nippur

World History: Nippur

Nippur was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities. It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the “Lord Wind,” ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone. Nippur never enjoyed political hegemony in its own right, but its control was crucial, as it was considered capable of conferring the overall “kingship” on monarchs from other city-states. It was distinctively a sacred city, important from the possession of the famous shrine of Enlil. [x]

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Extremely Rare Neo-Sumerian Palace Messenger Tablet from Iri-Sagrig, Dated 2027 BC

A clay pillow-shaped messenger tablet from an important palace archive of the Sumerian city Iri-Saĝrig, dated to 2027 BC, with cuneiform text on both sides: “1 roasted mutton, 5 sila soup Ur-šu-suen, chancellor’s assistant when he came for the ’secretary’ of Nana’s field; 3 sila soup, 2 fish Laqipum, cup bearer, royal messenger when he went for royal offerings; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Suškin, royal messenger when he came from Der to the king’s place; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Kuganum, royal messenger; /REVERSE/ 1 sila soup, 1 fish Ilianum, royal messenger when they went to Der; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Namhani, royal messenger; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Lu-šulgira, royal messenger when they came to the governor’s place; 2 sila soup, 2 fishŠugatum, royal messenger when he came to capture fugitive soldier-workers, servants of Ninhursag; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Pululu, eguary when he went for the sikum-mules; A disbursement for the month Nigenlila, 19th day.”

This text dates to the second year of King Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur III. The text is particularly rare because almost all of the named messengers are followed by a description their mission: “Suškin, royal messenger when he came from Der to the king’s place.” The tablet records rations of food and drink distributed by the government to royal messengers. According to Prof. David Owen the Iri-Saĝrig archive is probably the archive of the governor whose office was in the local palace. The king and other members of the royal family occasionally traveled to Iri-Saĝrig, perhaps on their way to or from Nippur or other towns. No town in Sumer was visited more often by the king than Iri-Saĝrig. This may explain the presence of so many royal functionaries associated with the town.

Hymn to the Queen of Nippur iv.1-53 (Lambert 1982)

a. A hymn to the city of Nippur

Nippur, conduit between heaven and earth, intersection of the corners of the earth,
      growing upon the unscalable mountain —
      the City Nippur, swathed in finery, rising up from it —
Enlil, on his own, made it a habitation;
      he approached her and granted it to her, so she could assume its queenship.
            (He appointed Ebardurgarra as its shrine.)*
[…] a sanctuary equal to his own home.
      […] his own authority invested within it.
Its head rises up to rival Olympus;**
      its light shines dazzlingly, covering all the settlements;
      its brilliance dwells within the mountain.
It nurtures*** her and dotes on her,
      constantly overflowing with finery.
            (Ebardurgarra nurtures the Lady.)*
The corners of the earth join together to bear abundance to it.


b. The noble roles of Ishtar

With the sigil of Enlil, she determines destinies.
      ceaselessly guiding the designs of the Great Gods, even Anu.
Daily, gods assemble before her,
      the Annunaki for advising of advice.
The great Igigi run to and fro
      for her assignment of their roles, for receipt of her instructions.
All the goddesses of the peoples kneel before her:
      they join together in prayer to her, kneeling at her feet.
She supervises their tithes and oversees their shrines;
      she assigns roles to the gods of cultic centers.
She herself is the most supreme and most dignified of goddesses:
      mighty daughter of Nanni, delight of Enlil’s heart,
      adored goddess, equal princess to her honored brother.


c. Ishtar among the deities

Endowed with Dagan’s spirit, equal to Anu,
      loved by Ea, the Lord of Wisdom,
      adored by Mami, the masterful queen:
She is royalty, adored, goddess and Lady,
      wife, Lady, beloved of Amazilla,
Daughter-in-law of Pirigbanda, Lady of Eridu,
      Ishtar-goddess of Anu, She who dwells on the throne of Eanna.
She is elevated, excellent, exalted, and queen;
      her songs are enticing, and great are her adorers!
The Divine Queen of Nippur is exalted and queen;
      her songs are enticing, and great are her adorers!
Who is adored like the Divine Queen of Nippur, their god?
      The Igigi proclaim her seven names.


d. The heart of Ishtar

May this song please you, Ishtar;
      may none before you oppose it, may it take root at your command.
Where voices wail, let there be your lamentation;
      where thoughts are pleasant, let there be your adoration.
In the house of your rites, let them celebrate you;
      where they practice your cult, let them praise you.
In the house at the time of festivals, celebrations, and jubilees,
      listen, Lady, so your thoughts rejoice.
May your heart take pleasure; may it ask always for jubilees.
      May the day bring you joy, and the night repose.
May Inimmanizi bring you […]
      Sirash and Ninkasi […]
[…]


* Other than these two lines, this passage divides neatly into four stanzas of 13 lines. I consider them awkward later editorial additions.

** This line compares Nippur to Ekur, the mountaintop home of the gods (like Olympus). It’s also an unsubtle dig at Nippur’s rival city, Babylon, whose main temple was named Esagila — “the house of the raised head.”

*** Lambert translates this difficult verb as “fondled,” taking it from a root word with sexual connotations. While it’s not impossible, the themes of growth and abundance lead me to suspect an alternate possible meaning.

Note: This excerpt is one of the most intact parts of what was originally a 300-line hymn.  It’s most famous for a line elsewhere, in which Ishtar is described as “she who turns male into female and female into male” (iii.70).

