new infections

Before I start this little spiel, I need you all to know: I’m not hating on people who don’t vaccinate their kids, and while I know for a fact BASED ON facts that vaccines don’t cause autism or other “defects”, I’m all for continuing research to make them even better and safer.

But you know what really, really scares me about the anti-vax movement? As a future Public Health Professional, the thing that scares me most about this is the fact that our cultural mindset has become so CHILL about vaccine-preventable/”childhood” diseases that there is even room for such a movement. Let me explain.

Do y’all know what an R0 is? The R-naught, as it is called, is the basic reproduction rate of a disease. It tells you how many new infections can come from one existing infection. For example, an R-naught of 3 (R3) means that, on average, one sick person will infect three other people. Every disease has an R-naught, some greater and some lesser.

Do you remember when everyone was freaking out about Ebola? Everyone was terrified of catching it, because it’s SOOOOO contagious and deadly, right? Ebola has an R-naught of 2. That’s it. R2. One person with Ebola, on average, will get 2 more people sick. And we were freaking out about that.

Well guess what? Measles is the most contagious disease known to mankind, and it has an R-naught of 18. 18. One person with measles will give it to 18 new people, and those people will give it to 18 new people EACH, and so on. That’s what happened with the Disneyland outbreak; it’s so ridiculously contagious that just ONE sick child was enough to start an epidemic.

And yet very few people are as scared of measles as they are of Ebola. Why is that? One reason could be the nature of the disease, sure; Ebola is terrifying in its progression and symptoms. But I would suggest that a major reason is that measles has been so well-contained by vaccination that people no longer fear it. It’s not a part of every-day life anymore; this disease is no big deal because nobody gets it, because so many people are vaccinated against it. Let’s put this another way.

What are the diseases that scare everyone the most: Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and SARS are pretty high on the list of terror diseases. But let’s look at the R0s, shall we: Ebola-R2. HIV/AIDS-R5. SARS-R5. 

Now let’s look at diseases that people are voluntarily rejecting vaccinations against: Measles, Pertussis, and Diphtheria are the major ones. Their R0s? Measles-R18. Pertussis-R17. Diptheria-R7.

Everyone focuses on the former set of diseases– rightly so, I suppose– because they’re more dangerous at the present time. What makes them more dangerous? Not their R0; it’s the fact that there is no viable treatment, and NO VACCINE. Seriously, that’s why the medical community is worried about them. There’s no way to treat or PREVENT their spread biologically. Well guess what? There’s no viable treatment for Measles or Pertussis, and only limited treatment options for Diphtheria. That’s why the medical community doesn’t focus on them as much, because we can prevent them at the biological level, safely and effectively.

But now that the Anti-Vax movement has taken hold so firmly, the medical community is now being forced to once more worry about diseases it had almost eradicated. And not only that, it’s endangering herd immunity for the people who can’t receive their own vaccines due to compromised immune systems. I’m allergic to eggs, so I can’t receive the flu shot, but I’m also asthmatic so I can’t get the inhaled vaccine. I rely entirely on the people I associate with to keep me safe from the flu by getting their yearly shot. This made public school a living nightmare, because almost NOBODY got their shot. They caught it, and while it didn’t affect them TOO terribly because they were generally healthy, when I caught it, it was very dangerous because of my asthma. And then there’s that time when I caught the flu, and then right after because of my weakened immune system, I caught Whooping Cough from someone who hadn’t been vaccinated. I HAD been vaccinated, but my body was so fatigued from the flu that it couldn’t keep up with immune demands. And so I caught it.

Have you ever had Pertussis (whooping cough)? It’s hard enough on someone with full lung capacity; it can break ribs, it makes you cough so hard. You cough until there is literally no air in your lungs, and you have to inhale so forcefully it makes the “whooping” sound that gives it the name. It’s painful beyond belief, and it can last for weeks. Some people will survive it. But add that to asthma, or to a young child, or to an elderly person, and you are looking at either permanent damage or death, no exceptions. When I had it, I was about 6 years old, and asthmatic; I spent 81 hours awake because the coughing was so violent I physically couldn’t sleep. I tore abdominal muscles. I vomited during coughing fits and aspirated the vomit. I was actively dying. The doctors could barely suppress the cough enough for me to breathe at all. My inhaler wasn’t helping, none of the cough syrups or breathing treatments were helping; I was getting pneumonia on top of the virus. It was Hell. I was LUCKY that I didn’t die.

Who would wish that on their child? Nobody, I hope. And if you KNEW you could keep your child from ever experiencing that, wouldn’t you do whatever it took to ensure their safety?

Or would you look at the safeguard and say, “Nah. I’ll take my chances with my child’s life.”?

That is what the anti-vax movement is doing. Perhaps not purposefully, but that’s the end result. These aren’t just names on syringes designed to make a child cry; the diseases are real, and real threats to health and life, and the vaccines are how you prevent them. Yet we are so far removed from the impact and effects of these diseases BECAUSE of the peace brought to us BY vaccines that people now feel no qualm about refusing vaccines.

That’s what scares me about the anti-vax movement; people have become so complacent that they no longer worry about these very real, very deadly diseases. They’d rather risk their child’s life than get a shot? The side effects of vaccines are unproven (nonexistent), but the efficacy of vaccines are very much proven.

