Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, from the Greek: ἀλέξω alexo “to defend, help” and ἀνήρ aner “man”), was a King (Basileus/Βασιλιάς) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history’s most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. When he succeeded his father to the throne in 336 BC, after Philip was assassinated, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He had been awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father’s Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. Read More || Edit
…also known as the Common Wattle-eye or Scarlet-spectacled Wattle-eye, the brown-throated wattle-eye is a species of wattle-eye (Platysteiridae) that is known to breed in west central and northeast tropical Africa. Brown-throated wattle-eyes are typically encountered in secondary forest and other wooded areas. They are even known to occupy gardens. Like other members of the family Platysteiridae, P. cyanea is insectivorous, foraging in small groups for a variety of insects and other invertebrates.
Also known as the common wattle-eye or the scarlet-spectacled wattle-eye, the brown-throated wattle-eye is a species of Wattle-eye (Platysteiridae) which breeds in west central and northeast tropical Africa. Brown-throated wattle-eyes are commonly found in areas of secondary forest and other woodland areas. Where they will forage in small groups for a wide range of insects and other arthropods.
Very little DNA has been retrieved from ancient Egyptian remains, and there are not many studies on the modern population. However, the results of analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome in the living Egyptian population show the existence of very old African lineages that are consistent with the fossil remains and of younger lineages of more recent evolution, along with evidence of the assimilation of later migrants from the Near East and Europe; mtDNA is passed only through the female line, from mother to offspring, and the relevant part of the Y chromosome, the nonrecombining section, passes only from father to son. The basic overall genetic profile of the modern population is consistent with the diversity of ancient populations that would have been indigenous to northeastern Africa and subject to the range of evolutionary influences over time, although researchers vary in the details of their explanations of those influences…There is no scientific reason to believe that the primary ancestors of the Egyptian population emerged and evolved outside of northeast Africa…. The basic overall genetic profile of the modern population is consistent with the diversity of ancient populations that would have been indigenous to northeastern Africa and subject to the range of evolutionary influences over time, although researchers vary in the details of their explanations of those influences
by S. O. Y. Keita, Senior Research Associate, National Human Genome Center, Howard University; Research Associate, Anthropology, Smithsonian Institute