neurotoxicities

Common Toxic Herbs and their Effects

This is not a complete list by any means, but these commonly noted plants, herbs, and flowers should be handled with care or avoided altogether. 

Aconite (Wolfsbane, Monkshood) - all parts: dermatoxic, hepatotoxic, and neurotoxic

Adam and Eve (Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Wild Arum) - root: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic if ingested

African Sumac - leaves: dermatoxic; possibly fatal

Agave - juice: dermatoxic  

Angel’s Trumpet - all parts: cardiotoxic; often fatal

Apple - seeds: cytotoxic in large doses

Apricot - leaves and seeds: cytotoxic in large doses

Arnica - gastrotoxic 

Asparagus - berries: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic if ingested

Azalea - all parts: cytotoxic and neurotoxic; rarely fatal

Betel Nut Palm (Pinyang) - all parts: gastrotoxic if ingested

Bittersweet Nightshade - all parts: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic; rarely fatal

Black Hellebore - all parts: cardiotoxic and gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Black Locust (False Acacia) - root bark and flowers: gastrotoxic

Black Nightshade - all parts except ripe fruit: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Bleeding Heart - leaves and roots: neurotoxic

Bloodroot - rhizomes: cytotoxic

Blue Passion Flower (Common Passion Flower) - leaves: cytotoxic

Bracken - all parts: carcinogenic

Buttercup - all parts: gastrotoxic and dermatoxic 

Calabar Bean (Ordeal Beans) - seeds: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic if ingested in large doses

Cassava - leaves and roots: cytotoxic in large doses

Castor Bean (Castor Oil Plant) - seeds: cytotoxic if ingested or inhaled

Celandine - nephrotoxic 

Cherry - leaves and seeds: cytotoxic in large doses

Christmas Rose - all parts: gastrotoxic

Cocklebur - seedlings and seeds: gastrotoxic and neurotoxic

Columbine - seeds and roots: cardiotoxic; easily fatal

Corn Lily (False Hellebore) - all parts: cardiotoxic; often fatal

Cowbane (Water Hemlock, Snakeweed) - root: neurotoxic if ingested

Daffodil - bulbs and stems: gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Datura/Moonflower - all parts: gastrotoxic and cardiotoxic

Deadly Nightshade (Belladonna) - all parts: cardiotoxic and neurotoxic; often fatal

Desert Rose (Sabi Star, Kudu) - sap: cardiotoxic with skin contact

Dumbcane - all parts: dermatoxic; possibly fatal

Elder (Elderberry) - root: gastrotoxic

Elephant Ear (Angel Wings) - all parts: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic

Ergot - neurotoxic 

Foxglove - leaves, seeds, and flowers: cardiotoxic; often fatal

Garlic - all parts: gastrotoxic in animals

Giant Hogweed - all parts: dermatoxic

Golden Chain - all parts, especially seeds: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Goldenseal - all parts: gastrotoxic and neurotoxic in large doses

Grapes/Raisins - all parts: gastrotoxic in dogs

Greater Celandine - all parts: gastrotoxic in large doses

Hemlock (Spotted Cowbane, Poison Snakeweed) - all parts: neurotoxic; possibly fatal

Hemlock Water Dropwort - roots: neurotoxic if ingested; possibly fatal

Henbane - all parts: neurotoxic and cardiotoxic

Holly - berries: gastrotoxic

Honeybush - all parts: gastrotoxic

Honeysuckle - berries: gastrotoxic in mild cases and cardiotoxic in severe cases

Horse Chestnut - all parts: neurotoxic

Hyacinth - bulbs: gastrotoxic and neurotoxic; possibly fatal

Iris - rhizomes: gastrotoxic and dermatoxic 

Jequirity (Crab’s Eye, Rosary Pea) - seeds: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic; often fatal

Kava Kava - nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic 

Kidney Bean - raw: gastrotoxic

Larkspur - young plants and seeds: neurotoxic; often fatal

Lemon - oil: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic to animals  

Lily - all parts: nephrotoxic

Lily of the Nile (Calla Lily) - all parts: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic if ingested; possibly fatal

Lily of the Valley - all parts: cardiotoxic; possibly fatal

Lima Beans - raw: gastrotoxic

Lime - oil: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic in animals

Lobelia - all parts: gastrotoxic 

Mandrake - roots and leaves: gastrotoxic and neurotoxic

Mango - peel and sap: dermatoxic

Mangrove - bark and sap: dermatoxic and eye irritation

Mayapple - all green parts and unripe fruit: gastrotoxic

Meadow Saffron (Autumn Crocus) - bulbs: gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Mistletoe - leaves and berries: gastrotoxic, cardiotoxic, and neurotoxic; rarely lethal in adults