When the pertussis vaccine first came out, people jumped on it right away. They were so grateful to have it, and for a while everything was smooth sailing, and whooping cough was on the decline. Then, in the 70s, some groups started claiming the pertussis vaccine was causing brain injury in young children. Less than 50 in 15 million cases were reported, but it was enough to scare people away from the vaccine. And children began dying again. It was later discovered that it was NOT the vaccine, but the result of infantile epilepsy, that caused the brain damage. People began once more vaccinating their children, but not before hundreds if not thousands had died.

And that’s what’s happening now. A falsified claim scared just enough people that time-tested, lab-tested, fully-proven, totally safe vaccines are being rejected, and we’re already starting to pay with lives. And I’m scared it’s going to get worse. People don’t really grasp the full import of these diseases and the necessity of the vaccines until they have experienced the disease. I’m scared that it’s going to come down to new epidemics before people will realize the mistake of not vaccinating.

Right now we’re still in the semi-safe zone. Enough of the population is immunized that we could probably keep most pandemics of these diseases at bay. But if this movement keeps gaining momentum, there might come a day when measles and pertussis could once again destroy thousands of people yearly. Imagine if some terrorist group weaponized Ebola and used it against this country; so many people would die, because we have no vaccine for it, no way to prevent it. That is what could happen with diseases like mumps, rubella, measles, pertussis, Diphtheria, and polio. Except it wouldn’t be terrorists using a disease as a weapon; it would be some kid in your child’s class, or your neighbor across the street, or the guy who delivers the mail to your office. That’s how life used to be, and if someone from the pre-vaccine era could see us now, they’d weep for joy at the idea that we can prevent these horrific diseases; and then they’d weep in sorrow at the idea that people are voluntarily turning down that safeguard.

It’s true, vaccines aren’t always 100% effective; I was immunized, but still got Whooping Cough (lowered immune function, if you recall). But you know who didn’t get it? My baby sister. My big sister. My cousins. My mother and father. My classmates, the other kids at my doctor’s office. The nurses at the hospital. The pharmacy workers. Their children. The kids my mom taught at school. All those people were safe because of vaccines. And you know what else? When I was in India, I was exposed to polio. Didn’t get it. Know why? I was vaccinated. I was exposed to chicken pox in 5th grade. One unvaccinated kid got it, and the other 4 kids in our class who weren’t vaccinated got it. But you know who didn’t? The rest of us who WERE vaccinated.

Vaccination may not be perfect, and the only way we will improve them is by continuing research. But the fact remains that as they are now, vaccines cause no lasting side effects (injection site pain goes away), and are extremely effective at preventing dangerous, painful, debilitating, often deadly diseases. Let’s keep researching, yes, but in the mean time, PLEASE vaccinate. It’s not worth your life, or your child’s, or anyone else’s. Vaccines save lives, not destroy them.

scarletnightwalker  asked:

Hello, I was wondering if you could help me. Lately I've come across the healthy/unhealthy personality types. Though I know, that I'm an ENTP, I would like to learn, how you can tell whether they are healthy or not. Would be great if you would explain this. Thanks in advance PS.: I'm not sure, if this is the right place to ask my questions, so correct me if the 'question' section isn't the right one.

It’s the right place. All the mods are pretty chill coz we’re awesome. :)

Unhealthy NTP: never finishes anything or focuses on the details (zero follow through), uses their Fe to manipulate people (you’re soft, and a pansy, and making you fall for my BS is so fun, maybe I can even get you to cry by pointing out how stupid your ideas are!) or intentionally hurt them rather than forge genuine connections or take into consideration people’s feelings.

Healthy NTP: knows which ideas are better than others, in order to focus on bringing them into fruition and either commits to them long-term by selecting a creative partner (Ne/Fe) or giving their ideas away to others who can nail down the details. Is logical but gentle in correcting others, mindful that people’s feelings matter and it’s important for others to genuinely like you in life, in order to get things done (and because it’s the nice thing to do). Realizes they’re prone to hyperbole, short term interests, and exaggeration, and learns to laugh about it, but also acknowledge it and work on fixing it. Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy NFP: never finishes anything or focuses on details (zero follow through), follows their heart without regard for the consequences, using that to justify hurtful behavior (I don’t care what you think, I fell out of love with you, so I can cheat on you all I want, I’ve done nothing wrong, this is who I am, just deal with it or get out), refuses to take blame for their part of the problem, may intentionally offend others, and doesn’t care about anyone but themselves.

Healthy NFP: knows which ideas are better than others and seeks to bring the best ones into the world through healthy engagement of goals, deadlines, and process of elimination (Te). Sets personal deadlines for self, and beats them, in order to stay motivated. Understands what drives them most, slows them down, or angers them, and commits to doing something about it. Learns such things as “tact,” when dealing with others, but also when and where to defy social norms and stand up for oneself (does that really matter? is it worth a fight?). Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy NTJ: becomes obnoxious in pushing their “vision” on others or asserting they know everything (including your motives) while devaluing your feelings or beliefs, often sneers at people who make emotional decisions, and sometimes passive-aggressively attacks people’s ego or intelligence that they do not like (okay, stupid, I’m just going to make you look like an idiot, while correcting every damn thing you say, all day long, until you run away and cry).

