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ozy.com
The Bomb America Has Forgotten About
Nearly 60 years ago a bomb was lost off the coast of Savannah during a routine training exercise. It’s never been found, and some think it’s armed and dangerous.
By Farah Halime

                                                                                                  

A hidden threat lurks in the waters off the coast of Savannah, Georgia. It’s a 12-foot beast, and it makes man-eating sharks and poisonous jellyfish look like sandbox toys. As thousands of vacationers make their way to the sandy shores of Tybee Island this summer, they should be on the lookout for a monster that shouldn’t be all that tough to spot: a 7,600-pound bomb, packed with an undisclosed amount of uranium and 400 pounds of explosives. To state the obvious? If you see something, say something.

The Mark 15 bomb, one of hundreds of suspected “broken arrows,” or nuclear bombs lost during air or sea mishaps, had to be jettisoned into the water in the winter of 1958 during a secret mission that simulated dropping a weapon of mass destruction on a Soviet city. The B-47 carrying the bomb collided with an F-86 fighter plane sometime after midnight, causing the B-47 to crash land at an air force base outside Savannah — but not before its pilot, Air Force Col. Howard Richardson, dropped the bomb in the water a few miles from the island. The crew survived, and Richardson was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his efforts.

It’s sworn congressional testimony; it’s two separate groups [civilian and military] that would go to jail if they were lying.

Douglas Keeney, military historian and best-selling author

Although the Air Force searched for the nuke for two months in the weeks after the incident, the weather was bad, the water cold and the visibility poor. On April 16, 1958, the military declared the bomb “irretrievably lost.” Today, it recommends that it remain untouched, saying it is low risk and very unlikely to explode. The bomb’s potential danger rests on the validity of one hand-written receipt with the word “simulated” scrawled in ink near the top — a word that, according to the U.S. Air Force, meant the bomb did not have a detonation capsule and was not capable of a nuclear explosion. But some doubt its validity. “It’s just preposterous,” says Douglas Keeney, military historian and best-selling author. “This note, it’s discovered now 50 years later, one document out of thousands is the only one that says it is unarmed — it is just silly.” Many previously redacted documents say otherwise, he points out, including 1966 congressional testimony saying the bomb was a complete weapon containing not just uranium but also plutonium — the ingredient that makes the bomb deadly. If a nuclear detonation did occur, the possible blast effects would be 100 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb, making a mushroom cloud seen for miles and a 1.2-mile-wide fireball.

Source: CC

“It’s sworn congressional testimony; it’s two separate groups [a civilian group and military group] that would go to jail if they were lying,” Keeney says. He adds that they have nothing to gain by saying it’s armed, referring to the earlier testimony.

While the government has officially stopped searching for the bomb, locals haven’t forgotten. In fact the bomb has become a storied part of Savannah lore — memorialized in places like A-J’s Dockside Restaurant, the original site of the Tybee Island Bomb Squad that searched for the weapon back in ’58. “Bomb Squad” paraphernalia lines the walls, and newcomers are regularly shocked by news that there’s a bomb so close to shore, before laughing it off as just a heap of harmless metal.

Yet naysayers have continued to delve into the possible environmental and health impacts of the bomb, even if it couldn’t detonate. Retired U.S. Air force Lt. Col. Derek Duke took it a step further and led an effort in 2004 to search for the bomb. He detected high radiation in shallow water off the coast of Savannah, but further investigation concluded that the readings were normal for the naturally occurring minerals in the area. Still, Duke, now 70, tells OZY it’s “an incredible saga that lives on, like Big Foot.” The government, he reckons, sees the bomb as too politically sensitive. If there is, in fact, a nuclear capsule, it could be used as a weapon against America if found by the enemy.

Deadly or not, this forgotten bomb is just one of thousands of accidents involving nuclear weapons between 1950 and 1968, according to critical documents on the Pentagon’s network of “broken arrows” obtained by historian and author Eric Schlosser. His book Command and Control refutes the Pentagon’s official list of how many nuclear weapons accidents — it says just 32 — have happened in America, arguing instead that there have been more than a thousand. “In general this whole subject is still shrouded in enormous secrecy,” Schlosser says. “There’s no question that there are many more accidents, and the Pentagon’s list is essentially meaningless.”

