northwest europe

The Crustacean Invasion: European green crabs are native to western Europe and northwest Africa, but have invaded ecosystems in every continent but Antarctica. 

Because they disperse over long distances during their larval stage and aren’t exactly picky eaters (these crabs will eat clams, shrimp, and other invertebrates!), European green crabs are quite successful at invading new territories. Where they establish new populations, these crabs threaten shellfish fisheries and ecosystem health. 

For reasons not yet well known, European green crabs have been particularly successful in Seadrift Lagoon, a manmade lagoon near San Francisco that is tidally linked to Bolinas Lagoon. There, they’ve established the largest West Coast concentration in a closed marine ecosystem! But folks at Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary are hard at work removing these invasive crabs. Since 2009, teams have worked to remove tens of thousands of crabs from the lagoon, and their work continues. 

(Photo: Kate Bimrose/NOAA) 

Invasive Plant Magic

If you’re a North American witch and you happen to feel the urge to help Mother Nature a little bit, might I suggest incorporating these invasive plants into a few spells?

Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) is a smaller tree native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It was brought over to the Americas as an ornamental plant, but unfortunately has become infamous for its ability to spread very quickly through avian propagation. I would recommend removing the plant entirely before it has a chance to bear fruit, making use of herbicide if its trunk is more than half an inch in diameter, and then burning the plant. The wood itself is very dense so it is a good component for protection or strengthening spells. It also has, as its scientific name suggests, berries that induce rather painful purgative effects, in case you feel the need to give someone a stomachache. Given its close ties to birds and flying insects, it synergizes well with the element of air. 

Garlic mustard  (Alliaria petiolata) is a biennial flowering plant with a wide range from western China and Pakistan to the British Isles. It is in the mustard family but when crushed, its leaves smell like garlic. It was introduced as a culinary herb to North America but has spread like wildfire. Along with having a prodigious seed production rate, it produces chemicals that attack the mycorrhizal fungi that many other plants are symbiotic with and rely on to grow efficiently. Because of this effect it is useful if the target of a spell, whether tangible or not, needs to be weakened or stripped of an ally. Its also useful as a substitute for garlic or mustard if one is short on either ingredient for a spell. It’s an edible plant too (the younger plants are preferred), good in salads or in pesto sauces. Best to remove it from the base of the plant, taking the root up with it, before it has started fruiting, and either burning it or grinding it up.

As these plants are fruitful in nature, they can both be used for fertility or propagation spells

anonymous asked:

I legit thought New Zealand was somewhere northwest of Europe until you mentioned it was next to Australia.

Did you- did you never learn geography in school. What led you to believe New Zealand was adjacent to fucking Europe


These three scenes show us a lot more about the history of the monsters against the humans. Using this we can roughly determine where Undertale would take place, what time periods events happened in, and more. 

 First off the image showing humans and monsters shows a human with a fur poncho/tunic, foot-wraps that go up to the knees, and a primitive stone hunting spear. Probably the Early-middle Stone Age in Northwest Europe, before the Neolithic revolution from the beginning of agriculture instead of nomadic hunting.This was a more pagan time and it would make sense that they would coexist with monsters back then.

 Judging by the weapons and clothing of the humans during the war against the monsters,it’s during the Middle Ages. The broad one handed double sided straight sword with a straight cross-guard above the hilt suggests it’s between the 9th-11th century, it appears to be a late Celtic arming sword which eventually evolved into a sword known as a “knight sword”. The spears feature the short rounded flat guard-less heads of Celtic spears. The lack of horses, lack of heavy armor, lack of long-bowmen, use of torches, and the cloak/cape on the lead figure all suggest this is Celtic/Saxon during the Middle Ages. The use of runes in the game for the history of monsters also supports the separation between monsters and humans occurring in that area and time.

anonymous asked:

0, 11, 14, 15, 19, 21, 36; for the ask thing.

