s home in 2004, police discovered the bodies of 9 of Marcus’s children that were in a room filled with antique coffins.  The family was involved in a cult-like religion that was fascinated with Jesus and vampires.  Seven of the nine children’s bodies that were discovered were fathered by Marcus with his own daughters and nieces. Marcus was found guilty of first degree murder on nine counts and received the death penalty.

Already under suspicion by police for his wife’s disappearance, Josh Powell was given visitation rights of his two children under an order that the visits be supervised. in 2012, Josh’s 7 and 5 year old sons arrived to visit their father, along with a social worker for the supervised visit. Josh pulled his two son’s inside the house and locked the social worker out. Josh then attacked his two sons with a hatchet and set the house on fire. The two boys apparently survived the hatchet attack, however, they along with their father all died from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by the fire. Josh’s wife has never been found.

Paul Harrington was a Detroit police officer who killed his first wife and their two daughters in 1975.  He was found not guilty by reason of insanity.  Eventually Harrington re-married and in 1999, he killed his second wife and their three year old son.  He tried the insanity defense again, but was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.

Timothy Jones had divorced his wife in 2013 and after, they had a custody battle over their 5 children who were between the ages of 1-8 years old.  Timothy was able to gain custody of the kids, even though he had a lengthy criminal record and child & family services had been to the house on numerous occasions. While under the custody of Timothy, many of the children were discovered having severe bruises on their body and explained the abuse they suffered at their father’s hands.  Family & children services were again involved, but the children remained in their father’s custody. In 2014, Timothy picked the kids up from day care/school and strangled 4 of the children to death.  The fifth child was beat to death.  He put their bodies in trash bags and traveled for days, over 700 miles, to dump their bodies in a ditch on the side of the road. Timothy has been charged with five counts of murder for the deaths of his children.  A trial date has not been set yet.

On 8 July, 1995, 14-year-old Sandy Charles from Saskatchewan brutally murdered a 7-year-old boy by stabbing him and then bludgeoning him with a rock. He then proceeded to slice off pieces of his flesh which he then took home and cooked before eating. He had claimed that if you drink boiled down fat from a virgin, you would be able to fly. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity.

anonymous asked:

Can you explain what makes Barry the only mass murderer to intrigue you? I don't often hear of him when in the TCC.

Hi, sorry again for the time it took me to answer this. Here are a few things that interest me about Barry Loukaitis/his case:

- His back story. His dysfunctional family, his mother was (openly) suicidal, and even once suggested a date for her suicide implying Barry would have to kill himself too.
- He was a honor student and also a longtime bullying victim, but I like that he says “I felt I needed to prove myself” instead of “I needed to prove myself”.
- He was only 14.
-  He suffered from bipolar disorder and depression.
- He didn’t plan a mass shooting. He claims he only meant to kill one person (Manuel Vela)  [he killed 3 people, 2 students and a teacher], that the other deaths were not really deliberate but more accidental because “reflex took over”.
He could have killed more but he only held the other hostages so no one would rush him and he could use them to escape, but he didn’t intend to kill more.
-  The use of pop culture references during his trial, like Pearl Jam’s “Jeremy” music video and his alleged reference to the book “Rage” during the shooting. Apparently Barry Loukaitis admitted the book’s main character served as an inspiration.
-  His extreme statements about him deserving the death penalty or the criminal justice system in general.
-  He sounds very intelligent and I would love discuss some of his views with him and in general know more about him.


And more recently:
- The fact that he wanted to keep his options open when he was first granted a re-sentencing…. and…
- … the letter he then wrote to the judge saying he would not fight a life sentence (he first pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity in 1997) as he understood it was some of his victims’ families’ wish.
- His full accountability for his crimes and the guilt he feels and expresses.
- His showing of emotions on trial.


I also want to say I am amazed by Arnie Fritz’s (one of Barry’s victims) family. They are dignified forgiving people who said the most beautiful things at the re-sentencing. They are inspiring.

This Day in True Crime

9 February: mass murder in Wellington, NZ

On 9 February 1997, Stephen Lawrence Anderson (pictured above), a 34-year-old former psychiatric patient, shot and killed six of his family members with a 12-gauge shotgun at a family reunion following an argument with a relative. He was arrested on the same day, but during his trial, he was found not guilty by reason of insanity. In lieu of imprisonment in a penitentiary, Anderson was instead detained to a psychiatric hospital indefinitely.

