nikolai nevrev

 Nikolai Nevrev (1830-1904) - Peter I in a foreign dress - 1903

Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Рома́нов, Пётр I, Pyotr I, or Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velikiy) (9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725)[a] ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power. According to historian James Cracraft, he led a cultural revolution that replaced the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.

Nikolai Nevrev - Roman of Galicia receives ambassodors of Pope Innocent III

According to some sources, pope Innocent III sent ambassodors to the Duke of Galicia Roman with the offer of proclaiming him a king. He offered a complicated system of electing a king by 6 most powerful dukes of Russia. The system was quite similar to that one of Holy Roman Empire. 

For becoming the king Roman of Galicia with his people should convert to Catholicism. He refused and banished legates. 

Some historian regarded this story unauthentic, because we have no primary sources containing it, except Tatishchev who cited some unsaved chronicles.

Nevertheless, the plot became popular in the XIX century. 

Nikolai Nevrev (1830-1904) - Self-portrait - 1858

Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev (Russian: Никола́й Васи́льевич Не́врев) (1830–1904) was a Russian painter.

Nevrev was born to a family of merchants in Moscow. At the age of 21, Nevrev entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, where he studied under the Russian-Italian painter, Mikhail Sсotti. In the 60s, Nevrev painted one of his masterpieces, “The Market” (1866), in which he depicted the sale of serfs. His other paintings focused on criticisms of the Church.

He temporarily stopped working in the 1870s, for seemingly unknown reasons, but began painting historical art in the 80s. In 1881, Nevrev became a member of the Association of Travelling Art Exhibitions. Nevrev’s best work during this time was arguably his genre paintings, each exhibiting a human moral. At the age of 74, Nevrev lost his son and consequently committed suicide.

Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev (1830-1904) - Vasilisa Melentieva - 1886

Vasilisa Melentyeva (Russian: Васили́са Меле́нтьева) (died 1579) was Tsaritsa of the Tsardom of Russia and was the sixth wife of Ivan the Terrible. Before her marriage to Ivan, Vasilisa is recorded to have been a widow of a prince serving in the Livonian War. Though Ivan considered her beautiful and sweet natured, he discovered her a few months after their marriage having an affair with a prince named Devletev. Ivan forced Vasilisa to watch her lover be impaled, and as further punishment, confined her to life in a cloister.

Nikolai Nevrev - False Dymitry I swearing Sigismund III of Poland introduction of catholicism in Russia - 1874

False Dmitriy I (Cyrillic Лжедмитрий; other transliterations: Dimitri, Dimitrii, Dimitriy, Dimitry, Dmitri, Dmitrii, Dmitry) was the Tsar of Russia from 21 July 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ioannovich (Cyrillic Димитрий Иоаннович). He is sometimes referred to under the title of Dmitriy II. He was one of three impostors (Russian: самозванец ‘samozvanets’, “imposter”) who claimed during the Time of Troubles to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevitch Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. It is generally believed that the real Dmitriy was assassinated in Uglich and that this False Dmitriy’s real name was Grigory Otrepyev, although this is far from certain.

The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. In 1601–1603, Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population, about two million. At the time, Russia was occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Dymytriads, and suffered from civil uprisings, usurpers and impostors.

Nikolaj Wassiljewitsch Newrew - Philip II, Metropolitan of Moscow and Malyuta Skuratov - 1898

Grigory Lukyanovich Skuratov-Belskiy (Russian: Григорий Лукьянович Скуратов-Бельский), better known as Malyuta Skuratov (Малюта Скуратов) (? – January 1, 1573) was one of the most odious leaders of the Oprichnina during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.

Malyuta Skuratov rose to prominence in 1569 by taking part in the trial and execution of Vladimir of Staritsa, Ivan IV’s only cousin and a possible claimant to the throne. In December 1569, Malyuta Skuratov strangled a former Metropolitan of Moscow, Philip II, by the order of Ivan the Terrible, for his criticism of the Oprichnina.

In January 1571, Skuratov led a punitive expedition against Novgorod, killing thousands of its citizens on suspicion of treason. In 1571, Skuratov was put in charge of the investigation into the causes of the Russian army’s defeat by the army of the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray.

Malyuta Skuratov was killed during the siege of Weissenstein (now Paide, Estonia) in the Livonian War in 1573. He lies buried near the grave of his father in the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery.

One of Skuratov’s daughters, Maria Grigorievna, married Boris Godunov. His other daughter, who had poisoned Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, was married to Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Skopin-Shuisky.

Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev (1830–1904) - Roman of Halych receives an ambassador from the Pope - 1875

Roman Mstislavich (Russian and Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич), also Roman Mstyslavych or Roman the Great, (c. 1152 – Zawichost, October 14, 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205). By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’. In the early 13th century, the Byzantine imperial title, “autocrate” (αύτοκράτωρ) was applied by the chroniclers to him, but there is no evidence that he assumed it officially.

He waged two successful campaigns against the Cumans, from which he returned with many rescued captives. The effect of Roman’s victory was, however, undermined by new dissensions among the princes of Rus’.

Roman died in a battle with the Poles. He founded the Romanovich dynasty that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.

Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev (1830–1904) - The Market - 1866

In the 60s, Nevrev painted one of his masterpieces, “The Market” (1866), in which he depicted the sale of serfs. 

Serfdom is the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage or modified slavery which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century.

Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the Lord of the Manor who owned that land, and in return were entitled to protection, justice and the right to exploit certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord’s fields, but also his mines, forests and roads. The manor formed the basic unit of feudal society and the Lord of the Manor and his serfs were bound legally, economically, and socially. Serfs formed the lowest social class of feudal society.