Healthy NTJ: has a fair, balanced, and open-minded approach to life, is willing to listen to others’ ideas and offer practical thoughts on them, but is neither arrogant nor pushy about their knowledge, expertise, and logical detachment. Chooses when to correct others with care, and never does so to humiliate, only to educate. Respects others’ feelings even if they personally feel that the other person is making a mistake. Focuses on taking their ideas and goals and making them real. Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy NFJ: total detachment from reality, while stubbornly clinging to the belief that their irrational interpretation is “the truth” (and the ONLY truth) (It DOES make sense, you’re just too stupid to understand it!), and resorting to a “you’re either with us or against us” mentality, which manifests in creating a single universal (sometimes abstract) enemy and trying to recruit others to join their cause against them / you (bad Ni and Fe).

Healthy NFJ: has a fair, balanced, and open-minded approach to life, accepts their interpretation may be unrealistic, but is committed to bringing their ideas and visualizations to life, often by recruiting others to a positive common cause. Uses their understanding of others’ motives to uplift rather than tear down, and becomes a source of compassionate and guiding “wisdom” for friends (I worry about you choosing this path, and here’s why…). Never recruits others in any negative ways against someone who disagrees with them. Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy STP: irresponsible, reckless, and hedonistic, engaging in short-term behaviors that leave a wake of destruction behind (broken marriages, families, and violated responsibilities), often using Fe to manipulate people to get what they want (hey, I’m super hot and I’ve seen you ogling my backside, so I’m going to wear something that accentuates it so you’ll give me what I want in return one of these days; I don’t care how wrong it is) and then dumping them like hotcakes.

Healthy STP: knows life has much to offer and not only enjoys it but helps others loosen up and try new things, but commits to the people, beliefs, and jobs that are most important to them, for the long term. Understands and respects others’ feelings and seeks to connect to them through that, as well as develop their own ability to communicate. Learns the art of tact and when to use it (is it worth correcting this person or does it matter?). Tries to think about the long-term consequences of impulse, before engaging in it. Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy SFP: irresponsible, reckless, and hedonistic, going through jobs and romantic relationships like wildfire, abandoning people every time they get “bored” or feel unattached; justifies this behavior with selfish reasoning (I just don’t love you anymore, so I don’t have to treat you with respect); unable to be counted upon by other people, since they never show up or follow through; refuses to take responsibility through their actions and doesn’t mind offending others for no reason at all.

Healthy SFP: is good at self-entertaining and eager to try new things, and infects others with a similar excitement; is good at pushing people out of their comfort zones and encouraging them to aim high for their dreams. Has a strong sense of personal beliefs, and is willing to commit to other people, and prioritize them in relationships. Knows when it’s appropriate to defy social convention, and when it’s better to dial back the “but this is just who I am!” and chill. Sets personal goals, deadlines, and achievements, and sticks with things, so they have something tangible to show for their time (Te). Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy STJ: refuses to adapt or change even when their world implodes; may try and “force” or “strong-arm” others into their point of view. Has little interest or respect for people’s feelings and doesn’t mind crushing them on their way to success, but may also play the role of a martyr in the process (since NO ONE ELSE IS RESPONSIBLE AROUND HERE, I HAVE TO DO IT). May become irrational or paranoid with lower Ne, and turn into a pessimist.

Healthy STJ: uses their extensive past experience to figure out what will and won’t work when dealing with life and problems, but is also open to new ideas, trying out new things, and experiencing what “lies beneath the surface” (Ne). Tries not to shut down ideas until they have considered them. Is practical, efficient, and logical, but also respects people’s feelings and doesn’t intentionally try to hurt, shame, or control them. Becomes able to share what they need emotionally with others, rather than playing a martyr (I would like it if you would take the trash out; since I’m doing this other thing, it seems fair, and it would make me happy). Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes.

Unhealthy SFJ: refuses to change or adapt, while clinging stubbornly to their idea of “how things were,” while struggling to control their emotions; may resort to being “fake” in order to manipulate others, to “us vs them” thinking and overt moralizing (if you don’t agree with us, you’d better change your mind or face the consequences, because we can’t let you hold such a wrong point of view and will punish you for it).

Healthy SFJ: uses the past to form impressions about people and situations, but changes those perceptions based on new experience; is open to new ideas and beliefs, and willing to look beneath the surface (Ne), with the aim of making those things “useful and tangible” in the real world (how can this idea apply to life and improve our situation?). Learns the art of “polite affirming correction,” which helps others become better, while not shaming, humiliating, or insulting them for their behavior. Aware not everyone needs to agree, and comfortable with those who don’t; never recruits anyone against anyone else, or adopts a mentality of “let’s get that person, together.” Takes personal responsibility for their mistakes. 

- ENFP Mod


Day 7: Vaccinating protects you and others.

Herd (community) Immunity: indirectly protects those who cannot get vaccinated for medical reasons (i.e. people with immune deficiency, and those who cannot form immunity). Herd Immunity only works when enough people are immunized in a population.

Herd Immunity works by stopping the spread of the disease. If a virus is unable to infect a new host it will die. By being immunized, there is less opportunity for the virus to thrive. It won’t be able to find a new host and this decreases its chances of reaching people who cannot get vaccinated.  

With the anti-vaccine movement, less people are being vaccinated, and we are not at the proper level for herd immunity to work. This is putting people at risk for catching these diseases and dying. The only way to protect them is by vaccinating, and stop giving the disease opportunity to spread.

