Lindholm Høje (Lindholm Hills, from Old Norse haugr, hill or mound) is a major Viking burial site and former settlement situated to the north of and overlooking the city of Aalborg in Denmark.
The southern (lower) part of Lindholm Høje dates to 1000 – 1050 AD, the Viking Age, while the northern (higher) part is significantly earlier, dating back to the 5th century AD in the Nordic Iron Age. An unknown number of rocks have been removed from the site over the centuries, many, for example, being broken up in the 19th century for use in road construction.
Southwest Colorado’s Alpine Loop National Backcountry Byway provides access to some of the most spectacular scenery anywhere in the Rockies. Here, jagged peaks up to 14,000 feet in elevation rise above rushing streams and wildflower-filled meadows. A few miles further West, the American Basin in Handies Peak Wilderness Study Area has a plethora of wildflowers including fields of Colorado’s state flower, the columbine. You can scale 14,000 foot Handies Peak with a long non-technical but demanding day hike. Photo by Bob Wick, Bureau of Land Management, @mypubliclands
the 4 cardinal signs aries, cancer, libra, and capricorn are the 4 points of heaven. they are the 4 stars shining the brightest as the sun passes through them, illuminated orbs that map the soul in the sky. aries is the sign furtherest in the east and at the closest point between spirit sleep and live consciousness. this is where death meets life in the spring equinox. cancer is dwelling in high noon at the most northern point, soaking through the heat of the summer solstice. libra cannot go any further west, as the sign’s mechanism for balance equalise day light and night in the autumn equinox. capricorn is the most southern sign, and the icy snow of the winter solstice, part of capricorn is always frozen in time
cardinal signs symbolise the completion of and circle of development, we need need to master each of these personality points to activate our authentic qualities and talents. aries is the fiery ram, ‘this is me’ cancer is the watery crab, ‘where i came from and belong’ air libra is ‘this is how i connect with others and know myself’ and earthy capricorn is ‘how i am going to mark my presence’ also known as the 1st house/ascending, 4th house/IC, 7th house/descending, and 10th house/midheaven
Before you read these moments from my life, I’d like to apologize for the language, but I’m trying to recall it from the exact detail.
During the months of June, July, and August, I spent many hot summers of my childhood at my Grandmother’s house further west on the island of Cape Breton. The forest was plentiful, the plains were a vibrant green, and my Grandmother’s house was a rickety old two-story that was built sometime in the 50’s and looked like it didn’t belong.
it’s such a numbing experience writing about the killings of shia Muslims because I find myself trying to extract sympathy from Muslims who have none. I make it a point to mention those murdered were civilians, that the majority were children, and that all were from besieged towns. And then I catch myself like ‘am I really begging people to feel pained by this news?? Shouldn’t this already break their hearts?? Shouldn’t this be enough to make them weep?’
It’s very clear that the deaths of shia Muslims means very little, if anything at all, to the Ummah. Unless the deaths can be used to further Muslims in the west, they do not matter.
I am appalled at how little the recent attack on shia civilians has touched the popular bloggers on this website who are so vocal about crimes in Syria–their silence is significant. Their lack of desire to talk about this is significant.
Spanish-Speaking Countries & the Origin of their Names
Argentina comes from the latin word for silver, argentum. The first use of the word appears around the time of when the Spanish conquistadors arrived at the Río de la Plata (River of Silver, Silver River) between Argentina and Uruguay.
Bolivia comes from the name of a leader during the period of the Spanish American wars for independence, Simón Bolívar.
The valley of the Aconcagua was called “Chili” by the Incas (according to Diego de Rosales) due to a corruption of the name Tili (a tribal chief).
Another theory is that there was a town or valley called Chili in the Casma Valley in Peru, which has a resemblance to the valley of Aconcagua.
Chile could come from an indigenous word meaning “ends of the earth” or “sea gulls."
From Mapuche, "chilli” meaning “where the land ends."
From Quechua, "chiri” meaning “cold” or “tchili” meaning “snow” or “the deepest point of the Earth."
There is a bird that shouts "chile” when flying; they are in all the valleys from the center of the country to the Southern regions. These birds are called Queltehues or Treiles.
Colombia is derived from the name Christopher Columbus.
Costa Rica means “rich coast” in Spanish. Christopher Columbus was given credit for discovering this country and called it Costa Rica because he believed there to be precious metals.
