Gift giving was not seen as a sacrifice but was a sign of friendship. Gift giving was a powerful symbol being that we speak of a society where resources were limited and a balance of taking from and giving back to nature was paramount. Gift giving was done out of honest empathy towards others with the hope that if one day you were in need your community would care for you. Said gifts could be things as simple as cloth, blankets, kettles, and rations but were not limited solely to material objects. The Natives, however, weren't the only ones that benefited from this as the French and British received vast amounts of furs from them, a trade good that at the time was in high demand.

Military alliances would also be established by the exchange of gifts but in time the Natives became dependent on the goods of the Europeans. A few examples of this practice can be seen with the Iroquois Confederacy which established a treaty known as the ‘Covenant Chain’ with the English and an ‘Iron Chain’ with the Dutch – these chains had to be symbolically polished with the exchange of gifts. The French treated the Natives with respect, honored their customs and often practiced Gift Giving, in time some of them even married Native women, something that the British were against.

When the French had possession of the remote forts, they were accustomed, with a wise liberality, to supply the surrounding Indians with guns, ammunition, and clothing, until the latter had forgotten the weapons and garments of their forefathers, and depended on the white men for support.”

Following the end of the Seven Year War, London instructed the British to stop participating in the tradition of gift giving. No shot or gunpowder was given to them so they could hunt and no blankets or rations for the harsh winters. A supporter of this was Lord Jeremy Amherst who is known to have distrusted the Natives, saw gift giving as a form of bribery and later promoted the giving of blankets and handkerchiefs from a smallpox hospital to Natives. 

“-the presents which it had always been customary to give the Indians, at stated intervals, were either withheld altogether, or doled out with a niggardly and reluctant hand; while, to make the matter worse, the agents and officers of government often appropriated the presents to themselves, and afterwards sold them at an exorbitant price to the Indians.”

If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.


  • THE COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING – This post covers some of the history, culture and religion of the Native American inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of North America, focusing on the Pontiac-Guyasuta Uprising and the Council of Three Fires (the Ottawa, Ojibwe and the Potawatomi); the peace-pipe, the Delaware prophetsRogers’ Rangers, the sport that inspired lacrosse, and some Native battle tactics
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE “SAVAGE” EMPIRE – The origins of the Iroquois Confederacy, the early wars they were involved in, the effects that disease epidemics incurred upon them, the Iroquoian cultural use of torturescalping, and cannibalism, the tomahawk and its symbolism (bury the hatchet), as well as the taking of captives during mourning wars and adopting them in order to replace lost tribal members.
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS – This post covers the religious beliefs of the Iroquois Confederacy, their origin story, their belief in duality (like yin and yang), their secretive and mysterious masked societies, and their involvement in the conflicts between their two great colonial neighbors (New France and the New England) like the famed French and Indian War. I’ll also speak of their involvement in the American Revolutionary War as well as the famed Joseph Brant, a Freemason Mohawk leader who swayed most of the Iroquois Confederates into siding with the British. It is believed that without the aid of the Iroquois Confederacy, North America would now be speaking French instead of English and that France would’ve held a massive portion of the eastern half of North America, leaving a massive battlefield for the French and Spanish to battle over.

[Al-Mutakabbir/ The Superb/ All Great]
Allah has all pride and glory. He is beyond need and is without imperfection. He is beyond the qualities of what He has created. “And to Him belongs majesty in the heavens and the earth.” ‎﴾‬‎45.37﴿‬
Pride, an exclusively godly attribute, must never be claimed by human beings. Allah hates proud people who elevate themselves above others. “Allah does not love any man who is proud and boastful.” ‎﴾‬‎57.23‬‎﴿‬
Punishment for pride in this life is spiritual blindness. “I shall turn away from My signs the arrogant and unjust; so that even if they see every sign, they will not believe in it.” ‎﴾‬‎7:146﴿‬
And in the hereafter they will be thrown into Hell. “Shall I tell you about the people of Hell? Every harsh, niggardly and proud man.” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No one will enter Paradise in whose heart is an atom’s weight of arrogance and no one will enter Hell in whose heart is an atom’s weight of faith.” A man said: What if I like my clothes to look nice and my shoes to look nice? He said: “Verily Allah loves beauty; rather arrogance means rejecting the truth and looking down on people.” (Muslim)
Allah is All Great, for He excels over all and transcends everything. In view of His greatness, which is manifest around us, we must surrender ourselves wholly to Him and lead our lives marked by modesty and humility. We should realise our total obedience to Him and treat all of His creatures with love and affection.

dj-taktix  asked:

In a recent ask, you said: "At this feast (...), the Starks are “flaunting it”. (...) It’s not a careless, casual waste of food and wealth (compare Joffrey’s wedding)" But Joffrey's wedding wasn't just a careless waste of resources, it was Tywin declaring "mission accomplished", the war is over and the Lannisters now reign. Now, it certainly backfired (or went according to plan, depending on which theories you subscribe to), but it certainly wasn't a waste in contrast to Bran's Harvest feast...