Protect those who can’t protect themselves.

Requested by @shadowskiel, @calvin-reads-problem-sleuth, and anonymously

Nihilego is a fantastic combination of two terrifying things: jellyfish and parasites. Nihilego’s pokédex entry states “it’s unclear whether or not this Pokémon is sentient,” and that’s as good of a description of a jellyfish as any.

Jellyfish don’t have brains, bones, hearts, or blood. They don’t have a respiratory system (lungs or gills) to breathe, but they do absorb oxygen through their skin. Some are microscopic, and others longer than a blue whale. Some of them are immortal and can de-age themselves. They’re made of 98% water, they barely have a nervous system…and yet these creatures have been around on our planet for more than 650 million years, so they must be doing something right. In fact, jellyfish are the oldest multi-organ creatures on the planet. Despite everything they lack, jellyfish do have some organs: a mouth and a digestive system, and reproductive organs, for example.

There are over 2000 different species of jellyfish, so let’s just narrow it down to those who, like Nihilego, are also parasites: the myxozoans. Myxozoans are in the same phylum as jellyfish, Cnidaria, but are curious little organisms who go one step beyond jellyfish, not even having a mouth or guts. And like many parasites, they literally can’t survive unless they are infecting a host. They do still have stinging tentacles, though, so I guess that’s good.

Myxozoans live inside the bones and cartilage of fish, where they can reproduce inside and cripple their host, or even to some extent, control the fish. Some Myxozoans cause neurological damage that causes a fish to uncontrollably swim in circles. 

When their hosts die, myxozoans use their little jellyfish stingers to sting, therefore infecting, a new fish. 

As shown in Pokémon Sun and Moon, Nihilego has some adverse neurological effects when it infects a host: namely, what it did with Lusamine. If Nihilego is like a Myxozoan, it needs to bond with a human in order to reproduce: and it likely would have killed Lusamine if it could have completed the process.

Nihilego is a jellyfish-like parasitic Myxozoan. It does not have a brain, a respiratory system, a mouth, or guts. It infects hosts and often causes neurological damage.

The June Bug

We call it the June Bug
Cos it started last June
A virus infected
The city so soon
We all felt so brave
We assumed we were safe
Not knowing the sickness
Was sucking away
Our fears and our secrets
The virus would need them
To seek out a host
Who had plenty to feed him
We weren’t safe at all
We felt scared in our homes
For they sucked through the walls
All the pain in our bones
To keep ourselves sane
We instilled daily
Fear into our lives
Building targets our bodies
Causing the virus
To suddenly spread
Even faster, a disaster
We had to quickly use our heads
So we rounded up
All the infected we found
And sealed them all
Into The Underground

Lmao what

Gov. Jerry Brown signed a bill Friday that lowers from a felony to a misdemeanor the crime of knowingly exposing a sexual partner to HIV without disclosing the infection.

The measure also applies to those who give blood without telling the blood bank that they are HIV-positive.

Modern medicine allows those with HIV to live longer lives and nearly eliminates the possibility of transmission, according to state Sen. Scott Wiener (D-San Francisco) and Assemblyman Todd Gloria (D-San Diego), authors of the bill.

“Today California took a major step toward treating HIV as a public health issue, instead of treating people living with HIV as criminals,” Wiener said in a statement. “HIV should be treated like all other serious infectious diseases, and that’s what SB 239 does.”

Supporters of the change said the current law requires an intent to transmit HIV to justify a felony, but others noted cases have been prosecuted where there was no physical contact, so there was an argument intent was lacking.

Brown declined to comment on his action.

HIV has been the only communicable disease for which exposure is a felony under California law. The current law, Wiener argued, may convince people not to be tested for HIV, because without a test they cannot be charged with a felony if they expose a partner to the infection.

“We are going to end new HIV infections, and we will do so not by threatening people with state prison time, but rather by getting people to test and providing them access to care,” Wiener said.

Supporters of the bill said women engaging in prostitution are disproportionately targeted with criminal charges, even in cases where the infection is not transmitted.

Republican lawmakers including Sen. Joel Anderson of Alpine voted against the bill, arguing it puts the public at risk.

“I’m of the mind that if you purposefully inflict another with a disease that alters their lifestyle the rest of their life, puts them on a regimen of medications to maintain any kind of normalcy, it should be a felony,” Anderson said during the floor debate. “It’s absolutely crazy to me that we should go light on this.”

Anderson said the answer could be to extend tougher penalties to those who expose others to other infectious diseases.

anonymous asked:

Any ideas for the origin of supernatural powers?


☆ radiation

☆ experimentation

☆ new drug

☆ infected by another supernatural creature

☆ mutating genes ~ possibly brought on by an illness

☆ alien abduction

☆ given to the character by a higher being

☆ struck by lightning

☆ freak accident with chemo/ x ray machine/ etc.

☆ bitten by an insect/ unknown creature / mutated animal

☆ contact with a magical creature (ex. touching a unicorn)

Requested Anonymously

You have a better chance of running into a shiny than running into a wild pokémon with pokérus. Still, this pokémon virus has huge benefits and is sought after in the competitive and casual communities alike. In the game, an infected pokémon will gain double the stats every time it levels up. But what does this mean in a more physical sense?

