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If anyone ever tries to tell you that slavery never existed in Canada, they’re lying to your face and are perpetuating myths of Canadian benevolence and US-Canada contrasts. They’re ignoring over 200 years of enslavement, and the recorded 2,683 Indigenous slaves, mainly from the Pawnee Nation, and the recorded 1,443 Black slaves that occupied New France ALONE before the Conquest by the British. By the way, the entire population of New France back then was apx. 60,000, and the enslaved population made up 4,200 of those.

(So if French Canadians tell you that slavery appeared with the British Conquest, in actuality the British took steps to make it easier for people to own slaves through Article XLVII of the Articles of Capitulation, that many French settlers at that time took advantage of.)

Slaves were held by fur trading post officers, colonial officials, members of the military, Jesuits, Roman Catholic Churches, Baptist Churches, 50% of the later Quebec Parliament, and the common people who often went into debt to have the status symbol of owning a slave.

In 1781, the island of St. John (now P.E.I) passed a law that legalized slavery and paid a 40 shilling bonus for every Black slave brought into the province. In 1790, the Imperial Statute allowed British Loyalists from the states to bring in slaves to the whole country without tax. The same went for the cutlery, furniture, and farm tools they brought with them.

People will try to tell you that Indigenous people owned slaves as well. They kept prisoners of war and exchanged people to pay off debts and replace war-dead, but they were never dehumanized like slaves under European slavery. The two systems are not the same and aren’t even remotely interchangeable.

Slaves weren’t treated like members of the family or like well-loved butlers. They were subject to the same treatment endured by slaves in the 13 colonies. Ownership was justified in similar ways as well: using the Labour Supply argument, where white workers were “too costly” to hire and Black slaves were sometimes said to be “too expensive to import from the French Caribbean.” (They were sold here anyways.) This explains the higher amount of Indigenous slaves.

It also means that Black people have been in Canada for as long as whites; the first recorded slave in Canada showed up in 1629. He was from either Madagascar or Guinea.

People will cite Canada’s lack of a Code Noir as proof of a lack of slavery. Just because we didn’t have a specific document to regulate it doesn’t mean it didn’t exist. It did. There are newspaper advertisements in such papers as the Montreal Gazette for runaway slaves and slaves that were up for sale.

The life expectancy of a slave in Canada was 17 years old. The 1790 Act to Limit Slavery pushed by John Simcoe said that slaves born after 1790 would be freed at age 25. See how that doesn’t work?

But most importantly, people will try to tell you that slaves didn’t resist. They did. They launched legal protests and challenges, but were opposed by Judicial members who owned slaves themselves.

Well-known Canadian figures who owned slaves include but aren’t limited to:

James McGill of McGill University fame, Joseph Brant, Sir John Johnson, and William Jarvis.

Modern historians and scholars have tried to deny this. A historian who tried to tell the true story was Professor Marcel Trudel, who wrote “Canada’s Forgotten Slaves: 200 Years of Bondage” in the 1960’s. He was shunned by the academic community, relocated to Ottawa University from his previous chair, and was personally asked by Quebec politicians to stay quiet about the matter because he revealed that slavery existed in New France before the British - destroying the idea of French Canadian moral superiority in that regard. He died in 2011, and his book which so many tried to discredit but so many never could, was only translated into English in 2013.

Slavery existed in Canada. Don’t let anyone tell you differently.

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LGBT+ MASTERLIST PROJECT BY ROCIO @nuevayor

Week One: TELEVISION
Week Three: BOOKS
Week Four: POETRY
Week Five: MUSIC
Week Six: COMICS
Week Seven: DOCUMENTARIES
Week Eight: PODCASTS
Week Nine: YOUTUBERS
Week Ten: HISTORY
Week Eleven: RESOURCES
Week Twelve: THANK YOU + GOODBI

Week Two: Welcome back to the LGBT+ Masterlist Project

Before I get into this week’s category I want to thank you all so much for the critical support and contributions you’ve given me since making my first masterlist on LGBT+ characters in television. These masterlists will only get better as you help me along my journey to finding more LGBT+ media. Feel free to inbox me, to suggest and add commentary to my growing list. I can’t promise I’ll edit the lists regularly (I am a tiny college student; you can imagine my stress) but I will certainly share for my followers to see. It’s all still greatly appreciated.

This week, I tried to bring down the list to be exclusive to only movies with leading and supporting LGBT+ roles. I tried to avoid movies with cis people playing trans characters, and altogether tried to avoid problematic representation, which should never go unnoticed or without criticism. Please note, I have not seen all of these movies, so I can’t be the judge of how good the representation is. This is why I welcome you to respectfully inbox me or reblog with comments. 

Thanks again to @mightyachillis for the gifset. Next week’s category: LGBT+ BOOKS

And without further ado: LGBT+ MOVIES!