Moonseed - fruits and seeds: gastrotoxic; often fatal

Mountain Laurel - all green parts: gastrotoxic

Nutmeg - raw: psychoactive in large doses

Oak - leaves and acorns: gastrotoxic; rarely fatal

Odollam Tree (Suicide Tree) - seeds: cardiotoxic; often fatal

Oleander - all parts: dermatoxic, cardiotoxic, and gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Onions - all parts: gastrotoxic in animals

Orange - oil: dermatoxic and gastrotoxic in animals

Peach - seeds and leaves: cytotoxic in large doses

Pokeweed - leaves, berries, and roots: gastrotoxic; often fatal

Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac - all parts, especially leaves: dermatoxic; possibly fatal

Poison Ryegrass (Darnel) - seeds: neurotoxic

Potato - raw: cytotoxic

Privet - berries and leaves: neurotoxic and gastrotoxic; possibly fatal

Ragwort - all parts: hepatotoxic

Redoul - all parts: gastrotoxic, neurotoxic, and causes respiratory issues; can be fatal in children

Rhubarb - leaves: nephrotoxic

Skullcap - hepatotoxic

Spindle (Spindle Tree) - fruit: hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic; possibly fatal  

Stinging Tree (Gympie Gympie) - bark and sap: dermatoxic; sometimes fatal

Strychnine Tree - seeds: neurotoxic; often fatal

Sweet Pea - seeds: neurotoxic and damaging to connective tissues

Tomato - leaves and stems: cytotoxic in large doses

Uva Ursi - neurotoxic, dermatoxic 

White Baneberry (Doll’s Eyes) - all parts, especially berries: cardiotoxic; possibly fatal

White Snakeroot - all parts: gastrotoxic; often fatal

Winter Cherry (Jerusalem Cherry) - all parts, especially berries: gastrotoxic; occasionally fatal, especially to children

Wisteria - gastrotoxic

Yew (English Yew, Common Yew) - leaves and seeds: gastrotoxic if ingested and respiratory issues if inhaled


definitions of terms used in this list: 

  • carcinogenic - a substance that can cause cancer
  • cardiotoxic - toxic to the heart 
  • cytotoxic - toxic to living cells
  • dermatoxic - toxic to the skin
  • gastrotoxic - toxic to the gastrointestinal system (stomach, intestines, etc.)
  • hepatotoxic - toxic to the liver
  • nephrotoxic - toxic to the kidneys and urological system (ureters, bladder)
  • neurotoxic - toxic to the neurological system (brain, nerves, brainstem, spinal cord, etc.)
  • psychoactive - pertaining to substances that change brain function and result in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness

last updated: 1-10-2016

6

Laticauda colubrina, commonly known as the banded sea krait, colubrine sea krait, or yellow-lipped sea krait, is a species of venomous sea snake found in tropical Indo-Pacific oceanic waters. The snake has distinctive black stripes and a yellow snout, with a paddle-like tail for use in swimming.

It spends much of its time underwater in order to hunt, but returns to land to digest, rest, and reproduce. It has very potent neurotoxic venom which it uses to prey on eels and small fish. Because of their affinity to land, banded sea kraits often encounter humans, but the snakes are not aggressive and only attack in self-defense.

Jekyll and Hyde cells: their role in brain injury and disease revealed

New research has shown how normally helpful brain cells can turn rogue and kill off other brain cells following injury or disease.

(Image caption: Astrocytes are shedding light on neurodegeneration caused by a range of diseases)

Astrocytes have long been implicated in the pathology of a range of human neurodegenerative diseases or injuries including Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s Parkinson’s disease, brain trauma and spinal cord injury.

But how they are produced and what their roles in disease may be, has been as yet unknown. This paper provides an understanding of the mechanism involved and for the first time provides hope that a lot of these diseases may in fact be treatable.

The study, published recently in Nature and led by researchers at The University of Melbourne and Stanford University, provides deeper understanding of the functions of injured or diseased astrocytes found in the Central Nervous System (CNS) following acute injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease.

In a healthy brain, astrocytes are vital for the normal functioning of the brain - providing nutrients to support neuron viability, releasing factors that aid formation of connections between nerve cells known as synapses, as well as many other important functions.