To start, let’s talk about viruses. We know Pokérus is a virus, which to be honest doesn’t tell us a whole lot. Viruses are as diverse and as crazy as anything, infecting you with everything from colds and flus to rabies and ebola. Their appearances vary as much as their symptoms, and many of them look very alien.

So what exactly is a virus? Cells in your body, along with bacteria, are stand-alone living entities able to eat, grow, and reproduce. Viruses are something different altogether. Viruses are little envelopes full of genetics: a protective protein coating surrounding single or double strands of DNA or RNA.  By themselves, viruses are not able to function. This is why they need to infect a host cell: to live and reproduce.

They do this through the lytic cycle. Basically, a virus will invade a host cell, and take over the cell’s machinery. The virus will trick the cell into working for them: they turn the host cell into little virus-factories, building more and more viruses with the cell’s machinery which then can go and infect new cells.

This is why viruses are contagious. If someone sneezes on you, or you breathe in a virus, it can start entering your cells and start reproducing right away. This is how pokérus is spread. However, it should be noted that a lot of viruses are species-specific; humans cannot be infected with pokérus.

However, pokérus is unique due to its positive effects. Viruses are generally not something you want. For example, a runny nose: cold viruses will infect and kill cells in your nose, and with less cells lining your sinuses, fluid flows freely. Fevers are your bodies response, trying to kill the virus by literally turning up the heat.

So somehow, instead of destroying and taking over host cells, Pokérus viruses benefit them. Pokérus doesn’t infect and kill a pokémon’s cells; it strengthens them. Exactly how is widely up to interpretation. What does a stat boost in-game equate to in real life? 

Maybe the pokémon is buffed up as if on steroids. This would mean that pokérus increases protein production and ATP levels. Or maybe, Pokérus just helps a pokémon grow strong, by enabling them to more easily break down and use vitamins like calicium. It all has to do with whatever the virus’ DNA/RNA strand tells the cell to do. Most viruses just tell the cell to build more viruses, but the pokérus DNA must be like a motivational speech for a cell. And then it replicates and spreads, of course.

Pokérus is a virus, which will take over a pokémon’s cell and cause beneficial side affects, as it reproduces and spreads through a pokémon’s body and eventually into other pokémon.

prized prisoner

Give me privy
To your praises
Plucked from
Poisonous petals.
Pray for this
Passionate panic to
Pass over me.
Pick me as your prey,
Pack my palms with patience.
I pay you with
Pessimistic persistence
And an out of pitch piano
Made of Polly Pocket plastic.
Or a place for your plant to

Prosper and
Pollute my pride.

All The Times Barry Allen Has Been Super Smart

I’m writing this post, because I feel like the writers sideline Barry’s intelligence far too often, usually for the sake of giving Cisco and Caitlin purpose, (I’m sorry, I love them, but I think the writers should give them purpose without sidelining another character’s own smarts, especially when he’s our main character), and now even to give Iris purpose which makes no sense. So, here are all the times Barry Allen has been one of the smartest people in Arrowverse.

1. When determined what happened in Queen Consolidated and how the centrifuge got stolen in his first ever appearance.

2. When he deduced what was killing Oliver and administered the exact amount of rat poisoned to thin his blood again so he’d survive.

3. When he made Oliver his mask.

4. When he explained the particle accelerator to Iris.

5. When he was at a crime scene and he was able to determine exactly what happened the moment he looked at it, (not the only time he’s done that either, they just stopped using the graphics showing us how Barry’s mind worked because they thought it looked weird. Doesn’t mean that’s not still how his brain worked).

6. When he explained Simon Stagg’s work in cellular cloning creating advancements in the world of organ replacement to Iris for her article, despite the fact that she didn’t really cared and tried to drink on the job.

7. He was also going to explain the science behind cellular regeneration to Iris, but the benefit they were at was attacked.

8. When he determined that Danton Black’s cells were naive. They were stems cells that could replicate and become any cells the body needs and only come from babies.

9. When he told Iris that zombies actually can exist in nature. There are species of fungi that infect ants, causing the ants to attack plants that can release spores which then infect new hosts. He noticed Iris’s expression and realized he was going full nerd again.

10. When he named their trivia team E=MC Hammer because of Einstein’s formula for kinetic energy being E=MC squared. 

11. When he and Felicity won almost all of the trivia questions for their team together.

12. Literally every time he is at a crime scene, gathers the evidence, and processes it so the cops are actually able to find the killers, (though anymore, Barry now does the police’s part of the job, too, considering they can’t stop metas).

13. When he knew instantly when Cisco said the Geiger counter in his suit read less than one millirad that that meant the radiation levels were normal. 

14. When he has been able to quote back the things Caitlin, Cisco, or Wells say in other timelines that were scientific with perfect accuracy. Sorry, but if you don’t know and understand science, you wouldn’t remember that. Same thing when he talked to Tracy about her work with the speed force.

15. When we learned that he is responsible for the creation of Gideon, the amazingly intelligent AI that can see through the timeline that even Cisco didn’t know what to do with the operating system of.

16. When we learned he majored in chemistry and physics.

17. When he figured out that Firestorm was actually an acronym just by remembering that Scuba was an acronym.

18. When he worked on the speed equation to try to make himself fast enough to beat Zoom.

19. When he knew that any acid with a Ph below 2 could cause a similar reaction to the decay in the man that died in 3x12.