Cuba is Taíno for “where fertile land is abundant” (cubao) or “great place” (coabana).
The Dominican Republic shares an island with Haiti.
Before the whole island was called Haiti, the Taíno word for mountainous land. Christopher Columbus comes to the island and renames it Hispaniola, meaning “little Spain” because its beauty was comparable to that of Spain’s.
The French arrive on the island, naming the current-day Haiti St. Domingue and the Spanish refered to the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo.
After its independence, they renamed it to the Dominican Republic
Ecuador means “equator” in Spanish, and Ecuador lies on the equator.
El Salvador means “The Savior” in Spanish.
Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, which means “place of many trees."
Another theory is that the country’s name is a alteration of the Nahoa word which means "land of the snake-eating bird.”
Honduras means “depths” in Spanish. It is said that Columbus said, "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de estas Honduras"(Thank God we have left these depths).
The Nahuatl word Mexica means “place of the Mexica” (the Aztecs).
In Nahuatl, a combination of three words creates the meaning similar to “in the navel of the moon” because the position of lakes resembles a rabbit; therefore alluding to the navel of a rabbit.
At the time of the Spanish arrival in Nicaragua, Nicarao was the current chief of the indigenous tribe. Nicarao, combined with the Spanish word for water (agua) due to it’s geography, makes Nicaragua.
Another theory is that it means “surrounded by water” in an indigenous language.
Panama comes from a word of the indigenous language meaning something similar to an “abundance of fish” (due to the country’s geography).
Coming from Guaraní, Paraguay is believed to refer to a river despite many versions of its origin. It means something similar to “river that flows through the sea” (French-Argentine historian Paul Groussac), “river crowned” (Antonio Ruiz de Montoya), or refers either to an indigenous tribe that lived along the river or a chief named Paraguaio (Félix de Azara).
The original name of Peru was Birú, Birú being the name of a ruler who lived close to the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. He was visited by Spanish explores where, at the time, was the southernmost region of the New World.
When Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru, he asked locals the name of the place. Their answer was “Viru” because of the Viru River in northern Peru (where the Spanish arrived). Instead, they heard “Peru” and since that moment, Pizarro called the land Cusco Peru.
Puerto Rico was originally called San Juan Bautista by Christopher Columbus, after the Catholic saint, Saint John the Baptist, while the capital was called the Ciudad de Puerto Rico. As time went on, gold was found in the river and the country began to be referred to as Puerto Rico.
España (Spain) comes from the Roman name Hispania, though the origins of this word are unknown.
Hispania could have stemmed from the Greek word Hesperia, which poetically means “western land” or “land of the setting sun” (in reference to Italy), which would then make Spain (further west) Hesperia ultima.
Antonio de Nebrija (Renaissance) thought that Hispania is derived from the word Hispalis, which means “city of the western world.”
Another theory is that it comes from I-Shpania (Punic), meaning something similar to “land of rabbits” because the Roman coins were adorned with a female figure with a rabbit.
Uruguay is a Guaraní word, which means “river of shellfish” or “river the uru birds come from."
The indigenous people living in Venezuela during the 1500s built their living quarters on stilts over places like Lake Maracaibo; this reminded a Spanish explorer of Venice (Italy), in which the name Venezuela means "little Venice.”
From the same place in the Maracaibo Lake, the indigenous community that lived there already had a name for the land, Veneçiuela, which meant agua grande (big waters). The Spanish spread that around and assumed that it was the name.
Please correct me if any of these are incorrect! Some of these have multiple histories and I have no way of knowing which one is correct.
The origins for some of the countries are difficult to find or too fuzzy in my opinion to write it down, but I tried to provide an explanation for the meaning (e.g. El Salvador, Honduras, etc.)
Once upon a time, in a kingdom far away, there lived a beautiful princess. She was a young princess, innocent and naive and clueless about the world. All she knew was the world behind the castle walls, the world that was her own little kingdom, and what a gorgeous kingdom she had indeed. For everything thrived and there were no disloyalty or burglary, there was only love and peace.
Her castle was her bedroom chamber, high above on the east wing of her father’s domain. It towered above her little kingdom, where rows of magnificent roses, blooming dandelions and vibrant bougainvillea grew. Further west, there was a sparkling pond where the merpeople lived.