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Neo-Babylonian Tablet Dated to the Reign of King Darius II, 423 BC, from Nippur

The tablet is dated to the 29th day of the 4th month of the first year of the Achaemenid King Darius II (August 5th, 423 BC). It was discovered and excavated with 729 tablets and fragments of the same class by the Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania at the end of May 1893. The collection of tablets was found in a room, about 20 feet below the surface on the northeastern ridge of the ruins of Nippur. This room had been used as a business archive by the apparently wealthy and influential firm of Murashu Sons of Nippur, bankers and brokers, who lived in the time of the Persian Kings Artaxerxes I and Darius II.

The rectangular clay tablet is inscribed in Neo-Babylonian cuneiform writing on all six sides and it documents a mortgage; an orchard and an uncultivated tract of land pledged by two men, Abda and Banunu, to Bel-nadin-shumu, senior member of  the firm Marashu Sons of Nippur, as security for the payment of a large quantity of dates, and including the names of eleven witnesses and the scribe Ninib-abu-user, the seal impressions of four of the witnesses on the upper, lower, and right edges of the tablet, the thumbnail impressions of the two debtors on one side.

“Nippur de Lagash y Ur-El de Elam, tras verse obligados a abandonar Lagash, conocida como La Ciudad de las Blancas Murallas, —ciudad en la que Nippur era general— debido a la traicionera invasión del rey Luggal-Zaggizi (Lugalzagesi) de Umma. Los amigos, tras jurar venganza, se largan a los caminos y viven emocionantes aventuras.”

Fuente Wikipedia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nippur_de_Lagash#Argumento

Neo-Sumerian Messenger Tablet, 2028 BC

A clay pillow-shaped messenger tablet from an important palace archive of the Sumerian city Iri-Saĝrig, dated to 2028 BC, with cuneiform text on both sides: “120 quarts of barleyfor Namhani, a royal messenger; 120 quarts for Dadatabum; 120 quarts for Ur-diĝira; 120 quarts for Puzur-Sin; 120 quarts for Iti-Sin; 120 quarts for Zuzaya; 120 quarts for Utul-Mama; 120 quarts for Ur-Šulpa’e; 120 quarts for Nabi-Sin; 120 quarts for Ahu-țab; 120 quarts for Ahu-baqar; 120 quarts for Igi-anakezu; 120 quarts for Lu-gula; Total: 13 royal messengers, 120 quarts for each; their barley 1,560 quarts; barley salary of royal messengers when they were stationed to surveythe farmers’ field; (the rations) were receivedIlum-asu, the scribe, was responsible; withdrawal in the month of kir11-si-ak; Year when Ibbi-Sin (became) king.”

This text dates to the first year of King Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur III. The text is important because it records huge quantities of barley (total 1560 quarts is equal to 1384 l) distributed by the government to royal messengers. The barley was meant to be rations or salaries in return for their service. According to prof. David Owen the Iri-Saĝrig archive is probably the archive of governor whose office was in the local palace. The king and other members of the royal family occasionally traveled to Iri-Saĝrig, perhaps on their way to or from Nippur or other towns. No town in Sumer was visited more often by the king than Iri-Saĝrig. This may explain the presence of so many royal functionaries associated with the town.

Lion Fighting a Snake Chlorite Vessel with inscription, “Inanna and the Serpent.” Temple of Inanna, Nippur, Iraq. Early Dynastic II/III Period. ca. 2600-2400 BCE.

anonymous asked:

whats ur second favorite part of Youngjae's body bc we all know the first is his amazing nippurs/tiddies ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

*jackson voice* exCUSE ME EX CUSE ME-

MY FAVORITE BODY PART IS YOUNGJAE’S T HIGHS. hELLUR~

SECOND IS HIS NECK- eSPECIALLY THE BACK OF IT BECAUSE IT HAS THESE 3 MOLES I LOVE.

AND THIRD IS HIS p EACH OTL *s WEATS*

a ND FOURTH IS JUST YOUNGJAE AS A HUMAN BEAN BECAUSE HE IS MY SUNSHINE s UGAR GOOB HONEY BUNCH AND I WILL LOVE EVERYTHING ABOUT HIM bE Cuase i N TRUTH I LVOE E VRY THING EQUALLY bE CAUSE hIS eYES, NO SE, LIPS- eVERY LOOK a ND EVERY BR EATH~ eVeRY KISS- ALL MAKE YOUNGJAE- YOUNGJAE AJSDLFALSKDF, EVEN HIS TIDDY NIPS- i hAT E U- *S OBS* W HY R U L I ek t HIS!?!?!11!? OTL L ET ME L IVE.

Neo-Assyrian Planisphere (Star Chart) from the Library of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, c. 7th Century BC

This planisphere shows how the night sky over Nineveh would have appeared on January 3rd-4th in the year 650 BC. The chart identifies the constellations we now call Gemini, Pleiades and Pegasus. The incomplete piece is restored from fragments and was partly accidentally vitrified in antiquity during the destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC by a coalition of Babylonians, Scythians and Medes.

The Library of Ashurbanipal, named after the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from about the 7th century BC. Ashurbanipal’s library was not the first library of its kind but it is the oldest surviving library collection in the world. Most of it is now in the British Museum (such as this piece) or the Department of Antiquities in Baghdad. The Epic of Gilgamesh, a masterpiece of ancient Babylonian poetry, was found in the library as was the Enuma Elis creation story, and myth of Adapa the first man, and stories such as the Poor Man of Nippur.