20. When he explained to Joe that an aggressive variant of a necrotizing fasciitis was a flesh eating disease. 

21. When he knew that CODIS was an acronym for Combined DNA Index System.

22. When we saw the amazing tech in Savitar’s suit. Sorry, but there is no way anyone made that for Barry except himself. After all, everyone shunned Savitar and chased him away. Who would have made him a suit? Cisco, one of the people who shunned him? Tracy, the woman who trapped him? Harry, who probably would have shunned him too? No, Barry made it himself. He is capable at engineering whenever he needs to be and could have easily done it himself.

23. When Savitar-Barry fixed his suit after his fight with Barry. This is further proof that he made the suit. He knows exactly how to repair it. Not many people would know how to fix the things they use. If my car breaks down, I’m taking it to an auto shop. Most people would. But there are some people who build cars from scratch and fix them up themselves when they break. That seems to be how Savitar-Barry was with his suit.

24. When Savitar-Barry used the philosopher’s stone, which I am assuming he also made, to keep himself from being trapped in the speed force again.

25. When Savitar-Barry explained his plan to be spliced throughout all of time to avoid the paradox.

26. When Barry recreated the earbuds Cisco made against Pied Piper to protect himself and Kara from Silver Banshee’s screams.

27. When Barry explained the multiverse to Kara, Winn, and James.

28. When he explained Flashpoint to Team Flash.

29. When he drew all of those symbols on the walls of the pipeline and STAR Labs. We don’t know what they mean, yet, but obviously they mean something and Team Flash didn’t know what they meant. I’m hoping it’s some kind of speed force knowledge and that maybe it will be used to defeat Devoe or create Gideon.

30. When he quoted Einstein to Stein and the two of them discussed physics and the particle accelerator.

31. When he read literally all of Harrison Wells’s works. Reading about things helps you become smarter and gain an understanding of it, which is how Barry used the information he’d read so he and Harry could figure out a way to close the breaches. And when he read all of the information on science from Earth Two. Yes, it went into his short term memory and he’d have to reread it, but when you read things over and over again, eventually they start to stick. And just because some of the information would have faded, doesn’t mean it all would have, especially with how he read it multiple times.

32. Let’s not forget the multiple times Barry was talking about advanced scientific topics and was asked if he was even speaking English by characters like Iris and Eddie.

These are just a few of the examples of when Barry has been one of the smartest characters in Arrowverse. The reason we don’t see it more often is because they rarely let us see Barry at work anymore, (though that seems like it may be starting to change), and in order for Barry to need a team, Caitlin and Cisco have to help figure things out. But would it really be so hard for them to have a three way conversation where the writers let them all contribute knowledge into figuring something out? I just wish they’d stop sidelining Barry’s intelligence for the sake of other characters, especially Iris, who they are now trying to make seem scientifically smart when she’s supposed to be journalism smart. It makes no sense and is pissing me off. All I want for season four, other than WestAllen to break up, is for them to stop downplaying how smart their main character is.


Some backgrond practises I had made last spring for zombie/infected pokémon AU of mine. Meh. Been a long time since I’ve done BGs, they’ve never been really my forté OTL ;D

  • BobTheDoctor27: *something about poor Kopeke having to write a eulogy for Matoro*
  • BionicleChicken: Hey since everyone played Kohlii, what if the Turaga changed the rules to fit their needs.
  • BobTheDoctor27: I feel as though most of the other Turaga stayed out of this conversation, caring little in the way of sports. Especially Nuju and Whenua
  • They just let Po-Koro and Ta-Koro squabble about while secretly betting on the Ga-Koro underdogs to shame them both
  • BionicleChicken: Teridax must be piss-over-heads confused as to how these are the same guys that defeated him 1000 years ago
  • BobTheDoctor27: I feel as though Takanuva got very confused when Teridax challenged him to such a warped version of Kolhii
  • Teridax - "FOUL!"
  • Takanuva - "It WAS NOT!"
  • BionicleChicken: Man what if Teridax was secretly a fan of the Mata Nui Kohlii matches and that's what he watched when he took breaks from his complex planning
  • Picture Makuta sitting on a lazyboy in front of a bonkle-style telepathic TV or something with a beer in hand
  • BobTheDoctor27: Yaaaas
  • Ahkmou - "Lord Makuta, are you sure this is what you want me to do?"
  • Teridax - "Yes."
  • Ahkmou - "Well, okay, I just don't feel we should use our secret partnership to get Hewkii's autograph."
  • BionicleChicken: Teridax - "Hewkii's signature is integral to bringing down the Great Spirit and all that he stands for"
  • BobTheDoctor27: This adds a whole new dimension to Teridax's Infected Kolhii balls
  • BionicleChicken: Teridax - (also could you trip that skank Macku up she doesn't deserve him)
  • BobTheDoctor27: He was actually furious at Ahkmou for getting Hewkii sick
  • Teridax - "YOU FOOL! I have money riding on him this season!"
  • BionicleChicken: And thus
  • This conversation has made me imagine Teridax running a Hewkii fan tumblr
  • BobTheDoctor27: With no pictures of Macku
  • BionicleChicken: She's cropped out
  • BobTheDoctor27: her plushie doll censored in his room
  • And, in the few pictures that do exist of them together, Teridax has pasted his own Kanohi Kraahkan over her
  • BionicleChicken: While talking with Matoro in the Pit:
  • "What's Hewkii like. You think he'll like me"
  • BobTheDoctor27: "Are he and Macku still together? Has he finally left that BITCH behind?"
  • "Oooh, she'll be the first to feel my fury once I take over the universe."
  • "Maybe then he'll notice me."
  • BionicleChicken: "How dare she break the heart of my poor Hewk-hewk"
  • BobTheDoctor27: "He is the Hew-key to my heart and I am unlocked."
  • BionicleChicken: Just before Aqua Magna/Bota Magna smashes him:
  • "I'll find you in the next life, Hewkii..."
  • And now I picture the Kraakhan over Glenn Rhee's smashed pop-eyed head talking to Hewkii-faced Maggie
A Court of Wildness and Ice