For others, like bomb designer Robert Peurifoy, who says he was merely an engineer working “in the trenches” at the time the bomb was dropped, there are other unanswered questions. “It is puzzling to me that the bomb debris has not been located,” says Peurifoy, who eventually became vice president of Sandia, a government-funded nuclear weapons research lab, and who is now in his 80s. “I do not characterize the Air Force as anything other than being baffled, but you’d think they’d be able to find out.”

wordpress.com
Volunteer to pick Local Native Grass and Forb Seeds to enhance Rocky Flats!

Volunteer to pick Local Native Grass and Forb Seeds to enhance Rocky Flats!

Volunteer to pick local native grass and forb seeds to enhance Rocky Flats!

  • 1st Pick: October 3, 8:30-12:30
  • 2nd Pick: October 17, 8:30-12:30
  • 3rd Pick: October 31, 8:30-12:30

Lunch on us! Jefferson County Nature Association’s 2015 volunteer seed picking efforts are scheduled in the Rocky Flats area between Golden and Boulder near SH93. If you register with Jean (see below), she will contact you about a week prior to each event with exact directions to the seed picking location, as they will be different for each pick. JCNA will provide lunch to all who register by the Thursday prior to each pick. If we have bad weather on a pick date, we’ll have a makeup pick on the very next Saturday, all other details being the same. • We promise a gorgeous view of the Front Range and the company of friendly likeminded people who want to improve the environment. • Seeds collected will be used to enrich or help restore the original prairie present before Rocky Flats was developed. • Before each pick, brief training will be provided by experienced Crew Leaders who will show how to pick seeds, identify prairie plants, and the noxious weeds to avoid. • Wear layered clothing that won’t accumulate plant particles and hiking shoes. As many of these plants are short, ensure you can bend over or kneel comfortably (and repeatedly) in your outfit, though you can concentrate on taller species if you choose. • Bring a full water bottle, sunscreen, and thin gloves that protect your fingers but are flexible enough to handle small seeds and of a material the seeds won’t stick to. Bring scissors and wear heavier gloves if you prefer to cut the seed heads off rather than strip them of seed by hand. Please contact us to make special arrangements if your group is large or you are bringing kids younger than 12 years old.

Adults must sign a waiver at the site. THOSE UNDER 18 MUST BRING A WAIVER

SIGNED BY A PARENT. Jean will send you a blank waiver when you register.

littlethings.com
This Video Is Shocking The Entire World. Everyone Needs To See This!
In 2011, an earthquake caused a tsunami that killed nearly 16,000 people in Japan and caused an estimated 210 billion dollars in damage, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in history. When a Fukushima power plant was hit by the tsunami, it began releasing the largest amount of radioactive materials since the Chernobyl... View Article
By Barbara Diamond
bibliotecapleyades.net
Ronald Reagan: Star Wars, UFOs, and Dr. Edward Teller
The incident with Major General Robert Schweitzer was not the last time President Reagan’s White House would have trouble with Von Keviczky pushing his UFO agenda on the White House

Ronald Reagan
               

40th President

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989

                   
         Excerpts from The Presidents UFO           Web Site

                   
         Star Wars, UFOs, and Dr. Edward Teller
         
         The incident with Major General Robert Schweitzer was not the last          time President Reagan’s White House would have trouble with Von Keviczky pushing his UFO agenda on the White House. Writer          Antonio Huneeus described a second June 5, 1983 incident when VonKeviczky          haunted Keyworth, Reagan’s science advisor. VonKeviczky had stood up          in an open SDI briefing being held by Keyworth to declare that the SDI          was actually a planetary defense system against extraterrestrials as          opposed to a defense against Soviet ICBMs. Huneeus recounted the event:
         
         "Nor was Colman VonKeviczky at all shy in confronting anyone about his          views. Colman was a prominent member of the Hungarian-American          community and was once part of a delegation that attended a briefing          organized by the Reagan White House at the adjacent Old Executive          House. When the president’s science advisor George Keyworth was          explaining the SDI research program, Colman pointed out with that          roaring voice he had that ‘star wars’ was really aimed against the          galactic forces and not the Soviets. The science advisor was not          pleased.
         
         Following the briefing VonKeviczky went to the Keyworth office where          he presented a written brief titled “Heed Memorandum for Action to the          99th Congress.” The briefing described the problems VonKeviczky saw          with what he called the UFO Defense Initiative (USI) as opposed to          SDI.          He asked that Keyworth present the briefing to President Reagan.          Instead of presenting the brief to the President, Keyworth records          show that he passed it to a person by the name of M. Havey. No record          of the report was found in the White House files. No reply was ever          given to VonKeviczky.
         