  • Private Romeo (2011) - A modern gay reenactment of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.
  • Frieir Fall (2013) - The life of a father-to-be and police officer begins to fall apart after he falls for his fellow officer (played by Max Riemelt). English distribution name: Free Fall.
  • Pride (2014) - This historical comedy drama follows the true story of a group of LGBT+ activists who supported the British miners’ strike in 1984.
  • Black Swan (2010) - Natalie Portman and Mila Kunis star in this psychological thriller-horror film about a dancer who’d do just about anything to get the role of the Black Swan.
  • Mosquita y Mari (2012) - Two Mexican teenagers, Mari and Yolanda, form a strong bond as they navigate their way through high school.
  • Joven y Alocada (2012) - This Chilean film focuses on the promiscuity of Daniela and her love affair with a boy and a girl. English distribution name: Young and Wild.
  • Hoje Eu Quero Voltar Sozinho (2014) - This Brazilian film follows the coming of age story of blind teen Leonardo, his best friend, and the new boy in school with whom Leo has an immediate affinity for. English distribution name: The Way He Looks.
  • Cuatro Lunas (2014) - This Mexican film explores four different storylines: an 11-year-old tries to hide his sexuality from his family, a young man is afraid of his gay relationship being found out, another couple of gay lovers are challenged by a love triangle, and an elderly man raises money to buy services from young male prostitutes.
  • Kill Your Darlings (2013) - A dramatization of the true story of Lucien Carr (Dane DeHaan) and Allen Ginsberg (Daniel Radcliffe) of the Beat Generation.
  • Jongens (2014) - A gay teen athlete finds himself in a budding relationship with his mutually attracted relay race teammate.
  • Weekend (2011) - A romantic drama about two men who have a sexual relationship for just a weekend.
  • J’ai tué ma Mère (2009) - This Quebec film by Xavier Dolan explores the bond between mother and son. English distribution name: I Killed My Mother.
  • Les Amours Imaginaires (2010) - Another Canadian drama film directed by Xavier Dolan about two best friends who fall in love with the same man. English distribution name: Heartbeats.
  • El ultimo verano de la Boyita (2009) - In this Argentinian film, a young girl befriends a farm boy when she visits her father in the countryside. One day, she finds blood stains on the boy’s saddle and trousers. The boy, though ashamed and confused, finds comfort and safety in this newfound friendship.
  • Wet Hot American Summer (2001) - A satirical romantic comedy about the last day at a summer camp in 1981.
  • The Birdcage (1996) - A romantic comedy about an owner of a drag club in South Beach, Florida.
  • Kinky Boots (2005) - This British-American comedy drama explores the unlikely story of the owner of a dying shoe factory, who finds that making shoes for drag queens could be the niche market that saves his business.
  • The Bubble (2008) - A romantic comedy about two men who fall in love. One man is Israeli, and the other is Palestinian.
  • Out in the Dark (2012) - A similar premise to The Bubble, this drama centers around the romantic relationship between a Palestinian student and an Israeli lawyer.
  • But I’m a Cheerleader (1999) - A satirical romantic comedy staring Natasha Lyonne, who plays a cheerleader sent to a gay rehabilitation camp.

Keep reading

Historical Map: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) “Transit Map” Newspaper Ad, 1947

Submitted by Jack, who says:

This is an ad for British Overseas Airways Corporation in the old Australian newspaper The Bulletin, September 17, 1947. I found it while digitizing the paper at work!


Transit Maps says:

This is a glorious find, and one that @airlinemaps would certainly be very interested in. Compositionally, the diagram is very interesting, with a dead straight line linking Britain to the Antipodes (somewhat mitigating the fact that the line represents some three days of flying), and some sweeping, elegant curves representing other “branch” routes. The striking angled typography is spoiled a little by the labels for Hong Kong and Shanghai, which look for all the world like they’ve been added at a later date, shoved in wherever they could fit.

The short-range hopping required for international passenger flight back in 1947 is clearly illustrated by the number of cities called at on the way – there are 15 stops between Sydney and Britain! The other major point of interest is some of the old place names, many of which have been changed over the course of time: Rangoon/Yangon, Salisbury/Harare, Calcutta/Kolkata, etc.

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Black history month day 13: Entrepreneur and social activist Madame CJ Walker.

Madame CJ Walker was born Sarah Breedlove in Louisiana in 1867. Her parents and siblings had been former slaves but she was the first in her family to be born free post-emancipation. She was orphaned at the age of 7, and when she was 10, Sarah moved to Mississippi to live with her older sister and brother-in-law, and work as a domestic servant. She married at 14, possibly to escape mistreatment from her brother-the-law. She had one child with her first husband Moses before he passed away. She remarried, but ended up leaving her husband to move to Denver Colorado. Finally in 1906, Sarah married Charles Joseph Walker, a newspaper advertising salesman she had known in Missouri. Through this marriage, she became known as Madam C. J. Walker.

Sarah moved to St. Louis Missouri with her daughter and got work as a laundress, barely earning a dollar a day. Still, she was determined to make enough money to afford her daughter a formal education. During this time, Walker experienced hair and scalp problems that were common among black women of her era, including severe dandruff and baldness due to skin disorders and the application of harsh products such as lye that were included in soaps to cleanse hair. Other contributing factors included poor diet, illnesses, and infrequent bathing and hair washing. This was a time when many Americans lacked indoor plumbing, central heating, and electricity. Walker ended up becoming a commission sales agent for Annie Turnbo Malone, another black hair care entrepreneur, and ended up adapting her knowledge of hair to develop her own product line. Eventually she became the biggest rival of the company she once worked for.

Walker began a business selling hair care products for African-American women. She worked with her husband as a business partner and her daughter as a sales associate. She adopted the name “madam” from the women pioneers of the French beauty industry, and trained many other black women on proper hair care and how to sell her products. She gave jobs to thousands of women and the majority of her salesforce and management was female run. She gained international popularity with women using her products in places like Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba.

Walker passed away at age 51 from kidney failure and complications with hypertension, and her daughter became president of the company. Walker was eulogized first self-made American millionaire, although her estate was only worth about $600,000. However that’s close to $8 million in today’s money. Walker gave generously to charity and spent much of her life teaching other black women how to budget their money and start their own businesses.