CHAPTER 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

Chapter 8

Would you like to be something more, sweetheart?

Those words, those stupid, stupid words have been haunting her mind for hours, followed by the sound of Cassian’s laughter.

She grinds the herbs with too much force and she can hear the wooden pestle creaking against the ceramic bowl.

“Could-could you please grind them down a bit more gently, please?” Edna -the Healer- says and Nesta grinds her teeth and tries to do as she’s told.

She’s the one who asked to help the Healer after all.

“I’m happy that he is reacting, at last. It will help immensely with the healing.” Edna says, trying to start a conversation Nesta has no interest in.

“He’s strong, but Illyrians can react in the most horrible ways when their wings are threatened.”

At that Nesta looks up at the Fae.

If Nesta should use one word to describe Edna it would be gentle, but not the kind of gentleness that reminds her of Elain; a gentleness that’s been forged by a different kind of struggle, a stronger type of kindness.

Edna passes a hand through her short black curls, and Nesta tries to find the words, tries to find a friendliness she never had.

“What do you mean?” she asks, and she hates how uncertain her voice sounds.

“Oh, well, this-this isn’t a nice first conversation to have.” Edna says with a little nervous laugh and Nesta knows that whatever it is that his people do, it really saddens the Fae.

“It happened, especially in the last war, that some Illyrians lost their wings. And as soon as that happened, they didn’t want to live. No matter how much we Healers tried to help them or how much their loved ones begged, losing their wings is too much of a dishonor for them and the burden to be earthbound is too much for them to bear.”

Nesta can feel her blood grow cold at the words, so cold it almost hurts.

“He wouldn’t.” she says “Cassian wouldn’t. He’s-he’s not-”

Edna takes her hand, a gentle smile on her lips and Nesta fights the urge to remove her fingers from the gentle grasp, “I bet he will not do something stupid like that. I know the Commander, he’s full of life.” her smile broadens and she says, a slight blush on her full cheeks “And not now that you’re here.”

At that Nesta moves back, shocked by the words.

“What do you mean?” she asks, trying to hide her surprise behind a cold facade “I doubt my presence makes any difference for him.” her eyes are now looking at the ground, and there’s a part of her that doesn’t want to hear what Edna is about to say.

She’d rather not know and stop this force that pulls her to him right now.

“He said your name more times than I can count when he was unconscious. Nesta.”

She looks up when she hears her name and she can’t explain the weight in her chest, the burning in her throat and she can’t stop herself from imagining it was Cassian’s voice, the one to say her name.

“Whatever you two are to each other, you mean a lot to him, more than you can imagine, I think. When I told my mate that the Commander of the Night Court muttered a female’s name in his sleep she thought it was incredibly romantic.”

“It isn’t romantic. He just feels guilty for things that aren’t his fault.”

Edna is about to answer but an enthusiastic knock on the door stops her.

When Elain opens the door Nesta can barely see her sister, covered as she is in flowers and branches and leaves.

“Here are the flowers! Azriel told me that you needed them.” she says to Edna, and Nesta can’t help but notice the rich orange of Elain’s dress.

“Oh, I do! Thank you very much. You must be Elain, Nesta’s sister.” Elain nods, and the two start a conversation about the flowers that grow in Velaris and Nesta can’t help but feel a little out of place, but she doesn’t move, she sits still, trying to keep her posture in the way she should, with her back straight and her chin high, but she’s tired. She barely slept last night, and she’s about to excuse herself when Edna says “Nesta, could please bring this lotion in Cassian’s room? It’s a new one, to prevent infection”

Nesta takes the lotion, asking herself how it was made and with what, but doesn’t ask.

She just goes out of the room, her steps slow, going directly for Cassian’s room, not losing herself in the House of Wind like it often happens to Elain.

He’s in the same position she found him yesterday, but the room is full of light and his eyes are wide open.

She wonders if every time she sees him she will always feel like being in front of a wild, wondrous, beautiful thing.

She wonders if it will always take her breath away like this.

“This is the lotion for your wings.” she says, her words slurred, sleep taking the best of her against her will.

Her heart skips a bit when she notices the bigger, soft looking armchair that replaced the wooden chair at his bedside.

“I figured that if you wanted to keep me company, you might as well be comfortable.” he says, but there’s no smirk upon his face, there’s actually a frown between his brows like he’s waiting for her to shout or sneer.

But Nesta looks at him, looks at Cassian and can’t keep her eyes from wandering on the soft curves of his mouth, at the fullness of his lower lip, at the intense red of it and the sudden heat in her stomach is something that she never felt.