0: Height

11: Best friend?
- @manic-ghoulette and @kvltkakes 💕

14: Biggest turn offs
-Bad hygiene, conservative views/beliefs influenced by religion or bigotry, stupidity, Southern accents, being a dick for no reason

15: Favorite movie
-I don’t really have one

19: A fact about your personality
-I’m much nicer than people probably expect me to be

21: What I love most about myself
-The way I love other people

36: Where I would like to live
-Either New England or the Pacific Northwest, or northern Europe. Really anywhere that has forests and lots of snow in the winter.

Thank you anon!

This is Europe. People live there. Europe has looots of countries, both big and small. Since there are so many countries people like to group them somehow to make their life easier. 

The countries with red dots are SCANDINAVIAN (Norway, Denmark and Sweden) countries. Norway, Sweden and Denmark are both SCANDINAVIAN and part of NORDIC countries.

The countries with yellow dots are NORDIC (Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway). Finland and Iceland are not SCANDINAVIAN, they are only NORDIC. 

The countries with green dots are BALTIC STATES (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania). Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are not NORDICS nor SCANDINAVIAN.

All the countries with blue dots are in NORTHERN EUROPE - Nordics, Baltics, British Isles, Northern Germany and Northern Poland, Lowlands and Northwest Russia. 



I’m always in awe of red clover (Trifolium pratense, of the Fabaceae (legume family)). It is native to northwest Africa, Asia, and Europe, but has since been naturalized and cultivated in many parts of the world, including North America. I came across this beautiful specimen while hiking in the Marshlands Conservancy in Rye, NY.

Red clover is a source of many valuable nutrients including calcium, chromium, magnesium, niacin, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine, and vitamin C. Medicinally, this plant can help us is many ways. Thanks to its isoflavones (water-soluble chemicals that act like estrogens), it is used for hot flashes/flushes, PMS, breast enhancement and breast health as well as lowering cholesterol, improving urine production and improving circulation of the blood, to help prevent osteoporosis, reduce the possibility of blood clots and arterial plaques and limiting the development of benign prostate hyperplasia. It may also block enzymes thought to contribute to prostate cancer in men.

Finally, as if all this weren’t enough, red clover has also been found to be useful in quitting smoking, and lowering cravings for alcohol. So what are you waiting for? Go make yourself a red clover infusion!


The P-40’s lacked a two-speed supercharger which made it inferior to Luftwaffe fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 or the Focke-Wulf FW 190 in high-altitude combat and it was rarely used in operations in Northwest Europe. 

However, between 1941 and 1944, the P-40 played a critical role with Allied air forces in three major theaters: North Africa, the Southwest Pacific, and China. It also had a significant role in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Alaska, and Italy

Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitarius)

…despite being called a thrush, Monticola solitarius is a species of Old World flycatcher (Muscicapidae) which breeds in southern Europe and northwest Africa, and from central Asia to northern China and Malaysia. Some populations are migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, India and southeast Asia. Like the closely related common rock thrush (M. saxatillis), blue rock thrushes breed in open mountainous areas, in rock cavities and walls. Blue rock thrushes are omnivorous, feeding on a wide variety of arthropods, small reptiles, and sometimes berries and seeds. 


Animalia-Chordata-Aves-Passeriformes-Muscicapidae-Monticola-M. solitarius

Image: Snowmanradio


The Weather War

By far one of the least heralded campaigns of World War II was the hunt for Axis weather stations set up in remote parts of Greenland. The United States actually began doing this in 1940 at the behest of the Danish Government following the German occupation of the country. The job fell principally on the shoulders of the Coast Guard at that point, who patrolled with ships and aircraft, looking for German weather ships, or supply boats attempting to reach weather stations the Germans had set up on land. 