         In many of President Reagan’s speeches, Reagan promoted his Strategic          Defense Initiative (SDI) program. The new program was immediately          coined the “Star Wars” defense system by many in the media. The SDI          defense shield was, as described by the Reagan White House, a complex          set of defensive lasers and missiles intended to shoot down Soviet IBCMs.
         
         Although Reagan is given credit for anti-missile defense, and it’s          possible use against UFOs, the concepts actually go back many years.          In the July-August 1959 NICAP Bulletin a short article was written          discussing Air Force plans for a weapon system being developed to          shoot down hostile satellites and space vehicles. Because Maj. Gen.          B.A. Schriever’s testimony in front of the Senate Space Committee did          not indicate specific targets, NICAP concluded “there would be nothing          to prevent its use against UFOs”.
         
         The idea of a war against beings of another world also went back many          years before Reagan became President. War hero General Douglas MacArthur spoke of “an ultimate conflict between a united human race          and the sinister forces of some other planetary galaxy.” Mayor Achille          Lauro of Naples, Italy, quoted MacArthur as telling him, “the earth          would have to make a common front against attack by people from other          planets.”
         
         A few years after MacArthur’s statement, Brig. Gen. John A. McDavid,          USAF, Director of Communications-Electronic for the Joint Chiefs of          Staff made a similar statement about a possible conflict with          extraterrestrials during an Air Force approved speech at Milliken          University, Decatur, Illinois.  

         "Before long, people may be forced to          realize and accept as a fact that this earth is only an infinitesimal          grain of sand in an infinite universe,“ declared McDavid. "The human          is one of many forms of life with which God is concerned and others          are superior to us. And if this is true, our meeting with other types          of existence in other places in the universe quite likely will          increase the potential element of conflict rather than reduce it.”

         The announcement of the SDI system by          Reagan in 1983 was immediately          responded to in many sectors of the scientific community as an          expensive pie in the sky notion. Scientists declared that it would do          nothing but escalate military spending and distrust among the super          powers. Outside the Livermore Lab, where many of the systems were          being developed, groups demonstrated for an end to the research.
         
         Very few believed that a system could be developed to counter          thousands of Soviet missiles being launched at one time. Most of the          opinion sided with a statement made by Soviet Chairman Khrushchev          back in March 1962:

         We can launch missiles not only over the North Pole, but in the          opposite direction, too. As the people say, you expect it to come in          the front door, and it gets in the window…

         Global missiles cannot be spotted in due time to prepare any measures          against them. In general, the money spent in the United States to          create antimissile systems is simply wasted.
         
         In the UFO community, the SDI system was viewed as a system set up to          destroy not Soviet missiles as Reagan was claiming, but to protect          earth from a perceived alien invasion. The “alien invasion” remarks          that Reagan made after his 1983 announcement of the SDI program, was          heralded as further proof that the alien/SDI hypothesis was correct.
         
         The concept of aliens from elsewhere attacking the earth was also not          an idea that began in the Reagan administration. Even back in early          fifties in movies like The Day the Earth Stood Still, images were          portrayed of military attacks on the earth by extraterrestrials.
         
         A 1960                    report prepared for NASA by the Brookings Institution, claimed          that, the discovery of extraterrestrial life could cause the earth’s          civilization to collapse. The report stated,  

         "societies sure of their          own place have disintegrated when confronted by a superior society,          and others have survived even though changed.“

         During the          Nixon administration, there was open discussion inside the          government about the potential threat from aliens coming to Earth. An          article written by Michael Michaud, a career diplomat in the State          Department, pointed out the Nixon administration’s worry about          extraterrestrials:

                   Aliens from other solar systems are a potential threat to us, and we          are a potential threat to them. Scientists and others have often          postulated that extraterrestrial societies more advanced than ours          would be less warlike. Regrettably, the stereotypes of the benevolent,          super intelligent alien may be as unrealistic as the stereotype of the          bug-eyed monster carrying off shapely human females. Even if a species          had achieved true peace within its own ranks, it would still be          worried about us, and would take the measures it felt were necessary          to protect itself. This includes the possibility (not the          inevitability) of military action … Our basic interest will be to          protect ourselves from any possible threat to Earth’s security … ”

         The “evil alien” philosophy was furthered in the          Ford administration          with a 1975 report produced by the Library of Congress for the House          Committee on Science and Technology. It also warned about the possible          threats of open contact with extraterrestrials. The report stated, “Since          we have no knowledge of their nature, we may be aiding in our own doom”
         
         The alien/SDI speculation has also augmented by a group of witnesses          who declared that SDI type weapon systems, both land and space based,          were being used to track and target extraterrestrial vehicles as the          approach earth. These witnesses include:

         - In a June 1995 Bay Area Lecture          Dr. Steven Greer announces          information leaked to him from the North American Air Defense Command          in Colorado shows that the Air Force tracks an average of 500 “fastwalkers”          (term used for UFOs) entering the earth atmosphere every year.
         