One puzzle has been that in some circumstances the astrocytes appear to have a toxic effect on neurons, whereas in others they support neuronal viability and connectivity.

Researcher Dr Shane Liddelow from the University of Melbourne’s Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, and the Department of Neurobiology at Stanford University, said astrocytes are often characterised as ‘helper’ cells but they can also contribute to damage caused by brain injury and disease by turning toxic and kill other types of brain cells.

“These apparently opposing effects have been a puzzle for some time. By characterising two types of astrocytes this paper provides some answers to the puzzle,” he said.

“Following nerve damage, astrocytes form scar tissue that can help in the regeneration of severed fibres. But we have also discovered that under certain conditions, they can turn and become negatively reactive, causing cell death,” Dr Liddelow said

For many decades, the trauma and neurodegeneration research focus has been on neurons. Researchers are excited by the discovery of these neurotoxic reactive astrocytes, because for the first time, these findings imply that acute injuries of the retina, brain and spinal cord and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, may all be much more treatable and even reversible than first thought.

By providing new insights into the process of neurodegeneration, researchers can look at new pathways for dealing with neurological diseases and injuries, by targetting these toxic astrocytes, in addition to neurones in neuropsychiatric diseases or oligodendrocytes as for instance in multiple sclerosis.

Ultimately, there is still hope that one day it may be possible to switch back astrocytes from the “toxic” to the “helper” state, a long term target for Dr. Liddelow and colleagues.

Softly, Hallelujah

For @axilarts​ / @axileana​, to whom I promised hurt!Newt to.

It’s in the middle of a meeting when Graves suddenly feels the band on his finger grow hot and agitated. He stops mid sentence, hands braced down on the end of the conference room table, as images flash across his mind’s eye – quick snap shots of things until finally, he has what he needs.

He presses his thumb to the underside of his ring finger and against the band itself and says, “I’m coming, hang on,” before turning to the room at large.

“Director Graves,” Picquery blinks, cool and composed but he can see in her gaze that she has at least some inkling of what has happened. “Everything alright?”

“I am afraid I must excuse myself,” is all he says and then he’s abusing his high security clearance to disapparate out of the meeting room and into the living room of the flat he shares with a certain Magizoologist. He finds the case atop their bed, a rather nervous looking Dougal sitting on its top most step – peering out, waiting.  The moment it sees him, it dips back into the case; obviously aware of what Graves has come for. Graves follows him down in a hurry, his feet flying down the rickety ladder, only to find that Newt is not in his little shack.

Keep reading

Guide to Smoking Meth-WITH TORCH LIGHTER

Originally posted by meditateandhallucinate


Why A Torch Lighter Is Ideal:-Your product liquifies, then smokes, almost instantly
-It is MUCH easier to control the direction the meth flows, as well as what is receiving heat
-You can get MUCH bigger hits
-You can avoid burning it so much easier than with other flames
-No flickering flame
-Butane refills are cheap as fucking shit (I got a hairspray-sized bottle of Zippo butane for the price of 2 disposable lighters)
-Don’t burn your thumb as much
-Sessions can be initiated and/or finished faster

Downsides-If you don’t pay attention, you can burn the shit out of your product, or yourself. BE CAREFUL, PAY ATTENTION, AND BE PATIENT
-Smoke through your stash quicker
-Possibly worse burns because its hotter than a bic


How to smoke meth with torch lighter for beginners:
1)First ensure that your pipe is clean.

Why?
For the ice to smoke properly. DO NOT load fresh product in a pipe with product that has been smoked, burned, or otherwise heated. If you load fresh on top of a still smokable bowl, the new and old will melt/smoke at different speeds/temperatures (can’t remember which is which right now, but I think old smokes faster), ensuing that it is very difficult to evenly heat the product. Then you get spots where part of the crystalized mass liquifies and will move with the flame, but some of it needs more heat, and for me at least, some always gets burned or darkened, and has a bad taste. If you load fresh product in a pipe with burnt shit in there, IT WILL TASTE LIKE SHIT. It will often also not melt/smoke right, AND your new stuff will taste like burnt stuff, which is THE WORST taste in the world (IM0). (FYI-I’ve heard that blowing cigarette smoke through a oil pipe (like you were going to hit it, but exhaling smoke through it instead) removes the taste. I have tried with pot smoke and it didn’t work, but have read many people say that cigarettes work.

