nonverbal behavior

Autism Vs Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Is This ASD or PTSD ?

@askaboutautism and @undiagnosedautismfeels have gotten quite a few questions regarding autism and PTSD, specifically ones asking about the differences and how to tell if you’re autistic if you’ve also got PTSD. I had troubling finding resources that clearly laid out how the two could look like each other, and also what the differences were when I was first researching autism. It make figuring things out rather difficult. I also got a positive response when asking if anyone would be interested in a post like this, so as an autistic with PTSD, I’ve written up this post.

This post is written with PTSD caused by chronic or long-term trauma (often called Complex or C-PTSD, but is not officially recognized as a dx in the DSM 5) in mind, and obviously influenced by my PTSD. My official dx is PTSD (chronic per the DSM IV and still included on my records as of 2017 for some reason) with dissociative symptoms.

So, here’s the Diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder pulled off the CDC website. With examples of both how PTSD could resemble the ASD criteria, and how being autistic would fulfill the criteria. These are by no means exhaustive or iron-clad, they are simply a starting point.

Keep reading

Diagnostic Criteria for 299.00 Autism Spectrum DisorderPersistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text):Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understand relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.

Specify current severity:

Severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior.

Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text):Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypes, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat same food every day).Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g., strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests).Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g. apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).

Specify current severity:

Severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior.

Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life).Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social communication should be below that expected for general developmental level.

Note: Individuals with a well-established DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Individuals who have marked deficits in social communication, but whose symptoms do not otherwise meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder, should be evaluated for social (pragmatic) communication disorder.

Specify if:

With or without accompanying intellectual impairment

With or without accompanying language impairment

Associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor

(Coding note: Use additional code to identify the associated medical or genetic condition.)

Associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder

(Coding note: Use additional code[s] to identify the associated neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder[s].

With catatonia (refer to the criteria for catatonia associated with another mental disorder)

(Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 catatonia associated with autism spectrum disorder to indicate the presence of the comorbid catatonia.)

This “autism mom” kept bringing up the DSM, saying verbal autistics , and people who were previously diagnosed with Asperger’s and PPD-NOS aren’t autistic. She ended up deleting her comment once I posted the DSM she was so adamant about we were misquoting. I’m not a mother, but I am autistic(though I can function at a reasonable level with hard work). I understand she is a frustrated mother trying to help her child, BUT you can’t sweep other autistics under the rug just because “they aren’t like your son.” She’s also assuming her son doesn’t have anything to say because he isn’t verbal which is sad. :(

anonymous asked:

Re. the ask about personality disorders overlapping w autism - I'd love the analysis of OCPD if you could. Undiagnosed but 3000% sure for years I have OCPD and still am but relate to so much autism stuff, would love to hear more. Thank you!

I’d be happy to do an analysis of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder vs autism. Let’s start by looking at the traits of OCPD. The bolded items overlap with autism, the italicized items may be confused with autistic traits, and plain text items are just OCPD.

OCPD Traits according to the DSM-5:

  • Preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Preoccupation with mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
  • Excessively careful and prone to repetition
  • Extraordinary attention to detail and need to repeatedly check for possible mistakes
  • Oblivious to other’s annoyance with the delays and inconveniences that result from behavior
  • Poor time allocation with most important task left until the last moment
  • Perfectionism that interferes with task completion
  • Unable to complete tasks because own overly strict standards are not met
  • Excessively devoted to work and productivity at the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (with the exception of cases where economic necessity requires such devotion)
  • Feels there is not enough time to take an evening or weekend day off
  • Takes work along on vacations or during leisure activities so as to not “waste time”
  • May concentrate greatly on household chores such as repeated excessive cleaning
  • Time spent with friends is typically part of a formally organized activity (e.g. sports)
  • Hobbies are approached as serious tasks requiring careful organization and hard work to master
  • Overly conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible regarding matters of morality, ethics, or values (with the exception of cases where this is accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • May force themselves and others to follow rigid moral principles and very strict standards of performance
  • Mercilessly self-critical about own mistakes
  • Rigidly deferential to authority and rules and insists on literal compliance with no rule bending for extenuating circumstances
  • Unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when there is no sentimental value
  • Reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless others submit to one’s own exact way of doing things
  • Often gives very detailed instructions about how things should be done
  • Will reject help believing no one else can do it right
  • Miserly spending style toward both self and others
  • Money viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
  • Shows rigidity and stubbornness
  • Plans ahead with meticulous detail and is unwilling to consider changes
  • Difficulty acknowledging the viewpoints of others

