It’s filled with promise, with beauty, with the ambitions, dreams, and principles of millions of people; how could anyone name it? The City of Dreams, the City that Never Sleeps, the Center of the Universe, the Concrete Jungle- nothing compares to the name which I know it by: the City of my Soul.
Okay but do you know what I really, really love about Rebecca Sugar? Do you know why she’s my freakin’ inspiration?
she is twenty seven years old. TWENTY SEVEN. AND LOOK WHAT SHE HAS DONE
she’s one of the creative minds behind a hit television show that has positive messages and cute animation and real-life relatable situations / characters LIKE SHE DOES SO MUCH FOR IT SHE’S THE CREATOR, THE EXEC PRODUCER, A WRITER, A STORYBOARDER AND A FREAKIN’ SONGWRITER. this woman is a quintuple threat.
her work on Adventure Time got two emmy nominations and a Annie award nomination
once upon a time she was a nerd like me and you writing Invader Zim fanfiction and shit like that.
she drew album art for a hit singer
she was a storyboard artist for the 2012 movie Hotel Transylvania; that is a big step considering the film is made by Sony which is a hella big corporation and she started with Cartoon Network
FIRST WOMAN TO CREATE A SHOW FOR CARTOON NETWORK
So for a fifteen year old aspiring screenwriter, you can see why I love her.
Infantile Memory Study Points to Critical Periods in Early-Life Learning for Brain Development
A new study on infantile memory formation in rats points to the
importance of critical periods in early-life learning on functional
development of the brain. The research, conducted by scientists at New
York University’s Center for Neural Science, reveals the significance of
learning experiences over the first two to four years of human life;
this is when memories are believed to be quickly forgotten—a phenomenon
known as infantile amnesia.
“What our findings tell us is that
children’s brains need to get enough and healthy activation even before
they enter pre-school,” explains Cristina Alberini, a professor in NYU’s
Center for Neural Science, who led the study. “Without this, the
neurological system runs the risk of not properly developing learning
and memory functions.”
The other authors of the study, conducted
in collaboration with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai,
included: Alessio Travaglia, a post-doctoral researcher at NYU; Reto
Bisaz, an NYU research scientist at the time of the study; Eric Sweet, a
post-doctoral fellow at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai; and
Robert Blitzer, a professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt.
In their study, which appears in the journal Nature Neuroscience,
the researchers examined the mechanisms of infantile memory in
rats—i.e., memories created 17 days after birth. This is the equivalent
of humans under the age of three and when memories of who, what, when,
and where–known as episodic memories–are rapidly forgotten. The
phenomenon, referred as to “infantile or childhood amnesia,” is in fact
the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories that took place
during the first two to four years of life.
In addressing this
matter, Alberini and her colleagues compared rats’ infantile memory with
that when they reached 24 days old—that is, when they are capable of
forming and retaining long-term memories and at an age that roughly
corresponds to humans at six to nine years old.
memory tested in the rodents was the memory of an aversive experience: a
mild foot shock received upon entering in a new place. Adult rats, like
humans, remember unpleasant or painful experiences that they had in
specific places, and then avoid returning to them.
To do so,
rodents were placed in a box divided into two compartments: a “safe”
compartment and a “shock” compartment. During the experiment, each rat
was placed in the safe compartment with its head facing away from the
door. After 10 seconds, the door separating the compartments was
automatically opened, allowing the rat access to the shock compartment.
If the rat entered the shock compartment, it received a mild foot shock.