How to Clean the Inside of A Pipe-If it is not clean, a very easy method is to fill a microwavable container (like a coffee mug) with 50% water, 50% bleach, and put the pipe (bowl facing downwards) in the water.
-Put it in the microwave for 4 minutes (yes, seriously that long-I tried after 1, 2, and 3 minutes and it didn’t work. May even take 5.)
-Let cool. Once cooled, remove from mug and drain all water.
-Using Q-tips, insert through carb hole and “mop up” the stuff left in the bowl. This may take several qtips depending on the bowl. If there is still black/brown stuff in the bowl, apply more pressure
(be careful not to break the bowl by pressing the q tip too hard on the sphere, OR accidentally pressing on the side of the carb when trying to reach around inside with q tip.) If there is still stuff in there, I have read that small bits of Magic Eraser stuffed in, and manipulated with a pole (like a q tip) work wonders, but also have not tried.

How to Clean the Outside of a PiPE
-Using a wet rag, or balled-up wet paper towels/toilet paper/napkins/etc, rub the outside of the bowl. This should cause the stuff on the outside to transfer onto the paper.
-If this doesn’t work, steel wool may work.

Handling/Prepping Product

-Dont handle meth by hand. It’s bad for your skin, and little amounts will dissolve. Instead, use:
Ideally: a 7/11 straw (this is a straw whose last inch or so is a scoop, sometimes used for slurpees or w/e those frozen drinks are; these straws I have found to be ideal for handling all sorts of drugs).
Realistically: Normal Straw: Straw been sealed on one end (tape, seal it with flame), and on the other has a 45 degree angle (45 degree is diagonal; if you cut a square in half diagonally, the diagonal line is 45). This allows you to scoop small fragments out of a bag, tin, or other carrying device easily, as the angled mouth scoops up crumbs, especially in corners of bags; while the sealed back prevents any from accidentally spilling.

Size/Shape
-Make sure your product is all of the same consistency. I find it best to use one crystal, preferably large (but not to large). I find the size of a tic tac, or slightly larger, to be ideal. Also, cubic or rectangular is best possible shape IME. I will often break long, skinny crystals because they dont burn as well as more square ones, and broken into small squares, they will smoke more evenly.
-While you can load bigger crystals with smaller bits/shake, I generally find it is best to load similar sized rocks. That is, load all shake, load two or three crystals of equal size, or put one crystal in there (usually a big one).
-If you need to break a crystal into smaller bits to make equal sized crystals (or to make odd shaped crystal more square), place a sanitary, nonabsorbent material on top of/around the crystal (no dollars bills here, printer paper works great.) and either snap it in two, or push against a surface. If pressing, you can use a finger, debit card, whatever, just slowly apply more pressure so you can crush to consistency of your liking. If you crush it all the way, you have shake(aka powder).

Differences Between Methods
Single Crystal (often large): Crystal will slowly lose mass as it melts, evenly becoming a pool (as long as you thoroughly spread it around the bowl).
Multiple Little Ones: If you evenly heat them: Will slowly melt into each other. Will be left with a very spread-out puddle, possibly multiple spread out ones.
If unevenly heated: There will be areas meth of varying thickness, accompanied by uneven melting and probable darkening/burning,.
Shake: Will liquify very quickly; little bits that haven’t yet been heated may go to weird parts of the bowl when you begin twisting, so you end up with tiny blotches and a single large or a few smaller puddles.

Loading Product
-Using straw, scoop your product into the chamber. Keeping upright, grab oil pipe and tilt at an angle so that the carb is pointing sideways, or angled down slightly. This will allow you to insert straw opening into carb before tipping the straw, ensuring you don’t miss the hole and lose any.
-Once inserted, twist pipe (while holding onto straw of course) until carb is once again pointing up. Tap straw to get all the little bits into the pipe (if meth is still sticking, use a scraper of some kind).
-Remove straw, and put pipe on level surface, BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS. THE PIPE WILL ROLL PEOPLE, AND WILL SPILL ALL YOUR GODDAMN PRODUCT AND/OR FALL ON THE FLOOR AND BREAK. UGH!