The reason I consider Joffrey’s wedding a waste of resources is because it was. Yes, it was a very carefully planned waste of resources, to demonstrate the union of Lannister gold and Tyrell abundance and Baratheon monarchy, to show everyone who were the winners of the War of the Five Kings. But it was still a waste:

“What did you find at the riverfront?”
“Mud,” said Tyrion, “and a few dead things no one’s bothered to bury. Before we can open the port again, the Blackwater’s going to have to be dredged, the sunken ships broken up or raised. Three-quarters of the quays need repair, and some may have to be torn down and rebuilt. The entire fish market is gone, and both the River Gate and the King’s Gate are splintered from the battering Stannis gave them and should be replaced. I shudder to think of the cost.” If you do shit gold, Father, find a privy and get busy, he wanted to say, but he knew better.
“You will find whatever gold is required.”
“Will I? Where? The treasury is empty, I’ve told you that. We’re not done paying the alchemists for all that wildfire, or the smiths for my chain, and Cersei’s pledged the crown to pay half the costs of Joff’s wedding—seventy-seven bloody courses, a thousand guests, a pie full of doves, singers, jugglers…”
“Extravagance has its uses. We must demonstrate the power and wealth of Casterly Rock for all the realm to see.”
“Then perhaps Casterly Rock should pay.”
“Why? I have seen Littlefinger’s accounts. Crown incomes are ten times higher than they were under Aerys.”
“As are the crown’s expenses. Robert was as generous with his coin as he was with his cock. Littlefinger borrowed heavily. From you, amongst others. Yes, the incomes are considerable, but they are barely sufficient to cover the usury on Littlefinger’s loans. Will you forgive the throne’s debt to House Lannister?”
“Don’t be absurd.”
“Then perhaps seven courses would suffice. Three hundred guests instead of a thousand. I understand that a marriage can be just as binding without a dancing bear.”
“The Tyrells would think us niggardly. I will have the wedding and the waterfront. If you cannot pay for them, say so, and I shall find a master of coin who can.”

–ASOS, Tyrion IV

“If you will excuse us, Lady Olenna, it is time we were in our places.”
“Myself as well. Seventy-seven courses, I daresay. Don’t you find that a bit excessive, my lord? I shan’t eat more than three or four bites myself, but you and I are very little, aren’t we?”

–ASOS, Tyrion VIII

“While we are speaking of amusement, I heard a curious tale from Lord Buckler’s steward. He claimed that you had put a tax on women’s privy purses.”
“It is a tax on whoring,” said Tyrion, irritated all over again. And it was my bloody father’s notion. “Only a penny for each, ah… act. The King’s Hand felt it might help improve the morals of the city.” And pay for Joffrey’s wedding besides. Needless to say, as master of coin, Tyrion had gotten all the blame for it.

–ASOS, Tyrion V

Seventy-seven courses, a hundred birds, all to “demonstrate the power and wealth of Casterly Rock” – but is Casterly Rock paying for it? No, the people are, through raised taxes. While winter is coming, the Riverlands are a ruined wasteland (and soon the starving wreckage will come flooding into the city as sparrows), and King’s Landing was still never fully repaired from the Battle of the Blackwater. The crown borrows and borrows and the debt comes due in AFFC, from the Faith, from the Tyrells, from the Iron Bank of Braavos, from the gods themselves one might even say.

There’s propaganda, that builds morale and builds commoners’ trust in the ruling class. And then there’s wasteful propaganda, that does nothing but bring envy and hate, that spends money like water and gives nothing to the future. “Mission Accomplished”, indeed.

Symptoms of Weak Iman (faith)

1. Committing Sins

Some people insist on committing the same sins over and over again. As a result, repugnance of sins is slowly withdrawn from their heart to the point that
they commit these sins openly as described in this Hadith:

“ “All of my followers will be forgiven except those who commit sins openly. Such is the case of a man commits a sin at night and Allah had his sin concealed till the morning comes. But, he says openly: ‘O so and so, I did such and such yesterday.’ Allah had covered his sin, but he uncovered the veil of Allah from it.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri).