It was her own kingdom, seen only by the eyes of her imagination, because she was often lonely. She had no friends, no partner-in-crime. Her handmaidens were all older than her and they tended to her every need, nothing more, nothing less. Her guards only existed to give their life for her, not to befriend her. Therefore, she created her own friends with the power of her mind… and loneliness.
But one day, something quite extraordinary happened.
A knock resonated through the princess’s bedroom, causing her to move from her place by the window. “You may enter.” she informed the person outside. The oak door to her bedroom opened with a creak and one of the servants of the castle entered, bowing before straightening himself.
“Your Highness,” he said with a clear voice, “the King and Queen requests your audience.”
She nodded at the servant. “Tell them I will be there shortly.” The servant bowed once more and left her room, closing the door behind him. As soon as he left, she called her handmaidens to change her clothing. When meeting her parents, she had to be dressed appropriately, and a casual gown such as the one she was wearing now was unfit for such occasion.
Once she was ready, she headed through the stone corridors towards the throne room, accompanied by her loyal guards. All her subjects that she passed bowed or curtsied to her, their princess.
“Her Royal Highness, Princess [F/N].” she heard someone announce before the large doors opened for her.
When she entered the throne room, she immediately noticed there were a few unfamiliar faces. Though she was only a young girl at the mere age of nine, she was well-educated and mature for her age. From the way they were dressed, they were Knights.
Everyone lowered their heads as the princess entered and no one spoke a word. She walked up to her parents and curtsied before speaking. “You have summoned me, father?”
“Yes, my dear.” her father stated kindly, reminding her that even under formal circumstances he was still the same man that tucked her to bed every night, no matter how busy he was, “I have called you to meet your new personal guard.”
“My… personal guard?” [F/N] repeated, confusion laced in her voice, “is there a reason for this? I have many already…”
Her father sighed and gave her a weary smile. “I’m afraid I have to remove most of them from their duties guarding you.”
“Why?” she asked, slightly alarmed.
“You do not need to know the reason now, my child. Now, come.” her father urged, beckoning her forward. Although she was still clueless to what was happening, she did as she was asked.
From the corner of her eye, she saw a young boy, about her age or perhaps a little older, step forward. Though small like her, he certainly didn’t look weak or feeble. He wore the clothes of a knight and had a sword strapped to his belt.
“This is Sir Damian, of House Wayne.” her mother voiced, “as you know, House Wayne has been loyal to the [L/N] family for generations. They are the most skilled warriors of this land. The young man is tasked with protecting you. He will go where you go, fight your battles, and if needed, lay down his life for you.”
[F/N] nodded and turned back to study Sir Damian. He had sharp features with a slightly exotic complexion. His tanned skin brought out his emerald eyes, something she decided she liked most about him.
She watched as he got down to one knee, lowering his head. He said his oath, swearing to protect her, before raising his head to look at her. Not knowing what to do, she simply smiled kindly at him.
How should someone respectfully salute a woman they met for the first time?
Thank you for coming to me with this question.
The first thing you absolutely must do is accept the fact that a woman met for the first time will take it as a grave insult if you have no visible muffin on your person. Understandably one can’t be expected to carry around a muffin at all times, so if you come upon a woman whom you haven’t met before and you are, at the time, unmuffined, you should immediately cover both of your eyes with you left hand, and place yourself flat on the ground, face down, as quickly as you can (use your right hand for support). Then you must emit a sharp whistle, followed by a long voiceless alveolar trill, transcribed thus: [r̥ːːː]. This will indicate to the unmet woman that you mean no disrespect, and were simply caught off-guard by her sudden appearance. At this point, the unmet woman should continue on her way. Be aware that it is within her rights to step not just over, but on your body as she continues on her way (for more on this, see Corbitt v. Russell). If you believe that the unmet woman has moved out of your line of sight, you should ask as loudly as you can, “Are the frocks still on the bannister, or hasn’t Uncle Harry explained?” If you receive no response, you are safe to get up off the ground and continue your day. If the unmet woman is still within earshot, though, she will began to shake and hiss violently. If you hear this, it’s advisable to remain on the ground and to keep still and quiet. Don’t try asking again until a full hour has passed.
