A team of scientists led by Wes Patterson of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), Laurel, Md., and Geoffrey Collins of Wheaton College, Norton, Mass., has produced the first global geologic map of Ganymede, a Galilean moon of Jupiter. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey, the map technically illustrates the varied geologic character of Ganymede’s surface, and is the first complete global geologic map of an icy, outer-planet moon.
Patterson, Collins and colleagues used images from NASA’s Voyager and Galileo missions to create the map. It’s only the fourth of its kind covering a planetary satellite; similar maps exist for Earth’s moon as well as Jupiter’s moons Io and Callisto.
“By mapping all of Ganymede’s surface, we can more accurately address scientific questions regarding the formation and evolution of this truly unique moon,” says Patterson, a planetary scientist.
Since its discovery in January 1610, Ganymede has been the focus of repeated observation, first by Earth-based telescopes, and later by flyby missions and spacecraft orbiting Jupiter. These studies depict a complex icy world whose surface is characterized by the striking contrast between its two major terrain types: the dark, very old, highly cratered regions; and the lighter, somewhat younger (but still ancient) regions marked with an extensive array of grooves and ridges.
With a diameter of 3,280 miles (5,262 kilometers), Ganymede is larger than both planet Mercury and dwarf planet Pluto. It’s also the only satellite in the solar system known to have its own magnetosphere. The map details geologic features of the moon that formed and evolved over much of our solar system’s history. These features record evidence of Ganymede’s internal evolution, its dynamical interactions with the other Galilean satellites, and the evolution of the small bodies that have impacted Ganymede’s surface.
The new chart will be a valuable tool for researchers to compare the geologic characters of other icy moons, since almost any type of feature that is found on other icy satellites has a similar feature somewhere on Ganymede. And with a surface over half as large as all the land area on Earth, Ganymede offers a wide variety of locations to observe. “Ganymede also shows features that are ancient alongside much more recently formed features, adding historical diversity in addition to geographic diversity,” Collins says.
Norton College, the place I’m going to after the Summer, held a to day induction this week where we were able to have ‘taster sessions’ of the subjects we chose to do.
I chose for my options:
Philosophy and Ethics
The night before me and three friends planned the route. Two of them had a route planned out and the third said whatever so I started panicking because I’d never taken the route that they were suggesting. But after looking online, I saw we had to be at the stop for 7:30 in order to be at college on time.
That meant I left the house at 6:45.
I was so fucking tired that I almost passed out walking to the stop.
But the hour long bus right as brilliant! I was nervous as hell and after the previous night’s fashion crisis, I got self-conscious and stuff.
But then we arrived at the stop and walked to college. I went from nervous to excited fast as fuck but I was scared about what Philosophy and Biology were gonna be like.
I didn’t want to do Biology, I wanted to change to art, but I thought I’d stick it out, see what’s what.
So the first lesson after the welcome speech was Maths. The teacher as fucking awesome and we started off with Trig so I was kind of in love with the subject.
The next lesson was Physics. There were some hot guys in the class. There was one chick who’s awesome but I think she’s moving to Criminology. Which means that it’ll be an all boy class.
PARTY FOR THE GAY!
The next day, we were all too tired to have fun on the bus but I was excited about having me first ever Philosophy and Ethics lesson that afternoon.
First, though, was Biology. The teacher was okay and there were some okay looking guys in the class as well as girls who I can see myself hating already. But I was with my Bumbles so all was good!
Until we had to do an experiment. We measured skin temp after jumping and Bumbles nominated me to do it. I didn’t want to and everyone was stood looking around awkwardly so after a few minuets, I stud up and said a little too loud “Fuck this shit” thinking if I embarrass myself first no one else will care. So after my exclamation, I started jumping. The teacher said something and Bumbles turned around and started telling me to stop so I did and I was like 'Dafuq?’.
It turned out that they were waiting for the teacher to lead.
I died so very much.
Then we had a test to evaluate our English and Maths skills. I scored a Level 2 in English and a Level 3 in Maths. I have no idea what that means but my friends got around the same so fuck it.
Then we had lunch. We decided to walk to KFC because this guy said it was 5 minuets away. 5 minuets turned into 20 minuets downhill. So we ate and walked back up. UP. UPHILL!
When we got back to college, we were tired and so hung out in the upstairs refractory place thingy. Philosophy started at 13:40.
I looked at my watch and it was 13:39. So me and Tom ran out of the college and across to the school where the class was held and had to find the classroom in this crazy place.
We found it just as he was going around taking names. There were two seats together but only at the front of the classroom.
Self-consciousness attacked me like a motherfucker.
And it didn’t help that the class has a few hotties in there including this one guy that I think is fucking awesome. He was sat with his friend and she told my friend in another lesson that he’s her friend and camp so my friend thinks that he’s gay but I doubt it.
Anyway, we had to discuss Ethical issues and the guy and his friend were being all opinionated and questioning people’s ideas and views. My friend thought it was rude but I liked it.
But that just might be because I think the guy’s awesome and kinda hot.
We finished philosophy early and me and my friend waited in the college for the other two to finish and after discussing it with the Philosophy teacher I’ve come to a decision.
Imma take the options I’ve chosen and if I don’t like Philosophy and Ethics, I’ll change to Chemistry with Bumbles and teach myself in the mean time.
And if I don’t change, I’ll get Bumbles to teach me and I’ll pay to take the exams as an external candidate.
People think I’m crazy but the way I see it is if I start learning now, I’ll have less to learn then and the pressure will be less.
So, anyway, that’s college: Early starts, hot guys and no bells to remind you when class is about to start.