The reason Greenland was so important in this regard was that a weather station set up on Greenland’s eastern coast - which is immense and hard to patrol - offers an excellent window into the weather fronts as they move towards Northwest Europe. Obviously weather plays a huge part in military planning, and this being before satellites allowed such easy predictions to be made, the extra day of forewarning offered by a station in Greenland was of incredible value to military planners. So Germany wanted to set them up there, and it fell to the United States to protect Danish interests in not allowing this to happen. The first direct combat between Germans and Americans (and by direct I exclude convoy contact with U-Boats) occurred during one of these patrols when a Coast Guard cutter, the USS Northland, boarded and captured the Norwegian flagged ship Buskoe. A landing party went ashore and captured three German soldiers operating the weather station the ship had been resupplying. This all happening three months before America entered the war!

Aside from the Coasties though, the “Sledge Patrol” - a 15 man, mixed force of Norwegians, Danes and local Eskimos, all supported by the US - spent much of the war patrolling the coast hunting Germans as well. Only, doing it on land in subzero arctic weather instead of in a comparatively warm and cozy boat. On dog sleds, 2 and 3 man patrols would head out for a few months at a time and attempt to find German weather stations (As many as four teams were operating in Greenland at a time) in a cat and mouse game. Although the teams were to small to assault the German stations they could radio the positions to the Coast Guard who would send a landing party. Generally, the Germans were the mice and had to pack up their stuff and flee if discovered, but the Germans did strike back and attack the Sledge Patrol’s base-camp at Eskimonaes, killing one member of the team, Eli Knudsen (the only loss they endured).

The last land-based weather station of the Germans was knocked out in October of 1944. Based on Little Koldeway island, the German station was spotted by the USS Eastwind during a coastal patrol. A landing party of Coast Guardsman trained in special raiding tactics by commandos made a nighttime landing and caught the Germans by total surprise, and were able to get most of their documents intact even! No more land-based stations were attempted after that, although off-shore trawlers were still utilized (The USS Eastwind would take the Externsteine as a prize only a week after the raid on Koldeway).

(All Pictures from Time-Life)


Day 37: Teheran Conference

“[W]e have concerted our plans for the destruction of the German forces. We have reached complete agreement as to the scope and timing of the operations to be undertaken from the east, west, and south.”
-Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Teheran Declaration, December 1, 1943

In November 1943 FDR journeyed to the Middle East to attend his first wartime conference with Joseph Stalin. The “Big Three”—Roosevelt, Stalin, and Winston Churchill—gathered at Teheran, Iran. The decisions they made there shaped both the war and the peace that followed.

The issue of a Second Front commanded the greatest attention. Impatient with Anglo-American postponements, Stalin demanded a firm commitment to a date for the invasion of northwest Europe. Churchill favored further delay—arguing instead for new military initiatives in Italy and the Balkans. But FDR sided with Stalin and the three leaders agreed to a spring 1944 invasion. Stalin then pressed his allies to quickly name the invasion’s commander. Shortly after the conference, FDR selected General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

While in Teheran for the conference with Churchill and Stalin, FDR met with Mohammad Rezâ Šâh Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The Shah presented FDR with this Isfahan Persian rug designed by acclaimed Iranian artist Imami. The piece took 10 years to make and has 50 knots per square inch.

FDR had the rug installed in his private study at the FDR Library, where it still resides today. The photo above was taken last year after the piece had been cleaned and conserved.

Subalpine Warbler (Sylvia cantiallans)

…a species of “typical warbler” (Sylvia spp.) which breeds in the southernmost areas of Europe and northwest Africa, and winters along the southern edge of the Sahara. Subalpine warblers will typically inhabit dry open country, often on hill slopes with a fair amount of vegetation. Like most Old-World warblers S. cantiallans is insectivorous, feeding almost exclusively on various insect species. 


Animalia-Chordata-Aves-Passeriformes-Sylviidae-Sylvia-S. cantillans

Image: rodericus

D-Day Begins

Seventy years ago, as dawn broke on June 6, 1944, German soldiers defending the French coast at Normandy beheld an awe-inspiring sight—the largest amphibious invasion force in history massed in the waters of the English Channel. The long-awaited invasion of northwest Europe was underway.

Enter the D-Day Normandy Landings immersive exhibit from the National Archives on Google Cultural Institute.