Now, assuming you do have your muffin with you, should you come across an unmet woman, you need not be alarmed. Whether or not the unmet woman has caught sight of you, you must immediately say, “Hop! Hop!” Say it quite loudly, but no need to shout. If the unmet woman is unaware of your presence, this will draw her attention. If she is already aware of your presence, though, she will take it as a sign of respect that you still went to the trouble of saying, “Hop! Hop!” With that done, place your muffin in your left hand, and then with your right hand, tear off a small piece. Having done so, raise your right knee quite high in the air (as high as you can), and then step down nice and forcefully, while at the same time executing a clockwise quarter turn. Facing this direction, toss away the bit of muffin in your right hand proclaiming, “To the sun!” Execute the same series of steps, and then, when facing away from the unmet woman, proclaim, “To the moon!”, and toss your second bit of muffin away. Repeating the same steps and facing a new direction, you will toss your third bit of muffin away, proclaiming, “To the moon!”* Finally one executes the last quarter turn and, rather than tossing, eats the last bit of muffin, offering, after the bit has been swallowed, “To a divine morning of auspicious portent.” At this point one executes a half turn, facing completely away from the unmet woman, and sits down, cross-legged. The muffin is then placed upside-down atop one’s head. If the muffin stays, the woman is considered respectably met. If the muffin falls forwards, towards the greeter, the meeting has gone awry, and the entire affair is considered a failure. If the muffin falls towards the unmet woman, she may replace it on the greeter’s head and give it another try, or she may toss the muffin in the street, continuing on her way. If the muffin falls in any other direction, this is considered a draw, and both parties continue on their way, officially having never met.
Regarding the type of muffin, there are at least nine different major opinions on the matter. Naturally, attitudes have changed through time, but most commenters agree that a non-apple cinnamon muffin is the safest bet. It’s prudent to avoid fruit flavored muffins of any kind before Labor Day. After Labor Day, it really depends on whom you ask. Most agree that apple is always in season, but Collins (1913) disagrees sharply. According to Collins, the only suitable fruit flavored muffin after Labor Day is lemon, but both Chesterfield (1869) and modern commenters Selwig (1994) and Mayors (2002) suggest lemon muffins are suitable only in the spring. As noted in Malcolm, Rodriguez, & Morgan (2016), modern women are far less traditional than in decades past, so it’s best to adhere to recent surveys of woman meeting practices, like Dante (2004), Huang (2007), and the seminal 2011 study “Muffins in the New Millennium: How modern women are redefining the commoditization of space in nouveaux interpersonal interactions” by Mansfield, et al.
The important thing is to not think too much about it. It always seems like a big to do on paper, but the truth of the matter is we meet many woman every single year, and with Amazon’s Prime Now, purchasing fresh, interesting muffins has never been simpler—or cheaper. So relax! When a new woman comes along, so long as you’ve got a muffin with you, you’ll know what to do.
(Oh, but of course,NO BANANA NUT MUFFINS. lol Sometimes it’s so obvious you feel like you don’t even need to say it, but in the interests of being thorough, there you go. And again, I really am just being thorough; please don’t take it amiss that I’m stating something so obvious! After all, we all have to learn some time, and this post may be someone’s first exposure to the art and science of respectfully saluting women.)
*For those wondering why one says “To the moon!” twice in a row, it’s actually a bit of a historical accident. Originally, one said, “To the mode!” This persisted until the 19th century, when some confusion was introduced into the system. In territories west of the Mississippi, it was common to say, “To the main!” on the third toss [for obvious reasons, given the region], and this custom was passed on in various forms further west and to the south. These individuals misinterpreted the word, though, and simply substituted a second “moon” in its place. This is the wording that came into vogue in California, when the short silent film A Dame for to Court was shot. The film was a hit, and played in theaters all the way from Avalon to Albany. Younger folk especially began to replace the original “mode” with “moon” as a direct result of the film’s influence. This at the time was known as “Doing the Dame”—a phrase which was grossly misinterpreted in later years. Its origin aside, though, the practice persists to this day.
“X is Near-ish”: X is also between the Missouri river and Pacific Ocean.
“I’m Near X”: I’m in the same state as, or just over the border from, X.
“X is Next door”: X is in that county or the adjacent counties.
“X is Immediately Next Door”: X is actually visible from the property. Which might be a 30-mile radius if you’re up high enough.
So, fair, like, 80% of the British Isles are “immediately next door” to suspicious rocks, esp Castles, which are Extremely Suspicious.
*American definitions of nearness get farther away the further west you go until you get over the Sierra Nevadas and hit the west coast megalopoli where they suddenly shrink again. The New York family considers “in the same subdivision” as “near-ish” going to the other side of town “too far”.