Traits shared between Autism and OCPD:

  • Rigidly deferential to authority and rules and insists on literal compliance with no rule bending for extenuating circumstances
  • Shows rigidity and stubbornness
  • Plans ahead with meticulous detail and is unwilling to consider changes
  • Difficulty acknowledging the viewpoints of others

Here, we have a few traits that are similar between autism and OCPD. All of the overlap comes down rules. With autism, we have the criteria in section B, criteria 2:

  1. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat same food every day).

This need for sameness can manifest as a strict adherence to rules with autism, though, for autistic people, the rules we adhere to often aren’t the rules of society but our own rules that have developed over time whereas people with OCPD have a tendency to adhere to societal rules.

Due to the autistic need for sameness, we can appear rigid and stubborn as can people with OCPD.

Autistic people may plan ahead due to need for routine and have difficulty diverging from these plans similar to how people with OCPD plan ahead and are unwilling to consider changes to these plans.

Finally, there is difficulty acknowledging the viewpoints of others which can occur with autism due to impaired Theory of Mind.

Traits of OCPD that may be confused with Autistic Traits: 

  • Oblivious to other’s annoyance with the delays and inconveniences that result from behavior
  • Poor time allocation with most important task left until the last moment
  • Time spent with friends is typically part of a formally organized activity (e.g. sports)

These traits may appear similar to behavior displayed by autistic people, but the internal experiences are different with each.

Autistic people may be oblivious to other people’s annoyance due to difficulty reading social cues, however, autistic people who struggle with this generally struggle with reading emotions in general from other people while people with OCPD are oblivious to the annoyance with their behavior due to becoming so wrapped up in perfecting things.

Autistic people may have difficulty with time management due to executive dysfunction which may result in important tasks being left until the last moment while people with OCPD struggle with time management due to needing to do things over and over to perfection.

Autistic people may only socialize as part of formally organized activities due to difficulties with socialization while people with OCPD do so because they perceive a lack of time for socialization.  

Traits that are just OCPD

  • Preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Preoccupation with mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
  • Excessively careful and prone to repetition
  • Extraordinary attention to detail and need to repeatedly check for possible mistakes
  • Perfectionism that interferes with task completion
  • Unable to complete tasks because own overly strict standards are not met
  • Excessively devoted to work and productivity at the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (with the exception of cases where economic necessity requires such devotion)
  • Feels there is not enough time to take an evening or weekend day off
  • Takes work along on vacations or during leisure activities so as to not “waste time”
  • May concentrate greatly on household chores such as repeated excessive cleaning
  • Hobbies are approached as serious tasks requiring careful organization and hard work to master
  • Overly conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible regarding matters of morality, ethics, or values (with the exception of cases where this is accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • May force themselves and others to follow rigid moral principles and very strict standards of performance
  • Mercilessly self-critical about own mistakes
  • Unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when there is no sentimental value
  • Reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless others submit to one’s own exact way of doing things
  • Often gives very detailed instructions about how things should be done
  • Will reject help believing no one else can do it right
  • Miserly spending style toward both self and others
  • Money viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes

Finally, we have the traits that are just OCPD but are not autistic traits. This group of traits can be used to most easily distinguish OCPD from autism. Keep in mind, it’s possible to both be autistic and have OCPD.

I’ll end with the DSM-5 criteria for OCPD for those who are beginning to suspect that this may be of relevance in their own lives.

