nobel medicine prize

Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-2012) was an Italian neurologist who in 1986 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). She also served as Senator for Life in the Italian Senate from 2001 until her death at 103.

She studied medicine at the University of Turin and remained there as an assistant after graduation, but lost her position when in 1938 Jews were barred from holding academic posts. Nevertheless she set up a laboratory in her bedroom, and the research conducted there set the basis for her groundbreaking discoveries. Over the years her work led to the creation of new anti-inflammatory drugs and a greater understanding of how cancer spreads and evolves.

In 1949 the Portuguese neurologist Antônio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine with the Swiss physiologist Walter Hess. At the 1935 International Neurological Conference in London, Moniz encountered the work of Fulton and Jacobsen who had observed behavioural changes in chimpanzees following removal of the frontal lobes. Together with Almeida Lima, Moniz initially adapted the technique for humans by drilling holes in the skull and injecting alcohol into the frontal lobes. The procedure of parietal prefrontal leucotomy was later developed, involving severing fibre tracts between the thalamus and the frontal lobes with a retractable wire loop or ‘leucotome’. The American psychiatrist Walter Freeman further developed this by accessing the frontal lobes through the eye sockets (trans-orbital leucotomy or lobotomy). The procedure was eventually abandoned as a therapy for schizophrenia with the advent of the phenothiazines. Dr Egas Moniz became an invalid and retired (1945) after he was shot in the spine by one of his patients. He died in Lisbon in 1955.

Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999) was one of the recipients of the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Throughout her career she developed a variety of new drugs, including the AIDS treatment AZT, as well as azathioprine, the first immunosuppressive drug.

Because of gender bias, she found it very difficult to obtain work despite two degrees in chemistry, and began as a food quality supervisor for supermarkets. Eventually she obtained a research position with a pharmaceutical company in New York, and went on to collaborate with the National Cancer Institute and the World Health Organization.


charité // historical figures {2/?}

emil von behring (1854-1917) was a german physician and scientist. he is credited with the discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin and the development of an antiserum (together with his colleagues kitasato shibasaburō, paul ehrlich and erich wernicke), thereby creating an effective cure for the infection that was a major cause for child death at the time. the press hailed him as the “saviour of the children”. later, he was also to become known as the “saviour of the soldiers” when he developed an improved cure for tetanus that was used to treat the soldiers fighting in the dirty trenches of world war one.

in 1901, he received the first nobel prize for medicine. in the same year, he was ennobled.

emil von behring was unpopular with colleagues, employees and students, due to his ruthless character. he cheated his jewish colleague paul ehrlich out of his fair share of profits for the diphteria anti-serum. behring himself, who had worked his way up from a poor background, became rich through the production of the anti-serum; but he remained tough on himself and others. he suffered from depression for most of his life and was addicted to morphine and opium, spending several years in psychiatric institutions.

This is why it’s a problem.

Jacinto Convit García (11 September 1913 – 12 May 2014) was a Venezuelan physician and scientist, known for developing a vaccine to fight leprosy and his studies to cure different types of cancer. He played a significant role in founding Venezuela’s National Institute of Biomedicine and held many leprosy-related positions. Among Convit’s many honors for his work on leprosy and tropical diseases was Spain's Prince of Asturias Award in the Scientific and Technical Research category and France's Legion of Honor. In 1988, Convit was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Medicine for his experimental anti-leprosy vaccine.

Linda B. Buck (b. 1947) is the recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, for her work on olfactory receptors. She has significantly added to the understanding of how odours are detected in the nose and transposed into information in the brain.

After obtaining a PhD in immunology, she became an assistant professor in neurobiology at the Harvard Medical School, and established her own research lab. She has been awarded numerous international prizes for her groundbreaking discoveries in relation to the olfactory system.

Nobel Awarded Women In Medicine and Physiology

Gerty Theresa Cori - 1947 Discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen (also known as Cori Cycle)

Rosalyn Yalow - 1977 Development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones

Barbara McClintock - 1983 Discovery of mobile genetic elements

Rita Levi-Montalcini - 1986 Discoveries of growth factors

Gertrude B. Elion - 1988 Discoveries of important principles for drug treatment

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard - 1995 Discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development

Linda B. Buck - 2004 Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi - 2008 Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus

Carol W. Greider - 2009 Discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase

Elizabeth H. Blackburn - 2009 Discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase

May-Britt Moser - 2014 Discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain

We can be the next. WE CAN DO IT!