         - New York Times Pulitzer prize winning author Howard Blum reports          that NORAD deep-space radars track many UFOs.
         
         - Two Aerospace engineers working on the AeroJet’s DSP spy satellite          claim UFOs are detected coming from deep space two or three times a          month.
         
         - Author Whitley Strieber, in his book Breakthrough, stated that he          had seen part of a document which revealed that the EG&G Corporation          is involved in developing defense weapons against extraterrestrials.
         
         - Two further sources have told Greer that rogue units within          Unacknowledged Special Access Programs, have directed black budget          funds to develop SDI weapons to down UFOs. Further the sources have          stated that they have been successful in shoot downs.

         Bruce Maccabee, a UFO researcher and a scientist involved in meetings          dealing with Star Wars, however, stated that he had seen no evidence          for this view. Following Reagan’s March 1983 speech announcing the          Star Wars program Maccabee stated that:

                   Special panels got together to try and figure out how they would put          together what’s called an architecture or structure of weapons that          could actually handle the ballistic missile threat from the Soviet          Union … In 1984, I was on a panel, a little group of people from          the Naval Surface Warfare Center. We went traveling around to various          military bases to find out what other people were doing about space .          . . should the Naval Surface Warfare Center in particular get involved.          That connected me up with the government’s Star Wars architecture          study, I guess you could call it. For a period of time, I was working          on the various aspects of Star Wars.

         In all the meetings that          Maccabee attended there was no indication          that the Star Wars system would be used for anything other than          missiles. In an interview with investigative reporter and UFO          researcher Linda Howe, Maccabee stated:

         Well, I can tell you from experience, and I would take lie detector          tests on it and swear on a stack of Bibles, a discussion of anything          other than Soviet attack never occurred during any of the talks,          lectures, discussions, that I participated in … They had long          range, short range, intermediate range, missiles launched from          submarines. That was always the threat discussed, missiles. And all of          the satellites, there was a bunch of satellites supposedly up there          that would be monitoring the earth. There ARE satellites up there          monitoring the earth. All their sensors are directed toward the earth.          None of the sensors are directed away.

         If          on the surface, there was no plan to use the Star Wars defense to “attack          aliens,” there was, under the surface, evidence among those who were          the designers of the Star Wars system that such uses for the system          could be part of the future uses for the system.
         
         Most of the Star Wars weapons components were being designed by a          young group of physicists at the Livermore Lab in Livermore          California. One of the brilliant physicists working in the skunk works          "Special Projects Office" group headed by Lowell Wood, was physicist          Peter Hagelstein. Hagelstein went on to invent a critical element of          the Star Wars Defense system - the nuclear X-ray laser.
         
         Hagelstein came to the lab when he was only twenty years of age. He          did his doctoral dissertation while at the lab which he submitted to          MIT in January 1981. His paper was a complex 451 page paper filled          with equations and footnotes. It was entitled the “Physics of Short          Wavelength Laser Design.” It was “a primer on the theoretics of          building a laboratory x-ray laser.
         
         In one section of the paper Hagelstein broke from the complex physics          of the paper to deal with what he termed to be "future applications.”          As a part of this part of the paper, Hagelstein pointed to three works          of science fiction:

  •                        
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         Ringworld by          Larry Niven,  

         Mote in God’s Eye by          Niven and Jerry Pournelle,  

         and Tom Swift and his Cosmotron Express by          V. Appleton.

         In one of the works          Ringworld promoted there is a clear reference to          the X-ray laser which Hagelstein was attempting to build, and would          successfully complete as part of the Star Wars program. The reference          refers to spaceship which is approaching a foreign world when suddenly          it is attached by beam weapons. “We have been fired,” cried the          character in the book. “We are being fired upon, probably by x-ray          lasers. This ship is now in a state of war. Were it not for our          invulnerable hull, we would be dead.”
         
         Hagelstein had started his research into using the x-ray laser for          medical purposes, but he ended up building a weapon. “By the time I          got my thesis written,” stated Hagelstein, “it was fairly clear to me          that x-ray lasers wouldn’t be able to make much of a dent in terms of          biological problem … writers off science fiction are supposed to          look into the future. Since I started looking to see what they had in          mind for the x-ray lasers. It turns out that all science fiction          references are to blowing things up.”
         