 A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: 

  1. Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost. 
  2. Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met). 
  3. Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity). 
  4. Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification).
  5. Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
  6. Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things. 
  7. Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes. 
  8. Shows rigidity and stubbornness. 

 -Sabrina

little trans girl ahsoka things

ahsoka comes out to anakin and padme first. anakin immediately shows his undying support and acceptance for her. padme offers to show her how to do her makeup.

ahsoka unconsciously mimicking the nonverbal behavior of master shaak ti

plo koon helping ahsoka pick her new name and go through the process of changing her legal name

ahsoka bursting into tears when she learns the jedi council will fund her HRT and surgeries

anonymous asked:

Do you know of it could you provide a list of both typical and atypical signs of autism in a child? If possible, specifically female? Thank you very much!

Autism traits are the same in childhood and adulthood, it’s just that kids and adults are put in very different situations so the traits might appear differently :)

See here for the autistic-made criteria, and here for some atypical autism traits that are more common in cis girls (but not exclusive to them).

And here’s the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria:

A.      Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive, see text. Must meet 3/3):

1.       Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.

2.       Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.

3.       Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.

B.      Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text. Must meet at least 2/4):

1.       Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).

2.       Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns or verbal nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat food every day).

3.       Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g, strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interest).

4.       Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g., apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).

C.      Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life).

D.      Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.

E.       These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social communication should be below that expected for general developmental level.


Hope that helped !

- Sister Cat

anonymous asked:

what is "autistic nonverbal communication and behavior"? I saw this on the alternative diagnosis thing floating around tumblr and... very confused what is being talked about, since only neurotypicals tend to teach nonverbal communication and behavior.

it’s not a very well defined thing because, as you say, only neurotypicals tend to teach (and study) (their own) nonverbal communication and behaviour.

but that doesn’t mean that autistics don’t have it. of course, there is a lot more variation among autistic nonverbal communication and behaviour than among allistics. and for every common example that i give, there will be loads of autistics who do not do this specific thing at all. 

however, there are certain behaviours and certain types of nonverbal communication that quite often seem to happen naturally between autistics and that frequently work very well among us, but that make neurotypicals go “????” at best. 

specifically for nonverbal communication, some examples:

copying, echoing or mimicking stims, doing the same stims at the same time or doing sort of “complementing” stims, for example one person swaying side to side, the other swaying back and forth.

using stims as nonverbal communication. squeaking when excited. flapping hands when scared. swaying when agitated. the combination between feeling and stim is highly individual, but many autistics express feelings with stims. 

alternatively, complete lack of body language. communicating even highly emotional things while not doing any facial expressions or moving our bodies at all. 

autistic posture. i made a post with photos about this a while back, here’s the link. many autistics move their bodies in ways that appear “weird” or “tense” to allistics. 

apart from nonverbal communication alone, there are many other communication behaviours that are common among autistics. we have modes of conversation that autistics don’t have, for example “parallel conversations”: everyone is talking about a different subject. mutual infodumping works like this too. i may be talking about computers, my friend may be talking about birds at the same time and we’re having a good time together.

there are probably many more examples, you’re welcome to add to this.

personally, i spot these kinds of behaviour and body language quite easily and then i get very excited because it makes it so easy to engage in interaction with people who behave like i do. i’m just comfortable with them from the start. 

-lhmod

anonymous asked:

So I’m professionally diagnosed with autism, but most of the symptoms I’ve never expirenced at all. In fact, it seems the only thing I have that’s an autism thing is low empathy. I was recently told a lot of other things I do point to ASPD (antisocial personality disorder) of which low empathy is a big part of, so I was wondering, is it possible I have that instead? Do you happen to know the differences I should look for between the two?

They may superficially resemble one another in terms of What (i.e. difficulties with reciprocity in relationships, empathy / guilt etc.) but not the How / Why (i.e. with ASD it generally is about not being able to do things due to a lack of understanding, such as coming across as self-centered due to a lack of theory of mind / perspective-taking, whereas with ASPD it tends to be about not wanting or not caring to do things, such as putting oneself first and putting others down for personal gain).