Winner of a 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine, biochemist Gertrude Elion and her team made countless contributions to the medical field, developing drugs to fight against leukemia, gout, malaria, herpes and meningitis. She discovered an immuno-suppressive agent that would aid in kidney transplants between unrelated donors by reducing the body’s rejection of foreign tissue, and on top of all that, she oversaw research that led to the development of AZT, the first drug used for AIDS treatments.

Gerty Cori (1896-1957) was the 1947 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which she was awarded for her discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen is broken own into lactic acid in muscle tissue and stored as a source of energy. This made her the first woman to win the prize in this specific category, and only the third to win a Nobel Prize in science.

She attended and graduated from medical school in her native city of Prague, and later moved to New York, where she started a career in research and became a US citizen. She became a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1953.


These chemists just won the Nobel Prize with tiny machines

Good things come in small packages; prestigious things come in microscopic ones. On Wednesday, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that three European chemists won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for creating the “world’s smallest machines.” The creators eventually see the tiny machines entering the human blood-stream for a medical purpose.

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10 Amazing Latin@s in STEM

Luis Federico Leloir (born 1906. Paris, France)

Argentine biochemist received Nobel Prize in chemistry for his discovery of metabolic pathways in lactose.

Jacinto Convit Garcia (born 1913. Caracas, Venezuela)

A Venezuelan physician, he developed a vaccine to fight leprosy and conducted studies to cure different types of cancer. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1988.

Ellen Ochoa (born 1958. Los Angeles, CA)

Ochoa became the first Hispanic woman in space aboard the space shuttle Discovery in 1993. She is also an inventor and pioneer of spacecraft technology.

Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez (born 1942. Guantanamo, Cuba)

Member of the Soyuz 38 Crew. Became the first Cuban and first Latin American in space in 1980.

Helen Rodriguez Trias (born 1929, NYC)

Puerto Rican-American pediatrician. Became first Latina president of the American Public Health Association. Helped expand the range of public heath services for women and children in minority and low income groups. 

Jose Hernandez (born 1962. French Camp, CA)

Mexican-American engineer and NASA astronaut. Helped develop a digital mammography imaging system. First person to tweet in spanish from space. (also a UCSB graduate, go gauchos!)

Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena (born 1917, Guadalajara)

Mexican electrical engineer and inventor of early color television transmission system. Brought color television to Mexico. A television system similar to his was used by NASA in 1979 aboard Voyager to take pictures of Jupiter.

Nitza Margarita Cintron (born 1950. San Juan, Puerto Rico)

Puerto Rican scientist and chief of space medicine and health care systems at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Served as project scientist for Space Lab 2 mission in the 1980s

Mario J Molina (born 1943. Mexico City)

Currently a professor at UCSD , he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1995 for his role in the discovery of the threat to the Earth’s ozone from chlorofluorocarbon gasses (CFCs).

Martha E. Bernal (born 1931. San Antonio)

Mexican-American psychologist and first Latina to receive a psychology PhD in the United States. Promoted diversity in the field of psychology.

Tu Youyou (b. 1930) is a Chinese scientist, and the Nobel Prize winner for 2015 in Physiology or Medicine. She therefore became the first Chinese citizen to be awarded the prize in natural sciences, and the first Chinese person to receive the Lasker Award.

Throughout her career she researched Chinese herbs for their medicinal properties, and discovered an effective cure for malaria from sweet wormwood extract. The discovery is hailed as one of the most important in modern history, and has saved millions of lives since the early 1970s.

NEWSHOUR SCIENCE: Why this Japanese scientist won a 2016 Nobel Prize in medicine for cell ‘self-eating’

Yoshinori Ohsumi, a Japanese cell biologist, has won the 2016 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for his discoveries on a process whereby cells essentially eat themselves. The process is called autophagy, and though it’s essential for your health, your high school biology teacher may have skipped a lesson on autophagy due to its complexity.

Think of autophagy as a cell’s internal spa or recycling plant. Cells use autophagy for self-renewal.

When our cells are starved or otherwise stressed, they don’t immediately shut down. Instead, they employ autophagy to cannibalize their own components.

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motivatudy  asked:

for the sleepover thing: my dream is to travel the world?? really cliché but i love to travel (but well who doesnt) and win a nobel medicine prize but i think that is too much haha

Travelling the world is a great dream! What countries are you looking forward to the most? Have you got a little list written up somewhere? :D and hey you never know? i mean you could always go into medical research? :D

Originally posted by namjoonholic

✧・゚: *✧・゚:* Sleepover time! *:・゚✧*:・゚✧