Mr. Turkey, If you're accepting asks at the moment, May I ask, What is your relationship like with the West Slavs?
Poland and Turkey’s history begins rather unique as the Polish Kingdom and The Ottoman Empire maintained close, diplomatic, trade-rich relations throughout the 15th century.
As the 16th and 17th century rose, infrequent battles between the two rang out as The Ottoman Empire faced a great power struggle. Considering Polish ties to Habsburg and Hungary, which were at odds with The Ottoman Empire, there were on and off periods of tension and peace between the two that were actually preferable to both of their lands conflicts with outside enemies.
As the 19th century came around, a familiar enemy, Russia, sparked both of their interests in the Crimean and a strong bond of friendship was made between the two until modern day. Even now, Istanbul hosts many Polish performances and films seeing as relations are still close :^)
However, Ottoman Turks and Slovakia, while generally sweet, also has its ups and downs. In the 16th century, Slovakia first benefitted off of Ottoman Turks’ battles with Habsburg and Hungarian forces until… they didn’t. The wars proved environmentally expensive and destructive as the battle approached Slovakia’s doorstep.
Sure, Slovaks weren’t much a fan of Habsburg and it’s reign over the land, but seeing as Ottoman military tactics were incredibly destructive.. tensions rose, but not enough to really deter from their diplomacy. Turkish immigrants even had a hand in spreading Turkish culture and art to Slovakian lands!
Modern day, Turkey and Slovakia still maintain friendly relations seeing as Turkey was the first to recognize the independent Republic and other political ties. Both ways, Turkish and Slovakian residents even enjoy visiting either country !
Similar to Slovakia, Czech felt the wave of Ottoman Force against Habsburg and Hungarian armies as they took their toll throughout northwest and eastern Europe. Czech Unfortunately for their relationship, It was more than enough to sour their opinions on one another and promptly lead to tension between the two nations.
Especially modernly, Political tensions have tightened on the topic of Turkey’s attempts to enter the EU. Seeing as Czech is insistent of Turkey’s recognition of the many War Crimes it’s committed in the past, and many other disagreements, the two aren’t on a level of sole hatred but the dissatisfaction factor definitely is on the high side.
Peaks of downtown Los Angeles’ skyscrapers are framed by the construction of the I-105 freeway meeting the 110. Known as the “Century Freeway,” the 105 was part of the Caltrans 1960s master plan for the freeways in California. However, construction didn’t begin until the 1980s and was not completed until 1993. What did the 110 look like in the 1960s? The Huntington knows.
He sheds his visor, setting it atop the peeling desk inside his old room. His jacket comes next and that gets thrown over the chair, vinyl and leather groaning as it molds to the wood. He flashes a glance at the screen hovering above said desk, making sure Athena has no messages for him that require his attention.
A shower comes next and the hot water does little to alleviate the ache. He runs a rough hand over the scars littering his chest, down his stomach and hips. Water sluices over his skin, washing away the grime of his last fight and he watches it swirl down the drain.
It seems useless, because tomorrow night he’ll be right back out there, fighting the good fight from the shadows.
His joints protest as he exits the shower, snatching a towel from the edge of the sink and drying off. He slips on a pair of sweats and a t-shirt, then leans over the sink and scrubs at his jawline. There’s four day stubble across the skin, patchy and dark blonde. He sighs to himself and eyes the razor on the edge with a dubious look.
He decides against it, but only because a sound from within the bedroom behind him, puts him on edge.
With dawning horror, Jack realizes his pulse rifle and his pistol are in that room. However, he calms his breathing long enough to remind himself that he’s in the watchpoint and no one is after him.
He answered the recall.
He’s not alone anymore.
Jack releases a rush of air and walks back into his bedroom, ready to ream the asshole who came into his room without knocking and-
Finds Jesse, shoving the desk further to the west end of the room. His jacket is hanging from an actual hanger in the open closet on the east side. His bed’s been plastered fully to the wall and the meager amount of furniture he did have was up against the walls. None of the rooms in the watchpoint are big by a long shot, but with all the furniture moved around, Jack’s never seen his floor so barren.
He pauses in the doorway, feet bare against the tile, “Ever heard of knocking, McCree?”
Jesse quirkw an eyebrow as he releases the desk, “Figured I had a standing invitation.”