I can see how an autistic person could be confused for someone with ASPD on a surface level if all of their autistic traits were to be misinterpreted and malicious intent was attributed to their actions, as often happens, i.e. 

  • being told “you know what you did” and being seen as delibertely mean-spirited, dishonest and provocative when unwittingly hurting or embarassing someone but having no idea what they did wrong,
  • being seen as cold and careless when actually oblivious to the social cues that say “I am sad and need to be comforted”, not knowing how to show compassion or express affection (instead of lacking compassion, guilt or affection)
  • appearing self-absorbed or confrontational when talking about themselves / their interests extensively, even if it’s done as a way of relating to the world and others, or when following their own rules / routines instead of those laid out by others
  • meltdowns, shutdowns or overloads being interpreted as manipulation, controlling behaviour or aggression as well as as signs of impulsivity or risk-taking behaviour, especially if there may be self-destructive or violent behaviour as part of the meltdown / overload.
  • As far as I know, both autistics and people with ASPD may struggle with reading facial expressions, but while autistics may have difficulties with expressions across the board, people with ASPD are more likely to specifically have difficulties recognizing expressions of fear in others.

As for differences - even if you don’t take into account criterion A of the autism criteria of the DSM-V (i.e., deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction and deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships), none of the traits under criterion B (stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech, insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns or nonverbal behavior, highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus, or hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment) resemble any of the ASPD criteria.

Here is a link to the diagnostic criteria of the different personality disorders, including both DSM-IV and DSM-V. ASPD is the first one on the list.

-Kath

Neuro Linguistic Programming - a Primer

Now, first up, you may ask: why are we talking about this?
Because, in the glorious movie Kingsman: The Secret Service, the psychological construct NLP or Neuro Linguistic Programming was mentioned. Specifically, Merlin says (paraphrased) to the trainees “Let’s see how your NLP training is coming by going on a little mission. In this case, you will use it to seduce a target.” Subsequently, our star trainees attempt to strike up a conversation with the target, opening with some “negging” and Roxy’s placebo-tastic calling-out of Charlie’s supposed NLP. And because we’re all giant fandom nerds, we love our details and homages and striving to be as accurate as a minimal amount of research effort will allow us to be in writing our fics. Ahem.

Next you might be asking: who is this Trill person to be talking about this subject?
*dons nerd glasses* Well, that’s Dr. Trill to you! (jk you totes don’t have to call me that). But yes, I hold a Ph.D. in personality and social psychology, meaning I know a lot about (and have in fact generated some of) the science of stuff like this in the field of Psychology. Mmmbasically while like all scientists ever I have biases in my knowledge and am not omniscient, I know my shit here fairly well. And if you have questions I’m happy to talk all about this stuff. 

Hokay. So. What is NLP?

Basically… It’s a category of interrogation/manipulation/compliance techniques that’s about using people’s own inherent cognitive/thought structures (neuro) by choosing specific types of words and phrases and meanings (linguistic) to manipulate people into thinking/behaving the way you want them to (programming). It is not about seduction, although in the movie Merlin chooses to have them practice their skills in a seduction situation. NLP can be used for seduction. NLP can be used for other things. Not all seduction missions require NLP.

BUT WAIT THERE’S MORE!
Neuro Linguistic Programming in its original form is… *drumroll please*
Absolute bullshit.

Yep. It was an over-eager application of some psychological research findings in cognitive psychology mixed with the scientific-equivalent-of-Billy Mays dudes trying to sell people some techniques to control their lives. It’s pretty much up there with homeopathy and hypnosis treatments and all that other jazz. NLP is widely considered a pseudo-science, because it started from some stuff that was maybe science but goes WAY past the domain of what real science has demonstrated (real science, i.e. the shit I do with my doctorate pals. And yes. We don’t know shit. Psychology is a baby science. A BABY. You can’t magically fix your life with FIVE HANDY PSYCH TECHNIQUES or whatever.)

