northern ethiopia

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Afar

The Afar are a people found primarily in northern Ethiopia with smaller populations in Eritrea and Djibouti. Originally ruled by smaller states, they were unified under the Sultanate of Aussa in 1734. The sultanate slowly began to fall into the Colonial Italian sphere in the 19th century, being incorporated into Italian East Africa in 1936. Following the end of World War II, Ethiopia invaded and annexed the region in 1945. Despite this, the 1950s-1970s saw the former state and the Afar people hold onto a degree of self-governance within the Ethiopian Empire. This ended in 1974 following the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a Marxist-Leninist junta, prompting the Afar royal family to flee to Saudi Arabia. This resulted in the creation of groups such as the Afar Liberation Front and the Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front, who sought to defend Afar interests, sometimes through violent means. Today the Afar have a degree of autonomy within Ethiopia, living primarily in the Afar Regional State. 

AP Human Geography: Agriculture Review
  1. What is the difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture?

    1. Subsistence agriculture is the production of only enough food for your family and not for sale. In LDCs.

    2. Commercial agriculture is the production of food for sale. It is in MDCS. The system of commercial farming in MDCS is called agribusiness.

  2. What is the difference between seed and vegetative planting?

    1. Seed agriculture is the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds.

      1. 3 Hearths in Eastern Hemisphere   

        1. western India, northern China, and Ethiopia.

        2. From western India, it diffused to Southwest Asia, where wheat and barley were first domesticated; these two grains later fed Europeans and Americans.   

        3. In southwest asia, also domesticated herd animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.

        4. from southwest Asia, seed agriculture diffused through Europe and North Africa.

        5. diffused eastward to northwestern India and the Indus River Valley. From the china hearth, millet diffused to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

        6. millet and sorghum were domesticated in ethiopia.

      2. 2 Hearths in Western Hemisphere

        1. southern Mexico and northern Peru

          1. Southern Mexico- squash and corn/maize   

          2. northern Peru- beans, cotton, and squash

    2. Vegetative Planting is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.

      1. the first plants domesticated in Southeast Asia - roots like taro and yam and tree crops like the banana and the palm.

      2. From the Southeast Asia hearth, it diffused northward and eastward to China and Japan, and westward through India, Southwest Asia, tropical Africa and the area around the Mediterranean Sea.

      3. Other hearths- West Africa and northwestern South America.

        1. West Africa- palm trees and yams

        2. South America- manioc, sweet potatoes and arrowroot

      4. From South America, it diffused to Central America and eastern areas of South America.

  3. What are the three steps of shifting agriculture?

    1. Cut down vegetation and clear the land

    2. The land is burned to remove vegetation, drive away pests, and this gives nutrients for planting.

    3. Immediately begin planting in the ashes and left alone for a while.

  4. Where were the first plants cultivated? How?

    1. Southeast Asia through vegetative planting. Plants- roots like the yam and taro and tree crops like the banana and the palm.

  5. What is the township and range survey system?

    1. The American system

    2. encouraged settles to disperse evenly across interior farmlands

    3. grid-like pattern drawn without reference to natural terrain

    4. 1 square mile could be sold as whole half or quarter

  6. What is the difference between vertical and horizontal integration?

    1. Vertical Integration

      1. the company owns everything needed in order to make that product

      2. more control

      3. when end product is successful, higher benefit

      4. less rigorous collaboration

      5. efficiency over flexibility

    2. Horizontal Integration

      1. company has several diff companies under it in order to produce something

      2. less control

      3. more collaboration

  7. What are cons of using GMOs? Pros?

    1. cons

      1. money going into labeling and research

      2. already certified organic foods

      3. no health danger

    2. pros

      1. animal DNA

      2. have the right to know what’s in their food and what companies do to it

  8. What is the significance of the first agricultural revolution?

    1. The Neolithic Revolution- diffusion of agriculture practices

    2. drastically changed human life

      1. increase in reliable food supplies

      2. rapid increase in total human population

      3. job specialization’

      4. widening of gender differences

      5. settled people vs. nomads

        1. settled people thought their way of life was better

  9. Draw and explain Von Thumen’s theory.

      1. Ring 1: Market Gardening and Dairy

        1. nearest bc perishable and spoil quickly, expensive to deliver

      2. Ring 2: Forest/ Wood

        1. bulky and heavy to transport

      3. Ring 3: Field Crops

        1. less perishable, more of wheat and grains

      4. Ring 4: Animal grazing

        1. needs a lot of space

  10. What are the current trends in organic agriculture?

    1. the presence of chemicals in soils and ground water, people are concerned about the chemicals.