Now that you have a loaded pipe, ensure that you are ready to begin. Suggestions include
-Water
(lots of it!!) Both meth and smoking dehydrate you, and the more dehydrated you are, the more you will suffer from dental damage and brain damage (neurotoxicity). A large amount of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (and most dopamine toxicity) is temperature-dependent, as it often induces hyperthermia (This is similar to MDMA, aka XTC, Molly, rolls, etc). Water cools your body.
You should be urinating with irritating frequency, and should be voiding clear urine, otherwise you are already dehydrated (unless taking assloads of vitamins or something).
-Music
I can’t even describe how much music enhances the experience of smoking meth. It synergizes well-the meth makes the music sound insane, and in turn the music intensifies the high, making me feel even more intelligent/strong/attractive/cool/special. This is the part of the high I crave, and it rarely occurs (at least with the intensity I like) without music.
-Spare lighter/butane refill
When smoking meth, you are always running out of fuel. The spare lighter is also useful because lighters get really hot when ignited for long periods of time (like when smoking meth) and you can swap them out.
-Wet (but not sopping) rag or bundled tissues/paper towels/toilet paper/etc
This is to set the pipe on when not using it (a hot pipe will burn fabrics, fucking up whatever its on as well as the pipe), and to cool down the pipe after a hit. The pipe stays hot for a while, and if you don’t hit it, drugs are being lost/wasted. If you cool the pipe, it will stop heating the drugs faster (duh). Do not do this immediately after getting the pipe really hot-heat and cold on glass can break it. Wait for it to cool slightly, then use it.
When you use the rag to cool underneath liquified dope, it will emit a lot of smoke while crystalizing I read somewhere that the meth actually vaporizes/produces smoke when it hits cooler surface, but I don’t know the validity of that. I do know that cold makes it smoke more though.
-Salt Water
Swishing and gargling salt water while smoking meth (ie after a hit, and definitely after a session) will help prevent canker sores, help kill bacteria (which will inhibit meth mouth) clear mucus in back of throat (which will build up from smoking ice, and may possibly absorb some of it), and prevent sore throat. Its really easy-just add table salt to water (not too much). Some people say to use hot water, but there is more bacteria in hot water pipes, so I use cold.
-Biotene Products
These are oral healthcare products designed to combat dry mouth. There is an oral gel that you kind of spread in your mouth and coats it to act like a artificial saliva. It tastes kinda bad (not awful) and feels weird, but it beats dry/cracking skin, and is good for oral health. They also make alcohol-free (alcohol makes dry mouth worse) mouthwash that I find makes me produce a bnch of saliva for like 10-30 minutes, which can be helpful. They have toothpaste, but that is only to not irritate dry mouth. Finally, they have oral mouthspray, which is apparently the best, but I have not tried yet.
-Weed
Weed makes meth smoking more fun I find. Its hard to describe. Go slow as you may have negative anxiety reaction


Positioning:

The pipe will need to be twisted back and forth, so for me, I hold it in the middle of the stem between my middle finger and thumb. This allows me to easily roll the pipe back and forth. The carb is facing the sky/ceiling, and I have the pipe slanted, so the bowl is slightly closer to the floor than the mouthpiece. This allows me to put my index finger over the mouthpiece. so that when I first heat up the bowl all the initial smoke (that you will not yet inhale because it is not super thick and you want to build up a good hit) goes up the stem and is trapped by my finger rather than out through the little carb hole (which it will do when the stem is filled with smoke). Finally, it also allows me to use my pinky to cover the carb (I rarely do this because often the carb is hot).

Lighter

[Torch] Lighter is held in the other hand, underneath the dope in the bowl. Adjust your flame to lowest setting (if you can). While initially hitting the bowl, since your mouth is not on the mouthpiece, you can hold the pipe in front of you while you heat to gaug distance between flame and bowl, and make sure the flame is under the drugs. However, once you begin inhaling, you have a much worse view (through the bowl), and it is easy to hold the lighter too close (or far, but usually close), or to have it not even under the bowl. Due to poor depth perception (which I assume is from the drugs), or some visual warping from the curvature of the glass, its really easy to do this, and happens a lot. A mirror is helpful so you can see yourself. Another option is attaching flexible tubing (like aquarium tubing) to the mouthpiece so you can inhale through that while holding the pipe in front of you. This will also enable you to make meth bongs (search it).

Philosophy of Smoking Meth
Meth becomes a clear liquid when heated, then vaporizes into a white smoke. The idea is to heat whatever you placei n the pipe evenly so that it all melts down to liquid, then, by twisting the pipe, spread the liquid all around the bowl, so that it doesn’t stay in a hot place for too long and burn. Once liquified, the pipe can be twisted. This allows you to put your flame ahead of the liquid (think of the liquid chasing the flame), so that once the glass is heated, it will fall/roll down the curve towards your lighter and smoke. As you get close carb, you begin to twist the other way, keeping the liquid following your flame. However, with a torch lighter, you can soon twist the pipe without the flame and the liquid will still run for a while, and when it doesn’t is when you reapply the flame.