Unfortunately, these techniques are still packaged up as if they’re scientifically backed and sold to people under many guises; ‘pick-up artists’ for one, and law-enforcment officers are another group off the top of my head that still practice this stuff under the NLP banner. Even when something is kicked out of psychological science, it takes almost 40 years for it to fully trickle down through most of the other places it spread to like education and law enforcement. So sad. It is, in fact, a bit ironic because the con-artists that sell stuff like this are actually using techniques for compliance and manipulation that they pretend to sell, but they aren’t actually selling what they say they’re selling. But I digress!

That’s not so say that the fundamentals of what NLP claims to stand for aren’t real. There ARE consistent or common cognitive (mental/thought) structures in people (as far as our baby science can tell, within narrow samples of particular majority groups in… well, basically in the middle-class US and some of Europe). Knowledge of how people’s cognitive structures and such function CAN enable an individual to use people’s brains against them, sometimes, maybe if you’re lucky and talented basically.

In contemporary terms, some people still use the term NLP as an umbrella term for any sort of compliance or manipulation techniques that can be used on other people with just words and nonverbal behaviors in an interpersonal interaction.

TV shows and movies love to glamorize NLP-type techniques and suggest that they can be used effectively in almost any situation (Leverage uses it to the point of tricking a guy into changing his password to what they want it to be just by dropping some numbers repeatedly into conversations and nonverbal tags. Sigh.). That is, of course, bullshit. But then we’re talking about super-secret spy gentlemen with umbrella guns and villains in neon so…

Real Compliance/Manipulation techniques:

Now I’m just going to give you a couple to start with, but there’s lots more out there. Some of this is from my own research specialty, some of it from related specialties. Some of the below is from a book called “Influence” by Bob Cialdini that compiles a lot of research on manipulation and compliance techniques, and though a lot of it is still not solidly confirmed with rigorous science, it’s about as good as you can get on the topic. FYI every marketing company and car salesperson and anyone trying to make you do anything ever is probably using a lot of this stuff against you so arm yourself and read it, it’s quite a good book! I have the 2009 edition so the stuff I read is likely 8 or so years out of date by 2015 (no, I’m not bad at math. It’s that books are slow and take years to publish so even a brand-new book is already years out of date… yes every textbook you’ve ever read from is full of misinformation, sorry kids), but it’s still a great place to start.

Foot-in-the-door technique
If you want something big from some stranger that they have no real reason to give you, let’s say to get them to come home with you, there’s a good chance that if you go up to them and say “I want you to sleep with me” you’re going to end up getting a drink in your face.
But even a stranger is likely to put up with something small. Ask for a very tiny favor, like to hold your jacket while you tie your shoelace, or something like that. This makes people more inclined to help you the next time you ask for a somewhat bigger favor. Cognitive Dissonance theory also suggests that having done a favor for someone makes you like them more (because your brain goes… 'well I wouldn’t have done that favor for them if I didn’t like them, right? Therefore I must like them’). That’s one theory. Point is, however it works, it works. Asking people for small favors that step up in magnitude will make them significantly more likely to do the big favor you want a little later.

Social Proof / Conformity techniques
This is great for spies who have other agents around to help or control over the environment. When something is uncertain, or someone is trying to make a decision, humans reflexively look to other humans to see what they’re doing. This is the herd instinct sort of behavior. If everyone is running and screaming, there’s a good chance it might be a good idea for you to run as well. So the same thing applies in other situations. If you are proposing something - like if Valentine was trying to convince someone of his evil plan - your target is much more likely to be convinced if other people (who don’t appear to be your people) are going along with it or agreeing with something you’re saying. It’s actually brilliant that he was meeting with the people in twos when he met with Tilde… if she was at all going to be susceptible to being convinced, she’d have been significantly more likely to agree when her compatriot agreed. Seeing him agree with Valentine would likely make her feel more doubt than if she’d been having the conversation alone. It’s hard to avoid. Not sure if that guy is hot? Well if someone else sitting beside you tells you they think he’s hot, chances are your puny human mind is going to go “sure I guess he’s hot” if you don’t have any reason to think otherwise. If other people want it, it must be good!