The first set of results was not surprising. The authors found
infantile amnesia for the 17 day-old rats, which showed avoidance of the
“shock” compartment right after the experience, but lost this memory
very rapidly: a day later these rats quickly returned to this
compartment. In contrast, the rats exposed to the shock compartment at
24 days of life learned and retained the memory for a long time and
avoided this place—revealing a memory similar to that of adult rats.
remarkably, the younger rats, which had apparently forgotten the
initial experience, subsequently showed they actually had kept a trace
of the memory. When, later in life, these rats were prompted with
reminders—i.e., they were presented with recollections of the context
and the foot shock—they indicated having a specific memory, which was
revealed by their avoidance of the specific context in which they
received a shock at day 17 of life. These findings show how early life
experience, although not expressed or remembered, can influence adult
The findings raised the following question: what
is occurring—neurologically—that explains why memories are retained by
the younger rats only in a latent form but are stored and expressed
long-term by older ones? Or, more specifically, what occurs during
development that enhances the ability to form lasting memories?
address this, the scientists focused on the brain’s hippocampus, which
previous scholarship has shown is necessary for encoding new episodic
memories. Here, in a series of experiments similar to the box tests,
they found that if the hippocampus was inactive, the ability of younger
rats to form latent memories and recall them later by reminders as they
got older was diminished. They then found that mechanisms of “critical
periods” are fundamental for establishing these infantile memories.
critical period is a developmental stage during which the nervous
system is especially sensitive to environmental stimuli. If, during this
period, the organism does not receive the appropriate stimuli required
to develop a given function, it may be difficult or even impossible to
develop that function later in life. Well-known examples of critical
period-based functions are sensory functions, like vision, and language
The study shows that there is a critical period for
episodic learning and that during this period the hippocampus learns to
become able to efficiently process and store memories long-term.
in life, while the brain cannot efficiently form long-term memories, it
is ‘learning’ how to do so, making it possible to establish the
abilities to memorize long-term,” explains Alberini. “However, the brain
needs stimulation through learning so that it can get in the practice
of memory formation—without these experiences, the ability of the
neurological system to learn will be impaired.”
the researchers observe, suggest that using learning and environmental
interventions during a critical period may significantly help to address
Minutes and follow-up-related-things will be coming at you from this Tumblr and our email address (email firstname.lastname@example.org to get updates and notifications of upcoming meetings) in the coming days. There is much to say…
Until then, feast your eyes. Amended fifth floor bathroom sign. There are two of them (more on that later…). Yep. It’s real.
Some of the more practical research aimed at helping black Americans to sleep better is being conducted by Girardin Jean-Louis, a charismatic Haitian-born psychologist who runs a lab dedicated to sleep and health disparities at New York University’s Center for Healthful Behavior Change. When I first started reporting on this topic, Jean-Louis’s name was brought up in just about every conversation. “What I think is innovative about what Dr. Jean-Louis is doing is that he goes into the community and finds out from the stakeholders what we need to do and works with them,” says Kristen Knutson, a biomedical anthropologist at the University of Chicago who has been studying the link between sleep and health outcomes.
It’s 84 degrees and rising on a Saturday in August when I go to see Jean-Louis’s work in action. In the St. Albans community of Jamaica, Queens, Azizi Seixas—a member of Jean-Louis’s team—takes the stage outside Christ Church International. Congregants and community members sit under tents in the closed-off street adjacent to the church, which, despite its coral-pink bricks, is as nondescript and industrial as the self-storage facility next door.
Seixas is here to recruit participants for a yearlong study that Jean-Louis’s lab is conducting. St. Albans—a working- to middle-class community that is almost entirely black—isn’t the poorest neighborhood in the city, but it suffers from the same stressors as many other minority areas: people working multiple jobs at odd hours; people struggling to pay for mortgages while taking care of their families. “People have two or three jobs—they don’t get enough sleep,” the nurse manning the blood-pressure station tells me. “You come in [from one job], you get five or six minutes sleep—or maybe two hours of sleep—then you have to go out to another job. They don’t realize. They just think, ‘Oh, I’m tired.’ They don’t realize they’re developing a problem that’s greater than being just tired.”
Thirty percent of adult residents in the greater Jamaica area are obese. The death rate from diabetes in Jamaica is higher than in both Queens and New York City as a whole. Jamaica also has one of the highest rates of heart-attack hospitalizations in the city. “When you don’t sleep well, guess what happens?” Seixas asks the crowd from the stage. “Over time, that builds up, and it builds up, and it builds up, and what we have found is that many of the times, the hypertension—the high blood pressure—the diabetes, all those health conditions are associated. They have something to do with sleep.”