Jack tries to ignore the flare in his chest. It’s a familiar sensation, because it’s not the first time seeing Jesse has put Jack’s emotions to the test. He’s done a good job the last few years in ignoring all talk of Jesse McCree. Not the disbanding from Blackwatch or Gabriel’s funeral or putting his ear to the ground in search of something, anything to prove that Jesse was still alive somewhere.
Jack didn’t need to burden anyone with his shame or his embarrassment at the fall of Overwatch. Especially Jesse, who wasn’t the most lawful of men, but still had a list of morals that put Jack’s to shame.
“Can I ask why my furniture is being moved?” Jack grunts, feet still planted in the doorway to the bathroom.
“Sure can.” Jesse grins, kicking off his boots and setting the by the desk. Jack watches his socked feet cross the floor between them, a mixture of confused and curious.
Jesse stops in front of him, hand outstretched, “Yer gonna dance with me.”
Jack frowns, “What?” He asks incredulously.
“It’s been a nice number of years since you promised me a dance, Jack.” Jesse looks determined, firm with his words, “You owe me one.”
Jack lets out a weary sigh and casts Jesse’s hand a sad look, “Jesse-I’m not-.” His throat is too tight. The room is too stuffy and Jesse is too close and smelling of cigar smoke and cologne, “I’m not the man I used to be.”
“Don’t matter.” Jesse replies, stubborn, “Just dance with me Jack.”
Jack’s eyes meet Jesse’s across the space between them and he takes the other man’s hand. Jesse swings him around and the motion is slightly jarring, but Jack gets his feet back under him soon enough.
They’re both big men, one aged and the other skirting the edge of it. Jesse smells even better as their chest press together. Jack’s heart flips, something it hasn’t done in years, decades it feels like. He settles his arms at Jesse’s waist and the cowboy does the same.
“I missed you Jack.” Jesse murmurs between them, brown eyes meeting Jack’s again. Jack’s chest is tight, so tight as he drops his forehead against Jesse’s shoulder, taking in the scent of his serape.
“I hate dancing.” Jack grumbles.
Jesse chuckles against his ear, “Just sway with me then.”
Jack grunts, “There’s no music.”
Jesse starts the swaying for them. Feet, bare and socked respectfully, moving gently across the old tiled floor, “Sing in yer head.”
Jack closes his eyes, fabric scratchy against his cheek. Jesse’s body is warm against his as they sway around the room. The tightness in his chest lessens with every spin around the floor, Jesse’s hands a warm weight at the base of his spine.
Jack relaxes further into Jesse’s shoulder and dances, age and war forgotten.
Long before it was rebuilt in its current incarnation in 1996, Angels Flight carried people to and from the Bunker Hill neighborhood in Los Angeles. This little funicular railway even made its way onto postcards back in the day. The Getty has one for you.
caption: Charles C. Pierce (1861-1946), Angels Flight, N. Broadway, Los Angeles, 1907. Gelatin silver print, 20 x 25 cm. View of the Bunker Hill district with the funicular, Angels Flight to the left. Title and date from verso. The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens.
From renderings to reality, Los Angeles’ Union Station is a beautiful monument to California, the City of Angels, and the many passengers who’ve come through. It’s the last week to see No Further West, but let’s always remember the celebration of the station.
Main entrance, Union Station, 2013 Alameda Street Elevation, Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal (detail), July 16, 1936. Getty Research Institute Ticket Concourse, Union Station, 2013 Main Concourse, Section XII, March 6, 1938, Edward Warren Hoak. Getty Research Institute Tower, Section XII, with Early Proposal for Finial, November 9, 1937, Edward Warren Hoak. Getty Research Institute
Up until last year, we lived in the small town of Malvern, in Worcestershire
(we’ve not gone far, just a bit further west).
C.S Lewis, author of The Chronicles of Narnia, liked to
spend evenings in the Unicorn Pub in Malvern (it’s still open today) with his
friends – including J.R.R. Tolkien (Lord of the Rings). So the story goes, one
winter’s night, as Lewis left the pub, his attention was caught by an old gas
lamp, surrounded by swirling snow. Lewis commented to his friends that the scene
would be good for a book & of course, the Lamp is an important part of “The
Lion, The Witch & The Wardrobe”.
Tolkien was also inspired by Malvern – he said the Malvern Hills
reminded him of “The White Mountains of Gondor”… It was probably for the best that the films were set in New Zealand - the
Malverns are beautiful but not exactly mountainous & dramatic - it’s nice to have that connection though ;-)