Reciprocity
Want to make one of your friends really upset for no apparent reason? Do the following: Ask your friend for the time of day - but when they obligingly look at their watch and tell you the number, do ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO THANK THEM. Do not nod, or smile, or say thanks, or anything of the sort. Just continue doing whatever you’re doing. Watch them lose their shit (or yourself become horrendously uncomfortable). Warning, this may not work with very very close friends (higher threshold for scorekeeping) or with new friends it may end up making your friend mad at you even after you explain it.
People are conditioned to have a give and take for everything they do. If you want someone to do something for you - DO A FAVOR FOR THEM. Especially one they didn’t even ask for, so now they feel uncomfortable and like they owe you something. It’s a very powerful desire for humans to see balance in a small give and take way. Don’t believe me? Look up how much the Hare Krishna made in 'donations’ before they were banned from shoving their stupid flowers in everyone’s face.

Recency/Primacy/Familiarity
Now, you can’t necessarily MAKE someone think something later unless you’re a dreamwalker in Inception… but you can give them a nudge. Human brains are more likely to remember things that are Recent, Primal, or Familiar. This means, if I gave you a string of fifty words and asked you to remember them, you’d be most capable of remembering the words at the end, the words at the beginning, and any words that appeared in frequency (like if I named a bunch of different berries, boysenberry, strawberry, you’d have a better time remembering that there were berries). Familiarity can also refer to the fact that you remember things better if they pertain to you - e.g. you remember this new stranger’s name is Colin because you once named your dog Colin, or, you remember the name of the place someone told you they’d gone because you’ve always wanted to go there.
So if you’re clever, you can basically sortof make someone remember something you want them to at a later time by taking advantage of these three things that make it easier for them to form memories about what you’re telling them.

Similarity
Briefly, one more thing; you like someone better if they are similar to you in some way. If they tell you that they like mint-chip ice cream, and you like mint-chip ice cream, you just somewhere in your brain go YASSS THIS IS A GOOD CREATURE I LIKE THEM for really no good reason. This is great for spies who have all sorts of inappropriate personal info on their targets!
Similarly, nonverbal behaviors like (SUBTLY - it backfires bigtime if they catch you) mimicking a person’s behaviors can lead them to feel a heightened sense of rapport with you, feeling more engaged in the interaction and liking you more. So if they drink their drink, have a sip of yours at the same time. If they gesture, you gesture in your agreements or fix your hair or move your glass on the table so that you’re both moving together. If they lean back and cross their legs, you lean back and cross your legs. It’s about being in sync with each other, and it’s not hard to do if you want to.

… okay that was a lot.

There’s so, SO much more than that, but I could literally talk about this shit for hundreds of pages, so I’m going to stop there and hopefully that’s given you something to start with! GO FORTH AND MANIPULATE (you’re going to use your powers for good, right? Right…)

anonymous asked:

I'm the almost diagnosed anon. It was the professionals, but she tried to diagnose me as though I was a lot younger (I'm 16 and had the children's questionnaire which is v uncommon) and when I explained that my "social reciprocity" was there because I learnt to do so, and bullying played a part but I also just copied people to make my life either. She said if I were truly autistic I wouldn't have the theory of mind to care about being bullied despite my not understanding being a joke was a

Huge part of my bullying. This was the only part that men’s to didn’t get a diagnosis.

She also said because my special interest in one series of books wasn’t obscure enlightening go it couldn’t be a special interest. I thought that because of the intensity it would be and t actually caused problems (the only thing I’d write about in school) and the fact I wanted to share my special interest meant I also couldn’t be autistic.

Those were the two points against me and she refused to listen when I tried to explain that I was faking we contact, and I had learnt. She said “autistic traits” and anxiety, but the only thing that she didn’t think was “autistic enough” was social reciprocity and as I’m afab that’s really normal.