2. Hardening of the Heart

The person reaches a stage where he feels that his heart has turned into a solid rock that is not affected by anything. Allah says:

“And yet, after this, your hearts hardened and became like rocks, or even harder.” (Al-Baqarah, 2:74).

A hardened heart is not affected by anything – even seeing people die and attending funerals would not move it. The person with a hardened heart may even carry a corpse and bury it, yet, he walks in the graveyard as if he were strolling between pine trees!

3. Performing Acts of Worship Poorly

Such a person remains absent-minded during prayers and while reciting the Qur’ân. He also does not contemplate upon the meaning of the supplications he is making. As a result, he recites them in a monotonous tone void of any reflections. He does not think for a moment about the value of these supplications. He forgets that:

“ “Allah does not accept the supplication from an inattentive, heedless heart.” (Related by Al-Tirmidhi).

His acts of worship are reduced to hollow movements with no spirit behind them. Allah describes the hypocrites:

“And they do not remember Allah but little.” (Al-Nisâ’, 4:142).

A hard hearted person remains indifferent when he does not perform some good deeds and misses those times of worship that have more reward in them. His lack of interest to earn rewards is obvious. Delaying Hajj when he is capable of performing it, missing congregational prayers in the Masjid, and even the Jumu’ah prayer are a few examples of this. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam [pbuh] said:

“ “People will continue to withdraw to rows behind the first one until Allah puts them in a back place in Hell.” (Related by Abû Dawud).

Furthermore, he does not feel remorse if he misses obligatory duties and does not try to perform the different Sunnah prayers or invocations that he misses. He ignores them, convincing himself that they are only Sunnah!

4. Lack of Tranquillity

His chest gets tightened, his mood changes, he feels as if he is carrying a heavy load, and he becomes annoyed quickly because of minor things. He gets pestered by the behavior of the people around him and he does not forgive them easily. He harbors malice towards fellow Muslims over insignificant issues. The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam has described Imân to be forgiveness:

“ Imân is patience and forgiveness.” (Related by Al-Tirmidhi)

In another Hadith, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam described the believer in the following manner:

“ “He makes friends and is befriended and there is no goodness in (one who) does not make friends or is not befriended.” (Related by Al-Tirmidhi).

5. Verses of the Qur’ân Have No Effect Upon Him

The promises, warnings, commands, prohibitions, and descriptions of the Day of Judgment do not make his eyes flood with tears, or his heart quiver, or his soul shiver. Consequently, he gets bored and tired when he listens to the recital of the Qur’ân!

6. He is Negligent in Remembering Allah

This simple act of devotion becomes heavy upon him to the point that when he raises his hands in supplication, he hastens to fold them up quickly to conclude it. He is not eager to repent to Allah, the Mighty and Glorious, and to make invocations to Him for his needs. Allah describes the hypocrites:

“And when they stand up to pray, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.” (Al-Nisa’, 4:142).

7. He Does Not Get Angry When the Commandments of Allah Are Violated

This is because the glowing light of honor in his heart has been extinguished and as a result, his limbs have become numb to repudiate evil. So he does not bother to enjoin good or forbid evil. This is due to a weak heart as indicated by the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam:

“ “Temptations are presented to the heart, one by one. Any heart that accepts them will be left with a black stain, but any heart that rejects them will be left with a mark of purity, until the hearts become one of two types: a dark heart that has turned away and become like an overturned vessel, and a pure heart that will never be harmed by temptation for as long as the earth and the heavens exist.” (Related by Muslim).

So the desire of enjoining good and forbidding evil disappears from a sick heart. Good and evil are the same to it.

Rather, the person may even be happy to hear about the corruption that is being committed on earth. His unfortunate soul forgets that the sin upon him is the same as the sin upon the person who witnessed the evil and approved of it, as the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “When a sin is committed on earth, the one who witnessed it and hates it is like one who was absent from it, and the one who was absent from it but was pleased with it (after he found out about it), it is like he witnessed it. (Related by Abû Dawud)

Since being pleased with the sin is a deed of his heart, it makes the sin upon him equal to the sin of the one who witnessed it.

8. He loves to be in Gatherings and be Engrossed in Talking

He tries to impose his views on others and likes the discussion to center around him. Gatherings in which idle talk takes prominence are considered like slaughter houses from which the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam warned us when he said:

“ “Watch out for the slaughterhouses (meaning) gatherings.” (Related by Al-Bayhaqi).
9. He is Arrogant

He likes people to stand up for him when he enters to meet them because feeling great gratifies his diseased soul. the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “The one who is pleased that the slaves of Allah stand up for him, then let him be assured of his place in the Fire.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad)

Mu’awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan entered upon two companions of the Prophet, Ibn ‘Amir stood up and Ibn Zubayr sat down. Seeing this, Mu’awiyah said to Ibn ‘Amir: “Sit down, because I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

“ ‘The one who loves that another man stand up for him, then let him rest assured of his sitting place in the Fire.”‘ (Related by Abû Dawud).