1. Don’t Panic: If you’re reading this, you’re upset that you failed the class, and it’s good that you care. Don’t freak out, it’s not the end of the world. You either did or didn’t try your best, but there’s not much you can do about that now. 


2. Meet with an Advisor: There will be two options - either re-take the class, or move on (if it’s not an essential one). The plus-side to retaking is that it’ll be easier the second time around, the downside being that it’s going to take up time you could be using for another class. Moving on is a good option if it’s not going to mess up your GPA. 


3. Make a Plan:First of all, there’s a reason you failed. Figure out what that reason is. Was the class hard? Did you have extenuating circumstances? Or did you just not work hard enough? Regardless of the reason, figure out how you’re not going to fail again. 


4. Don’t Feel Guilty: It’s hard not to feel bad when you’re using your parents money for college, or you’re dealing with insane loans. But, you have to just move on. Continually stressing about it won’t change the failing grade, it’ll more likely contribute to future stress.

“That day I went back to that apartment, it was like some kind of mystical experience. It was all quiet and still and hot in there. You could smell the dried blood. Particles of dust just seemed to hover in the air. I looked at the place where Jessie had fallen and died, and I got this kind of tingly feeling… Then my father told me to look in her pocket book for the jewelry my cousin wanted, and I dumped Jessie’s pocketbook on the bed and looked through her things. It gave me the weirdest feeling. I mean, I knew her, and these were her things, and she was dead. Murdered. Gone. And I was touching her things” -Richard Ramirez explaining how it felt like returning to the apartment his cousin Mike Ramirez had shared with his wife Jessie following her death. After getting into an argument with Jessie, Mike had taken a .38 caliber revolver and shot her in the face. He was deemed not guilty due to reason of insanity. Richard was present at the time of the murder. 

Admissions

Jeff was admitted after he was charged with 3rd degree murder. At the trial, they charged him not guilty by reasons of insanity. He was sent to the psych ward shortly after.


Ben was found by a lake, his father murdered. He claimed he was dead, mumbling words like “majora” and “Ben drowned”. He was taken to the psych ward about a week after.


EJ was found in the woods, eating the organs of the cult members that removed his eyes. They was taken to trial and just like Jeff, was deemed not guilty by reason of insanity. He’s the next Hannibal Lecter.


LJ was found at a house stuffing a child’s corpse with candy. He was automatically transported and evaluated, then admitted.


Tim went through a major relapse. After he met Alex, he started going insane. He went back to the doctors, and they admitted him immediately.


Brian was at the old hospital, beating somebody to death with a rusty pipe and filming it. He claimed that the video footage showed the operator, yet nothing was there.


Toby was found directly after he murdered his father, right before he would have faked his death. He would be taken to court, and found with the same charge as Jeff and EJ.


Helen was painting with the blood of a corpse by his canvas, just painting smiles. He was then taken to be evaluated and admitted shortly after.


Puppet was strangling someone when he was found. He was taken to court as well, found with the same charge. He didn’t disagree, he was too terrified to do anything.

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Deena Schlosser: Hell’s Own Angel

On November 22, 2004, the police dispatch officer in Plano, Texas, received a strange and troubling phone call from a frightened pre-school teacher. Though the caller refused to divulge her name, she told the officer on the line that one of the children who attended the daycare was in grave danger of being killed by her mother. The anxious caller insisted the police ring Deena Schlosser, a well known town eccentric, and ask her about the welfare of her young daughter, Margaret. Keen to ease the caller’s fears, the dispatch officer dutifully rang Schlosser and asked her if everything was alright. Deena simply sighed deeply and replied over the phone “I cut off my daughter’s arms. She is dead now. Thank you Jesus”

A police squad was immediately sent to the Schlosser house. Deena’s husband was away, and she was caring for their three children alone. When officers entered the home they discovered a very calm and serene Deena sitting on the sofa, covered in blood. She was singing hymns, stroking her arms, and seemed quite unaware of her surroundings. When police asked to see baby Margaret she led them to her bedroom, where they found the baby sprawled on the bed. Margaret’s arms had been removed just below the shoulder, and sadly she had died from her injuries. Deena was heard chanting “Thank you Jesus, thank you Lord” as police led her to a car. Two other daughters whom were in the house at the time were unharmed.