“You can’t be autistic because you cared about being bullied” Oh my god. That is so unprofessional. I was bullied until high school and I cared, I cared so much !! What does she think bullying feels like ? Does she think autistic people have no emotions ?

“You can’t be autistic because your special interest was a non-obscure book series“ This is an extract from my diagnosis review talking about my special interests. As you can see, I had the most obscure interest ever ! (/sarcasm)

The only part I’m not worried about is the children’s questionnaire. Autism has to show up in early childhood, so questionnaires commonly ask about autistic traits in childhood, and can be filled by adults and/or their parents with what they remember about that time and validated retrospectively. This was the case for me:

Finally, in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria it says that you must exhibit all of the traits in this category:

A.      Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive, see text):

1.       Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.

2.       Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.

3.       Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.

But the criteria also specifies that “Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life).” If you exhibited these traits earlier in life but you can hide them now, they still count. And that professional should have known that.

- Sister Cat

anonymous asked:

Is it valid to identify as autistic if I don't fit one of the section A criteria (the difficulty with nonverbal communication one)? I really feel like autism describes my experience but because of that one thing I probably can't get diagnosed. Is it appropriating to identify as autistic? Would I then be PDD-NOS?

To be considered autistic, you need to fit all three social criteria. However, with the way things are worded in the DSM it can be hard to tell if you actually fit a criteria. The following is a list of examples of how you can meet the nonverbal criteria taken from this post:

2. “Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction; ranging from poorly integrated‐  verbal and nonverbal communication, through abnormalities in eye contact and body‐language, or deficits in understanding and use of nonverbal communication, to total lack of facial expression or gestures. ”

  • Differences in use of eye contact
  • Differences in body posturing
  • Differences in the use of gestures
  • Differences in vocal tone
  • Differences in affect
  • Difficulty coordinating verbal and nonverbal communication
  • May be averse to eye contact
  • May make too much eye contact
  • May not know when to make eye contact
  • May use eye contact only in specific situations such as only with familiar people or only with strangers
  • May face away from listener during conversation
  • May appear uninterested in conversation
  • May not use gestures to deliberately communicate
  • May have difficulty understanding other’s body posturing
  • May not use typical gestures such as pointing, waving, or nodding/shaking head
  • May have difficulty understanding the gestures others make
  • May speak too loudly or too quietly for a situation
  • May speak with different pitch, intonation, rhythm, stress, or prosody than is typical
  • May speak very quickly or very slowly
  • More limited or exaggerated facial expressions than is typical
  • May appear cold or unengaged
  • Limited range of tone of voice
  • May have difficulty conveying emotions via words
  • May have difficulty interpreting or understanding other’s nonverbal communication
  • Words may not match up with facial expressions/tone of voice
  • May have difficulty coordinating eye contact and gestures

If after reading this list, you still think that you don’t meet the criteria for autism, then I would suggest looking into autistic cousins- i.e. other conditions that have overlapping traits with autism such as ADHD or social anxiety. If you are going by the DSM, PDD-NOS no longer exists so it wouldn’t be considered a diagnosis anymore. However, if you identify with all the other criteria for autism, it is likely you will find that if you look over this list, that you do, in fact, meet the criteria. Whether you’re autistic or an autistic cousin, you are welcome to send in more asks as you go through this process and we will be happy to help you. 

-Sabrina

In spirit of autism awareness: autism and FE:A's Cynthia

Hey guys, this is a day after that selfie day, but we’ve still got the vibes, right? I was tired last night, but tonight I want to call to mind an issue I think a lot about myself, ASD representation in the media.

The speculated “Aspies” I see in media, (L, Near, Bones, Sheldon, MIRIEL), have some stuff in common. They’re all introverted and cold, coming off sometimes as unlikable or inhuman. Of course, many Aspies ARE like this— but many AREN’T. And the “charm” and “fascinating character” of a computer-like Aspie can detriment other Aspies, who have difficulty coming to terms with their diagnosis and may have to work harder to convince others that they have ASD. I certainly have issues with it.