         Dr. Steve Greer, as part of his Project Starlight, came across a top          level former aerospace executive who claimed that the design of “Star          Wars” was to fight aliens rather than Russians. Dr. Greer mentioned          him, as one of the 100+ witnesses who would be testifying as part of          his proposed disclosure video.
         
         This international team working intensely on the disclosure process          has been recently joined by a former senior aerospace executive - a          person who has been aware since the 1970’s that the Ballistic Missile          Defense Program would be used to target extraterrestrial objects in          space - even though there is no evidence of any credible threat from          these craft.
         
         There were other indicators that SDI and extraterrestrials might be          connected. Keyworth, the key SDI person in the White House, had a very          important tie-in to the world of UFOs.
         
         Keyworth had been recommended as the President’s Science Advisor by          Dr. Edward Teller, the father of the hydrogen bomb, and also the          father of the SDI concept. Dr. Teller led a one man crusade within the          White House pushing for SDI. Dr. Edward Teller was also a scientist,          who by the late 1980’s, was being named by many researchers as a key          figure in the world of UFOs. His connections to UFO stories goes back          a long way.
         
         Dr. Teller’s first encounter came in the early days of the UFO mystery          during the Truman Administration. On February 16, 1948,          Dr. Edward          Teller, along with Dr. Lincoln La Paz, a University of New Mexico          astronomer, was part of a secret 1948 “Conference on Aerial Phenomena”          that was held at Los Alamos to discuss the UFO phenomena. The          particular interest of the conference was the so-called 'green          fireballs’ which were then being widely reported in the area. This          green fireball investigation was also known as “Project Twinkle”.          Dr.          Teller had commented during the conference that he felt the phenomenon          was an electro-optic phenomenon rather than a material phenomena due          to the lack of noise.
         
         In 1958 Teller expressed interest about possible life on Mars. In          testimony before the Senate Preparedness Subcommittee on November 25,          1958 he stated that even though the moon and Mars were inhospitable          places, Teller felt there would be a search for “any kinds of traces          of life.”
         
         The most dramatic tie-in to the world of UFOs for Teller came in the          mid to late 80’s when a story began to surface that the United States          government was test flying and back engineering flying saucers at an          area in Nevada known as Area-51. The main person to advance the theory          that Area-51 housed flying saucers was Robert Lazar, who claimed to be          a physicist from Las Vegas.
         
         Lazar claimed to have worked at a spot within area 51 known as S-4.          There he claimed he had worked on captured flying saucers, and had          seen one of the nine objects there during a test flight outside the          underground hanger.
         
         Many of the stories Lazar told could not be confirmed, and many items          about Lazar’s background seemed to be shaky at best. One item,          however, seemed to check out. This item was a June 28, 1982 meeting          between Robert Lazar and Dr. Edward Teller, the same person who had          recommended Keyworth as Reagan’s top science man.
         
         On June 28th Dr. Teller had been in Los Alamos, where Robert Lazar          worked. Teller was there to give a speech. In an interview with George          Knapp from a Las Vegas television station Lazar explained what          happened:

         I had built a jet car, and they put it in the local newspaper on the          front page. As I walked up to the lecture hall, I noticed Teller was          outside sitting on a brick wall reading the front page. I said, ‘Hi,          I’m the one you’re reading about there.’ He said, ‘That’s          interesting.’ I sat down and had a little talk with him.

         Then in 1988, when searching for a job,          Bob Lazar stated that he sent          a copy of his resume to Dr. Edward Teller. Dr. Teller, just as he had          recommended Dr. Keyworth for Reagan’s science advisor, appeared to          have recommended Lazar for a job inside Area-51. On November 29,88,          Teller phoned and gave Lazar a name of someone at EG&G, a company          believed to be involved in the flying saucer work. Lazar went to an          interview, totally unaware of what the job would entail. Soon he was          working at S-4.
         
         When the Lazar story about working on flying saucers at          Area-51 broke,          Dr. Teller was confronted by a TV reporter asking if he          had gotten the job for Lazar, and if he knew what was going on at          Area-51. Dr. Teller responded to the reporter,

         "Look,          I don’t know Bob Lazar. All this sounds fine. I probably met          him. I might have said to somebody I met him and I liked him, after I          met him, and if I liked him. But I don’t remember him … I mean you          are trying to force questions on me that I simply won’t answer.“

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