    2. US, Western Europe, and Jpan

  11. What is the significance of the second agricultural revolution?

    1. 18th century in Western Europe

    2. preceded industrial revolution, so it could be possible to feed the growing cities

    3. higher yields

    4. improved crop rotation

    5. improved equipment and better farming methods greatly increased the productivity of European Farms

    6. “the larger the farm and better the production, less farmers needed

  12. Why is slash and burn agriculture unsustainable for the future?

    1. Deforestation

    2. Erosion

    3. Nutrient Loss

    4. Biodiversity Loss

  13. What is the metes and bounds land survey method?

    1. English System

    2. natural and man made features used to show irregular land patterns

    3. used along eastern seaboard of the US

  14. Why has shifting cultivation been practiced for centuries in many places?

    1. used in places where soil is not particularly fertile and where grasslands or forests are present

    2. provides a source of food and income

  15. Why might people be against the Green Revolution?    

    1. Green Revolution: 3rd Agricultural Revolution

      1. 20th century

      2. biotechnology

      3. new higher yields of crops

      4. expanded use of fertilizers

    2. AGAINST IT BC

      1. poor countries can’t afford the machinery seeds and fertilizers

      2. fertilizers can lead to groundwater pollution and the reduction of organic matter in the soil

      3. overfishing

      4. Sub Saharan Africa- not enough food

        1. the population is increasing faster than food production

      5. Groundwater depletion

      6. not a balanced diet bc land is devoted to ONE type

  16. What techniques were used in the Green Revolution?

    1. biotechnology

    2. machinery

    3. genetic technology

    4. fertilizers

I am from Eritrea,” I said proudly. My teacher pulled down the map and asked me to point it out. I couldn’t find my country on the map because it hadn’t yet gained independence. I pointed to the northern highlands of Ethiopia and said “This is where my country is supposed to be”. My teacher said, “So you’re from Ethiopia?” to which I replied “No, I’m from Eritrea.

The Northern Lights opal

We often share stunning photos of streamers of charged plasma being excited by the solar wind high above the atmosphere, but here is a beautiful example from the mineral realm, from a nodule mined in the rhyolitic silica rich lavas and welded ashes of Ethiopia. These lavas are part of the endless eruptions that accompany the rifting of a continent, and the birth in the distant future of a new ocean all along the Great African rift valley, stretching from the Mediterranean into the heart of the continent. The photo is stunning enough to mostly speak for itself, what a beaut.

Loz

Image credit: Opalinda

Dazzling jewels from an Ethiopian grave reveal 2,000-year-old link to Rome

Spectacular 2,000-year-old treasures from the Roman empire and the Aksumite kingdom, which ruled parts of north-east Africa for several centuries before 940 AD, have been discovered by British archaeologists in northern Ethiopia.

Louise Schofield, a former British Museum curator, headed a major six-week excavation of the ancient city of Aksum where her team of 11 uncovered graves with “extraordinary” artefacts dating from the first and second centuries. They offer evidence that the Romans were trading there hundreds of years earlier than previously thought.

Schofield told the Observer: “Every day we had shed-loads of treasure coming out of all the graves. I was blown away: I’d been confident we’d find something, but not on this scale.” Read more.

New species of early human discovered near fossil of ‘Lucy’

Australopithecus deyiremeda lived about 3.4 million years ago in northern Ethiopia, around the same time and place as Australopithecus afarensis.

By Ewen Callaway

Welcome, Lucy’s neighbour. Fossilized jaws and teeth found1 in northern Ethiopia belong to an ancient human relative that researchers say lived around the same time as Lucy’s kind, Australopithecus afarensis, but is a distinct species. The remains of the new species, which has been dubbed Australopithecus deyiremeda and lived between 3.5 million and 3.3 million years ago, were uncovered just 35 kilometres from the Hadar site at which Lucy and other A. afarensis individuals were found. Fossils from A. afarensis date to between 3.7 million and 3 million years ago, so the two species would have overlapped (although Lucy herself may have lived too recently to see one).

The find suggests that several distinct hominins — species more closely related to humans than to chimps — roamed eastern Africa more than 3 million years ago. A third species, Kenyanthropus platyops, lived in what is now Kenya around the same time2. “The question that is going to come up is which taxa gave rise to our genus, Homo,” says Yohannes Haille-Selassie, a palaeoanthropologist at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Ohio, whose team reports its discovery in Nature1. “That’s going to be the 64-million-dollar question.”

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Ethiopian healing scrolls eliminate illness by purging evil spirits and demons from a sick person. It was a practice common among Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the northern mountainous region of Ethiopia. Part of a larger healing ritual, the scrolls were commissioned by the those who could not write, during a serious illness. The scrolls were thought to combat the spiritual problem, while medicine and plants combated by physical problem. (click on the images to see their full size)