There were many other Kingdoms in Africa, not just the Kingdom of Egypt, that are worthy of praise and honour. Indeed, Egypt played a great role in civilization, but it was only one of many on the continent. Below are few of the many greats:
While Europe was experiencing its Dark Ages, a period of intellectual, cultural and economic regression from the sixth to the 13th centuries, Africans were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance after the decline of the Nile Valley civilizations of Egypt and Nubia.
The leading civilizations of this African rebirth were the Axum Empire, the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Ethiopian Empire, the Mossi Kingdoms and the Benin Empire.
The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.
At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.
Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories —but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.
Kingdom of Ghana
Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.
The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.
The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.
The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.
The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.
The Kurukan Fuga of the Mali Empire was created after 1235 by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire. The Kurukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. The Gbara was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire and was made up of 32 members from around 29 clans. They were given a voice in the government and were a check against the emperor’s (mansa’s) power. It was presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremonies) who recognized anyone who wanted to speak including the mansa. The Gbara and the Kurukan Fuga remained in place for over 40o years until 1645.
According to Wikipedia, Disney’s “Lion King” movie was based on the real life narrative of Mansa Sundiata Keita.
The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.
Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.
The Ethiopian Empire
The Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia, covered a geographical area that the present-day northern half of Ethiopia covers. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe Dynasty) until 1975 when the monarchy was overthrown in a coup d’état. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite emperors and, hence, Solomon. The thus-named Solomonic Dynasty was founded and ruled by the Habesha, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.
The Habesha reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. It was under this dynasty that most of Ethiopia’s modern history occurred. During this time, the empire conquered and incorporated virtually all the peoples within modern Ethiopia. They successfully fought off Italian, Arab and Turkish armies and made fruitful contacts with some European powers, especially the Portuguese, with whom they allied in battle against the latter two invaders.
The Mossi Kingdoms were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the Upper Volta River for hundreds of years. Increasing power of the Mossi kingdoms resulted in larger conflicts with regional powers. The Kingdom of Yatenga became a key power attacking the Songhai Empire between 1328 and 1477, taking over Timbuktu and sacked the important trading post of Macina.
When Askia Mohammad I became the leader of the Songhai Empire with the desire to spread Islam, he waged a Holy war against the Mossi kingdoms in 1497. Although the Mossi forces were defeated in this effort, they resisted attempts to impose Islam. Although there were a number of jihad states in the region trying to forcibly spread Islam, namely the Massina Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, the Mossi kingdoms largely retained their traditional religious and ritual practices. Being located near many of the main Islamic states of West Africa, the Mossi kingdoms developed a mixed religious system recognizing some authority for Islam while retaining earlier African spiritual belief systems.
Once a powerful city-state, Benin exists today as a modern African city in what is now south-central Nigeria. The present-day oba (King) of Benin traces the founding of his dynasty to A.D. 1300. The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial Edo state. Until the late 19th century, it was one of the major powers in West Africa. According to one eye witness report written by Olfert Dapper, “The King of Benin can in a single day make 20,000 men ready for war, and, if need be, 180,000, and because of this he has great influence among all the surrounding peoples… . His authority stretches over many cities, towns and villages. There is no King thereabouts who, in the possession of so many beautiful cities and towns, is his equal.”
When European merchant ships began to visit West Africa from the 15th century onwards, Benin came to control the trade between the inland peoples and the Europeans on the coast. When the British tried to expand their own trade in the 19th century, the Benin warriors killed their envoys.
I am from Eritrea,” I said proudly. My teacher pulled down the map and asked me to point it out. I couldn’t find my country on the map because it hadn’t yet gained independence. I pointed to the northern highlands of Ethiopia and said “This is where my country is supposed to be”. My teacher said, “So you’re from Ethiopia?” to which I replied “No, I’m from Eritrea.
Semien Mountains are located in Northern Ethiopia. A world Heritage site, the mountains are a part of the Semien Mountains National Park.
The mountains were created from lava outpourings, between 40 and 25 million years ago.
The tallest is Ras Dashen. At 4,550m high, Ras Dashen is the highest peak in Ethiopia, and the tenth highest in Africa. Due to the extreme heights, this is one of the few places in Africa where snow can regularly fall.
The mountains are dotted with small villages, connected by tracks. These villages were first occupied by Ethiopian Jews, who used the cover of the mountains to hide from attack by Christian Emperors.