From her first interview it became apparent that Deena Schlosser was in the grips of psychosis; she talked told a psychiatrist that God told her to cut off her baby’s arms and that Margaret spoke to her from heaven. Deena spoke of seeing a news story on television about a boy who was mauled by lions, and decided the apocalypse would happen unless she “gave” Margaret to God. A look at her medical records showed a long history of depression, paranoia, and post-partum psychosis. Just a day after Margaret’s birth Deena attempted to kill herself, and had attempted to give the baby to strangers on a number of occasions. During her psychiatric assessment, it came out that Deena’s husband John had narcissistic personality traits and didn’t try to find help for her or a safe place for their children. On the day Margaret died, John Schlosser was supposed to pick her up and take her out so Deena could attend a bipolar group therapy session.

Unsurprisingly, Deena Schlosser was found not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to a mental institution. While she was there she allegedly befriended famous child-killer Andrea Yates, and the two shared a room. Because her sentence did not carry a minimum term period, Deena was declared mentally competent just six years after killing Margaret, and sent to an outpatient program. In 2010 she completed all her outpatient programs and entered the world a free woman, albeit one that must take her daily medication or otherwise face imprisonment.

On 19th August 1989, 28 year old Daniel Rakowitz murdered his 26 year old girlfriend and flatmate Monika Beerle, a dance student, in New York City. They had apparently had an argument which led to Beerle demanding he left the apartment, to which he retaliated by hitting her forcefully in the throat with a blunt object. The trauma to her trachea ultimately led to death shortly afterwards. However, far from feeling remorseful for his actions, Rakowitz proceeded to dismember and cannibalise her deceased body. He later boasted to a friend that he had boiled her head and made soup with her brain, adding that it “tasted pretty good”. He had also apparently handed out the remnants of this soup to the homeless.

After receiving word of the murder, police pursued Rakowitz and took him into custody. After openly discussing his dedication to devil worship, he did not deny the accusations of murder against him and willingly led police to Monika’s bones which he had stored inside a bucket after boiling and bleaching them. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity on 22nd February 1991 and was consigned to a state psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane instead of receiving a prison sentence. In 2004, Rakowitz was determined by a jury to no longer be a dangerous threat to society, but his mental illness is still acknowledged and so he remains at the Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center in New York.

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The Aurora Theatre Shooting

On July 20th, 2012, during a midnight screening of ‘The Dark Knight Rises’ at a Century 16 movie theatre in Aurora, Colorado, a gunman set off tear gas grenades and shot into the audience with multiple firearms killing 12 people and injuring 70.

The perpetrator bought a ticket, entered the theater, and sat in the front row. About 20 minutes into the film, he left the building through an emergency exit door, propped it open, and returned with weapons and other gear before storming the audience and opening fire.

He was dressed in black and wore a gas mask, a load-bearing vest, a ballistic helmet, bullet-resistant leggings, a bullet-resistant throat protector, a groin protector, and tactical gloves. He was also listening to techno music through a set of headphones.

James Eagan Holmes, born December 13th, 1987 and 24 at the time, was arrested in the theatre parking lot.

He had booby-trapped his apartment with explosives before the shooting, which were defused one day later by a bomb squad.

For a period of time this was the highest casualty single mass shooter event in American history, up until the 2016 assault on the Pulse nightclub in Orlando.

Prior to the killings, Holmes had been receiving treatment for mental health problems; he entered a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. His trial began on April 27th, 2015. The trial lasted 11 weeks after which he was found guilty. On August 24th, Holmes was sentenced to 12 consecutive life sentences plus 3,318 years without parole.

Exhibits presented in the trial of John Hinckley Jr. The exhibits show Hinckley’s revolver used in the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan and his copy of Taxi Driver by Richard Elman, based on the screenplay by Paul Schrader. Hinckley became obsessed with Jodie Foster after watching the movie Taxi Driver. In an attempt to impress Foster, Hinckley planned to kill President Reagan. On March 30, 1981, Hinckley shot Reagan in the chest outside the Washington Hilton Hotel and injured three others. Reagan fully recovered from the attack. Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to a psychiatric hospital. In 2016, he was deemed fit for release and on September 10, 2016 he was released under strict conditions.