Fire Emblem: Awakening has two characters, Miriel and her son, Laurent, who people put on the spectrum because of, well, their cold, genius personas. And they very well could be on it, (though I’m told Laurent breaks character for a bit), but I’m not as excited about their representation. It’s been done before.

Cynthia is another character in the game, and frankly put, I believe she could actually have ASD.

Cynthia? Dimwitted, bubbly, extroverted Cynthia? Well, yes. For one thing, she does have a marked impairment with socialization, mostly due to her obsession with heroes and lack of savvy with it. She doesn’t seem to realize when her peers are talking down to her, but I’ll cover this. Here’s an excerpt of the now-retired criteria for Asperger’s syndrome, (I’m using this because it’s a little more exact than “generally on the AS):

(A) marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction:

Cynthia’s whole support with her father has her ignoring his “ummmm what” nonverbal cues when talking about her heroic entry. She doesn’t pick up on them. Maybe she’s just excited about her heroics, though her general lack of picking up on people being dishonest with her or telling stories, (Sumia), makes me think that she really has issues reading nonverbal cues.

(B) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level:

Uh. Ye. She has friends, but they tend not to take her seriously. Severa points it out, and it’s been noted by others that she’s kind of annoying.

That’s two from that category. Now for one from the next:

(A) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus:

HEROOOOES! But srsly, practically all of Cynthia’s supports are about her being a hero. It could be a coping mechanism, but she doesn’t stop after she meets her mother and saves the world. It’s not a temporary fix. She continues her quest to be a hero, comically, so supposedly with the same intensity of everything.

She also has poor motor skills like her mother, has a loud voice, and doesn’t seem to understand how a normal enemy’s mind works. (No, Cynthia, they will NOT wait for you to finish your lines before they attack you. :p). She takes things at face value, (her peers’ praise, Sumia’s myths), and if she was old enough to supposedly recognize Chrom, whose nickname for her she remembered should she be his daughter, she /didn’t/ recognize his face. All these are ASD symptoms.

I have said this before, but there’s a lot Cynthia could bring to the table without a “traditional” case of ASD. Unfortunately, most autistic people don’t seem to think much about what the diagnosis means, and subscribe to the “smart and antisocial” formula. This is why more people thinking of autistic!Cynthia and other characters is really neat!!!

So let’s learn more about who we are and what ASD is, and broaden our understanding! Let’s diversify our community and media representation!

Thanks—!

anonymous asked:

IIAT to hate change a lot? Like a month ago my grandma rearranged her living room, I'm still not over it and thinking about it makes me upset. We're also rearranging our living room and getting a new couch and it's stressing me out, I've had a couple small meltdowns about it.

Yep. 

From the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism:

Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat same food every day).

-Sabrina

anonymous asked:

have you explained or would you tell the reason Chara and Frisk ended up in the Underground?

I think I have something on that in the heacanon page?
Well, I don’t think I’ve ever explained Frisk’s tbh…

I’ve talked about Frisk hiding their feelings before. You know, when you don’t want anyone to feel bad because of you, so you hold it for yourself? Frisk does that all the time. And it’s terrible for them when things aren’t going well, they usually just bottle it up forever until everything gets better. It’s a bad habit.

Frisk has always had friends, but they never had someone they could call a “best friend”. So, being in good terms with everyone doesn’t mean you can’t feel lonely. To make it worse, not everyone knows how to read sign language, and not everyone has the patience to wait for them to say full sentences.

Finally, Frisk’s “uncommon” behavior(nonverbal, flirty and, well, “amab who is too “girly”“) made it harder for them to adapt to the new family after being adopted. They didn’t want to change, but they had to if they wanted to make everyone happy.
Frisk was unhappy with not being their self anymore.
Maybe, if Frisk really was so weird and broken,
Maybe they were a problem for everyone