The Afar are a people found primarily in northern Ethiopia with smaller populations in Eritrea and Djibouti. Originally ruled by smaller states, they were unified under the Sultanate of Aussa in 1734. The sultanate slowly began to fall into the Colonial Italian sphere in the 19th century, being incorporated into Italian East Africa in 1936. Following the end of World War II, Ethiopia invaded and annexed the region in 1945. Despite this, the 1950s-1970s saw the former state and the Afar people hold onto a degree of self-governance within the Ethiopian Empire. This ended in 1974 following the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a Marxist-Leninist junta, prompting the Afar royal family to flee to Saudi Arabia. This resulted in the creation of groups such as the Afar Liberation Front and the Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front, who sought to defend Afar interests, sometimes through violent means. Today the Afar have a degree of autonomy within Ethiopia, living primarily in the Afar Regional State.
New species of early human discovered near fossil of ‘Lucy’
Australopithecus deyiremeda lived about 3.4 million years ago in northern Ethiopia, around the same time and place as Australopithecus afarensis.
By Ewen Callaway
Welcome, Lucy’s neighbour. Fossilized jaws and teeth found1 in northern Ethiopia belong to an ancient human relative that researchers say lived around the same time as Lucy’s kind, Australopithecus afarensis, but is a distinct species. The remains of the new species, which has been dubbed Australopithecus deyiremeda and lived between 3.5 million and 3.3 million years ago, were uncovered just 35 kilometres from the Hadar site at which Lucy and other A. afarensis individuals were found. Fossils from A. afarensis date to between 3.7 million and 3 million years ago, so the two species would have overlapped (although Lucy herself may have lived too recently to see one).
The find suggests that several distinct hominins — species more closely related to humans than to chimps — roamed eastern Africa more than 3 million years ago. A third species, Kenyanthropus platyops, lived in what is now Kenya around the same time2. “The question that is going to come up is which taxa gave rise to our genus, Homo,” says Yohannes Haille-Selassie, a palaeoanthropologist at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Ohio, whose team reports its discovery in Nature1. “That’s going to be the 64-million-dollar question.”
Ethiopian healing scrolls eliminate illness by purging evil spirits and demons from a sick person. It was a practice common among Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the northern mountainous region of Ethiopia. Part of a larger healing ritual, the scrolls were commissioned by the those who could not write, during a serious illness. The scrolls were thought to combat the spiritual problem, while medicine and plants combated by physical problem.
(click on the images to see their full size)
photo by @randyolson | words by @neilshea13 — One day he went into the forest alone. He had in mind what he wanted. Not every boy knows with such clarity who he prefers for a companion but he had decided on a baboon. The boy somehow captured the animal. The details are vague. This is what he said. To tell you the truth, I don’t believe it. Though he had a certain kind of courage no boy this small has any business chasing dangerous animals around so far outside the Suri village. Especially not in the nurseries of big mother baboons, which are all teeth and banshee shrieking. In any case the beginning is irrelevant. There is always a boy like this, and a baboon without a name. For a while they would be great friends. Everyday they wandered and played together. House to house, aunt to aunt, asking food, wasting time. They are coming to be almost the same age, human and baboon lives passing like satellites, their orbits nearing, nearing. In the afternoons they walked in long cool shadows, just the pair of them. In the evenings the baboon slept curled beside him. It was saddest because you knew it couldn’t last. After this brief perigee the baboon would grow bigger, stronger, surpassing the boy’s young courage, willful and unpredictable as everything that lives. Then the decision so far suspended would come down, and it would not be the boy’s to make. But let’s don’t talk about that. The daydream can play out a little longer. See how the boy has painted its face. See how it holds him, how it desires to be held. This is a dream you will recognize, one we’ve shared. To be understood for a moment beyond words.
For the last six years, Randy Olson and I have been documenting culture, change, and conflict in the watershed that connects southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. In the August issue of @natgeo magazine we’ll publish the latest in our series, #NGwatershedstories. Join us at @randyolson and @neilshea13 as we follow water through the desert.
Yameserage Tesfa, 24. She has her own event promotion business. She just spent one hour getting her hair done in a classic hairstyle from the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia. Haya Hulet, Addis Ababa.
We often share stunning photos of streamers of charged plasma being excited by the solar wind high above the atmosphere, but here is a beautiful example from the mineral realm, from a nodule mined in the rhyolitic silica rich lavas and welded ashes of Ethiopia. These lavas are part of the endless eruptions that accompany the rifting of a continent, and the birth in the distant future of a new ocean all along the Great African rift valley, stretching from the Mediterranean into the heart of the continent. The photo is stunning enough to mostly speak for itself, what a beaut.