A similar example is that he will get angry at a person who applies the Sunnah and starts shaking hands with people on his right hand side. Also, when he enters a gathering, he is not satisfied unless someone else, already sitting, gets up so that he may,sit in his place despite the fact that he is forbidden to do so by the Prophetsallallahu alayhe wa sallam:

“ “Let not a man make another one stand for him then sit in his place.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri).

10. Stinginess and Greed

Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala has praised those who spend their wealth for good causes and at the same time blamed those who are miserly. In the Qur’ân Allah has praised the Ansar for the way they gave preference to the Muhajirun (Muslims who migrated from Makkah) over themselves:

“But they (Ansar) give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that (the booty). And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful.” (Al-Hashr, 59:9).

Allah has clarified that the successful ones are those who protect themselves against stinginess. Without doubt, weakness of Imân is born from stinginess as the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “Imân and covetousness can never come together in the heart of a slave.” (Related by Al-Nasa’i).

Concerning the dangers of stinginess and its effects upon one’s soul, the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam explained it to be:

“ “Beware of covetousness, because the ones before you perished because of covetousness. It induces them to be miserly so they became misers and it induced them to break the ties (of kinship) so they broke it and induced them to commit sins so they committed sins.” (Related by Abû Dawûd).

A greedy person also has a weak Imân. He scarcely spends anything for the sake of Allah even if he is called to donate in charity when his Muslim brothers are hungry and afflicted by hardships. There is nothing clearer in this matter than the Book of Allah:

“Behold! It is you who are called to spend freely in Allah’s Cause: but even among you are such as turn out to be niggardly! And yet, he who acts niggardly in Allah’s Cause is but niggardly towards himself: for Allah is Rich, and you are poor. And if you turn away from Him, He will cause other people to take your place, and they will not be the likes of you.” (Muhammad, 47:38)

11. He Falls into Doubtful Matters

When he performs an action, he does not ask if it is an act of righteousness, but rather will it earn him any sin or not. This is exactly what the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam informed us of:

“ “But he who falls into doubtful matters falls into that which is unlawful, like the shepherd who pastures around a sanctuary, all about grazing therein. Truly, every king has a sanctuary, and Allah’s sanctuary is His prohibitions.” (Related by Muslim)

When such people ask for a fatwah (Islamic ruling) about something, and find out that it is forbidden, they do not give up. They want to know how severe the prohibition is. How many sins does he earn if he commits it? He is not concerned to stay away from evil and sinful deeds, rather he is inclined to take the first step towards haram things by belittling the burning effects of sins which run him the risk of committing haram, and remove the screen between him and the sin. This is why the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “Know that some people from my Ummah will come on the Day of Judgment with good deeds like the white mountains of Tihama, but Allah will make them scattered dust.” Thawban said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, describe them to us, so that we may not be one of them without knowing it!’ He said, “They will be your brothers, and from your people, and they will take from the night as you do (meaning prayers, etc.), but they are a people who, when they were alone with the prohibitions of Allah, violated them.” (Related by Ibn Majah).

So, you will find him engulfed in forbidden things without any protection or shielding, and this is more evil than the one who commits them but with some reluctance. These people commit sins with ease as a result of their ailing Imânand do not see their act to be an evil one. This is how Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud radhiallahu anhu described the way a believer and a hypocrite perceive sins:

“ “A believer sees his sins as if he were sitting under a mountain, fearing it might fall upon him, while a sinner sees his sins as a fly passing over his nose, so he gets rid of it with his hand.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri).

12. Belittling Good Deeds
There is lack of concern on the part of the sick at heart to perform small deeds of righteousness contrary to what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam has taught us when he said:

“ “Do not belittle any small act of kindness even if it is to pour water from your bucket into the vessel of the one who asks for it or to talk to your brother with a cheerful face.” Related by Ahmad.

So, acts that appear to be minor should not be underestimated. Hence, meeting a fellow Muslim with a smiling face and removing trash and dirt from the Masjid – even as little as a straw – entails great rewards. It may be that a small deed becomes a reason for the forgiveness of major sins. Allah thanks His slave for these small deeds and forgives him.

