northern ethiopian wolf

Wolf species and it's subspecies

There currently are three different wolf species. Below you will find each wolf species with a list of it’s subspecies - both the living and extinct ones.

Note that there has always been constant discussions on whether some subspecies are actually a species on it’s own, and the other way around. Some examples of this are the fact that there is no single hypothesis for the origin of the Red wolf is universally accepted by scientists. DNA analysis and morphological evidence support recognition of the Red wolf as a distinct species from the Gray wolf, but other scientists believe the Red wolf is a subspecies of the Gray wolf. Also, some scientists maintain the Eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) as a species on it’s own (Canis lycaon). Also, some subspecies are yet to be determined, for example Canada’s Pacific Coastal wolves.

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Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

Gray wolf subspecies:

  • Euopean/Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus)
  • Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus)
  • Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus)
  • Tundra wolf (Canis lupus albus)
  • Hudson bay wolf (Canis lupus hundsonicus)
  • Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos)
  • Alaskan tundra wolf (Canis lupus tundrarum)
  • Alexander Archipelago wolf (Canis lupus ligoni)
  • Eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) Note: Some scientists maintain this wolf is a species on it’s own (Canis lycaon).
  • Northern Rocky mountain wolf (Canis lupus irremotus)
  • Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi)
  • Mackenzie river wolf (Canis lupus mackenzii)
  • Mackenzie valley wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis)
  • Baffin Island wolf (Canis lupus manningi)
  • Labrador wolf (Canis lupus labradorius)
  • Greenland wolf (Canis lupus orion)
  • Steppe wolf (Canis lupus campestris)
  • Tibetan wolf/Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) Note: some recognize the Himalayan wolf as it’s own species (canis himalayensis).
  • Buffalo wolf (Canis lupus nubilus)
  • African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) Note: Earlier considered a subspecies of the Golden Jackal, but recent research proves it is a wolf. read more.
  • Yukon wolf (Canis lupus pambasileus)
  • Vancouver Island wolf (Canis lupus crassodon)
  • Arabian wolf (Canis lupus arabs)
  • Indian wolf/Iranian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) Note: Recent genetic research suggests that the Indian Wolf, originally considered only as a subpopulation of the Iranian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), may represent a distinct species Indian wolf (Canis indica).
  • Dingo (Canis lupus dingo)
  • Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)


Extinct Gray wolf subspecies:

  • Kenai peninsula wolf (Canis lupus alces)
  • Newfoundland wolf (Canis lupus beothucus)
  • Bernard’s wolf (Canis lupus bernardi)
  • British Columbia wolf (Canis lupus comlumbianus)
  • Florida black wolf (Canis lupus floridanus)
  • Southern Rocky Mountains wolf (Canis lupus youngi)
  • Cascade mountain wolf (Canis lupus fuscus)
  • Manitoba wolf (Canis lupus griseoalbus)
  • Hokkaidō wolf (Canis lupus hattai)
  • Honshū wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax)
  • Mogollon Mountain wolf (Canis lupus mogollensis)
  • Texas wolf (Canis lupus monstrabilis)

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Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis)

Ethiopian wolf subspecies:

  • Northern Ethiopian wolf (canis simensis simensis
  • Southern Ethiopian wolf (canis simensis citernii)

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Red wolf (Canis rufus) Note: Some scientists maintain this wolf a subspecies of the Gray wolf, and there currently is a lot of debate on whether this species is completely extinct or not due to crossbreeding with coyotes

Extinct Red wolf supspecies:

  • Florida Black Wolf (Canis rufus floridanus)
  • Gregory’s wolf (Canis rufus gregoryi)
  • Texas red wolf (Canis rufus rufus)

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African golden wolf (Canis anthus)

Was previously classified as an African variant of the Eurasian golden jackal (Canis aureus) with at least one subspecies (Canis anthus lupaster) having been classified as a Gray wolf (Canis lupus) [x]