She looks away, sitting on the armchair and she is delighted by how soft it is.

There’s a moment in which she hears her mother words in her head, saying how a lady should always keep her posture as if a thread was attached to her head from the ceiling, and she should always keep herself upright in order to not break the delicate thread.

Her eyes go to Cassian again as she slowly sags into the armchair, feeling her muscles relax inch by inch and she waits, waits for the voice who’ll tell that this isn’t ladylike, waits for her pride, waits for the vulnerable voice that will make her hate herself, but nothing happens.

She doesn’t know why she feels like this, so at home with him, but she does, and in the midst of everything, inside the monster she now is, it makes her…happy.

So she decides to move a bit more, taking off her shoes and folding her legs, placing her head on the armrest.

All the while, Cassian doesn’t talk, he just looks, but the gentle smile on his face, the tender look in his eyes-

Nesta feels her eyelids growing heavy, but for some reason, she knows that in this sleep she will not drown.

“Thank you”, she says, and falls asleep.

Should my son get the HPV vaccine?

Maya Kumar, MD, adolescent medicine specialist at UC San Diego Health answers:

“According to the Centers for Disease Control, 79 million Americans are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), with 14 million new infections each year. Many people know about the association between HPV infection and cervical cancer in women. As a consequence, HPV has been dubbed a “woman’s infection.” However, approximately 40 percent of HPV-related cancers occur in men.

The most common HPV-related cancers in men are oropharyngeal cancers, such as mouth, tongue or laryngeal cancer. Women can get these too, but men are three times as likely as women to carry oral HPV. Rarer HPV-related cancers in men include penile cancer and anal cancer. HPV can also cause warts in the head and neck region (example: laryngeal warts affecting the voice box) and on the genitals. While these warts are not life-threatening, they significantly impact quality of life.

Parents have often heard that the virus is sexually transmitted and wonder why their child would need vaccination. Most STDs affect a small proportion of the population and can generally be avoided with safe sexual practices alone, making vaccination against these diseases on a large scale unnecessary. HPV is different. About 90 percent of all men and women will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives, even with safe sexual practices. Even if you only have one partner for your whole life, you can still get HPV and suffer its devastating consequences. HPV vaccination is the only dependable way to prevent it because it is almost impossible to avoid with lifestyle and behavioral decisions alone.

Parents may also wonder why it is necessary in childhood. Vaccines work best when they are given well before a person is exposed to a disease. The CDC recommends age 11-to-12 years old as the ideal time for vaccination. Recently, the CDC announced that if HPV vaccination is initiated before age 14, only two doses of the vaccine (at least six months apart) are required. If, however, vaccination begins at age 15 or older, three doses of the vaccine (at 0, 1-2 months and 6 months) are needed. This may be because the antibody response to the vaccine appears to be more robust in children 14 years and under, so fewer doses still provide sufficiently strong protection.

The HPV vaccine is an extremely safe vaccine. It contains no mercury, thimerosal or any other harmful preservatives. It also does not contain any live virus, or even any inactivated viral components that could cause infection. Because it is a completely synthetic vaccine, getting infected from it is impossible. As with any vaccine there are some risks. However, as of March 2016, almost 90 million doses of HPV vaccine had been distributed in the United States with no new long-term serious adverse effects identified.

On a personal note, I elected to be vaccinated against HPV when the vaccine became available years ago. I would have no hesitation vaccinating my own children or the children of my friends or relatives. So take it from someone who walks the walk: I strongly recommend the HPV vaccine for both your sons and your daughters.”


Zombie Fungus!

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is a fungus that preys on many types of insect.

It manipulates the host’s behavior to climb to a high place where the fungus spores can sift down to infect new hosts. The stalks you see emerging from the insects are parts of the fungus.

An ant infected with this fungus can wipe out its entire colony.  If the other ants know that one of them is infected they will carry the infected individual far away so it can’t explode on the colony.

che-bella-donna  asked:

With a President (and VP, Speaker of the House, etc.) who intends to strip LGBTQ+ citizens of their rights, how will YOU ensure that people feel safe, valued, and included in your community? What advice do you have for those who feel discouraged at this moment in history?

For the LGBTQIA+ residents living in Pittsburgh, I want to ensure you that we will continue to enforce the nondiscrimination laws that we have put into place, City Government will always strive to be representative of the LGBTQIA+ community, our Police will not stand for any crimes of hate and we will continue to celebrate the contributions of the community.

It’s fair to be discouraged, but keep fighting, and know that so many of us are standing in solidarity with you and will do everything in our power to ensure you are safe and affirmed.

We are determined to fight for the rights of our LGBTQ residents here in San Francisco. We will not let politics of fear and discrimination determine how we operate in this City. In San Francisco, we have made it clear that we are inclusive place where everyone is welcome. We were the first school district in the country to allow transgender students to use the bathroom of their choice, we have pledged to have zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from HIV and zero stigma, we recently opened the largest LGBTQ-focused community housing project in the country, and we have appointed members of the LGBTQ community to some of the top posts of city government.

For those feeling discouraged by the current political climate, we understand your frustrations and we hope to assure you that discriminatory policies will not ultimately win out in the end. You should understand that you have allies throughout the country—Mayors Against LGBT Discrimination being one in particular—and that support for the LGBTQ community will always be found in places like San Francisco.