The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “Once, a man saw the branch of a tree in the middle of a road. So, he said, ‘By Allah, I will remove this from the path of the Muslims so they may not be hurt.’ For this action, he was put in Paradise.” (Related by Muslim).

Mu’adh Ibn Jabal was once walking with someone. He removed a pebble from the way. The man asked Mu’adh why he did that. Mu’adh answered him: ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhe wa sallam say:

“ “One who removes a stone from the way has a good deed written for him, and one for whom a good deed is written shall enter Paradise.‘” (Related by Al-Tabarani).

13. Not Caring About the Affairs of Muslims

A person with a sick heart does not react to the needs of Muslims by making supplications, giving charity, or offering assistance. He does not care if his brothers are afflicted by a hardship in any part of the world such as being overwhelmed by the enemy, being persecuted, or being stricken by disasters. It is enough for him that his conditions are good! This is because of his ailing Imân; A believer is the opposite of that as described by the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam:

“ “A believer feels pain for the believers, just as the body feels distress over what is troubling the head.” (Related by Ahmad).

14. He is Deprived of the Friendship of Brothers

The Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “Two persons who became friends for the sake of Allah do not separate except because of a sin committed by one of them.” (Related by Al-Bukhâri in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad).

This is a proof of the evil effects of sins: it breaks the ties of brotherhood. This alienation that a person finds between himself and his brothers is sometimes the result of a decline in Imân which results from committing sins. So the love others have for him dwindles.

15. Showing Grief and Fear When Afflicted by a Hardship or When in Difficulty

Such a person is often found to be shaky in offering obligatory duties, unbalanced, absent minded, lost, and fidgety. He is not able to face reality with unwavering limbs and a firm heart. All of this is due to ailing Imân.

If the Imân were strong, he would have been firm and faced the greatest of hardships with strength and steadfastness.

16. Disputing and Arguing Unnecessarily

Much engagement in these habits hardens the heart as the Prophet said:

“ “A people never went astray after being upon guidance except through disputes.”(Related by Ahmad).

So, argumentation without proof and proper intention takes one away from the Straight Path. These days, most people argue falsely and without knowledge or guidance. It is enough for them to leave this bad habit after knowing what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam said:

“ “I guarantee a house in the outskirts of Paradise to the one who gives up arguing even if he were on the right side.” (Related by Abû Dawud).

17. Attachment to Worldly Life

He is so materialistic that he feels anguish when something of this life, like wealth, honor, status, etc, is taken away from him. He feels as if he has been injured badly because he did not get what others did. His feeling of injury becomes stronger and he feels rejected on seeing his Muslim brother get something of this world which did not reach him. Envy takes root in his heart so he wishes that this bounty be taken away from his brother. This is what the Prophet sallallahu alayhe wa sallam warned us against:

“ “Never can Imân and envy come together in the heart of a slave.” (Related by Al- Nasa’i).

18. His Speech is Void of the Etiquette of the Qur’ân and Sunnah
The signs of Imart are absent from him. You will barely find in this person’s speech quotations from the Qur’ân, or Sunnah, or the sayings of the early pious generations of Muslims.

These are some of the symptoms of a weak faith. By becoming aware of the symptoms, one has made the first step towards the remedy.

I still can't get the word "swag" out of my head.

It’s such a niggardly word, and I dislike it. But I say it alot, either in my head or out loud. Like for instance if something falls and I use my God given cat like reflexes to catch it mid-air like the boss that I am, “swag” I’ll say.

And still, I dont understand the point of vines.
Except for watching Odd Future being niggardly.

And I dont even know what niggardly means. Auto-correct just approves of it more than “nigga.”

But i guess niggardly is a cool. Word. Imagine it being named Courage the Niggardly Dog. He’d be a pitbull instead, wait nah, that’d be a Hispanic from Miami.

A note on “niggardly:”

“Niggardly” comes from the Scandinavian word “nygg,” which means “stingy.”

“Nigger” comes from the Spanish word “negro,” which means “black.”

There is no etymological relation between the words. As I have said before, keep your sociological baggage away from the English language, because getting offended over “niggardly” just makes you look like a twit.* 

*However, if someone goes out of their way to call me “niggardly” rather than “stingy,” I am going to assume they’re trying to be clever, and will react appropriately by implanting my foot up their ass. That shit still sounds racist, yo. 


: to agonize over inconsequential details

[Probably like NIGGARDLY (meaning “stingy”), NIGGLE traces its roots not from the racial slur but from the Old Norse “hnøggr,” which itself has evolved into the Norwegian “nigla,” both of which also mean “stingy.”]