Quick Info On Torch Lighters
Torch lighters are very hot, much hotter than bics. Their flame is much more intense, and the heat above is much hotter than a bic. Therefore, you must keep much more distance between your lighter and pipe than with a bic. It will vary according to lighter type, pipe thickness, and especially flame size; but my flame is maybe between 1/3 and ½ of an inch, and my lighter stays 1-3 inches away from the pipe; with me increasing distance the longer its lit.
-Also, you do not heat the bowl with a torch lighter for long periods of time like you do a bic. Once it begins to smoke, quit using the lighter, and only reapply once the liquid quits moving when you twist the pipe. Also, be sure to twist pipe while lighting the whole time with a torch lighter, even if it is slowly. You cannot really get away with heating in one spot for a short period of time like you can with a bic.


Smoking

Premelt:
-Keeping your flame 1-2 inches below the bowl, roll flame in a circle around the perimeter of your product, so the outermost portion begins to liquify. Remember to continue moving the flame.
-As it begins to liquify, begin twisting the pipe back and forth. You want to heat the edges of the product and then the glass adjacent to the edges to make it flow there. However, when reversing the direction of the twist, make sure to heat the inside/middle for a moment as well so that it will melt once the dope bordering it has melted.
-Eventually you will have a puddle of liquid that is mobile-stop heating! COntinue to twist the pipe to spread the stuff around and wait for it to recrystalize (turn back into a liquid). You can speed this up by touching pipe with damp rag/paper towels/etc, but I like to let it cool by itself the first time. Wait for the pipe to cool down-its worth it.

Smoking
(this is assuming you are covering the mouthpiece and have the pipe angled like I mentioned in positioning)
-Now you should have a thin puddle of clear crystals stuff. Once again, heat with flame around the perimeter (much bigger this time, but it will also melt faster now because its thinner). Once melted, it should soon begin to smoke. Cease lighting once it begins smoking a fair bit and continue to twist.
-Because you have your finger over the mouthpiece and the pipe angled, the hot vapor will travel up the stem, and be trapped. Once vapor begins to emerge out of the carb hole, quickly take your finger off the stem and begin inhaling (do this quick because the stem is filled with vapor).
To Inhale:
You do not need to actually suck most of the time. With the pipe angled, simply forming a seal on the mouthpiece is usually enough, and if you have to inhale, do not suck like smoking. Instead, inhale like you are breathing but VERY slowly/softly. It takes very little pressure and the bigger hit you get, the better IMO.
Reheating
Use the torch for very brief periods of time. Once the liquid is moving and smoking agian, stop. You can also use more, but never use less once its burned.
Finishing your hit:
If your lungs are full and it is still smoking, cover the carb and mouthpiece and continue twisting. I like to hold my hits for 4-8 seconds, some say blow out right away, but I dont like that. You can also use a damp rag or damp paper towels/toilet paper/napkins/etc and wipe the bowl, to cool it down and make the liquid recrystalize faster (dont do this when the bowl is still super hot because it can break it). This will make it smoke a lot for a second so I like to do it while inhaling.

For Experienced Users:I have found the torch lighter to be far superior to the bic. With the bic, I would experience uneven and slow heating/melting. Now, I have almost instantaneous liquification, followed by thick smoke, and as long as I use the torch sparingly, no darkening of product. The trick is to be patient and methodical:
-Use the torch 1-3 inches away from the bowl
-Move it quickly
-“Encourage” the liquid to trael all over the bowl by leading it with the flame
-Use inward swirling movements, especially during the melting phase
-I recommend using single, squareish crystals for this.

anonymous asked:

saw my doctor today for a checkup blood test. she asked about my diet and when I told her I was vegan she asked me if I was planning on getting pregnant any time soon (which I'm not). she then went on to tell me how recent studies show that a vegan diet isn't recommended for pregnancy because it lacks amino acids found in animal products that are required for healthy spine development in the fetus. I didn't know how to respond :( what studies is she talking about?

Spinal development issues (spinal bifida) are from a lack of folate. (folate=plants) Plants have all the essential amino acids we need there are none lacking in plants, after all, animals get all the amino acids from plants, too… 

There is a real danger in high protein diets recommended to pregnant women = Preeclampsia & since all protein comes in a high fat package = gestational diabetes. 

Since Preeclampsia can cause high protein concentrations in the urine, doctors recommend adjusting your diet prior to becoming pregnant to lower the amount of protein you eat

The best way to respond would be to print out some information for your Dr so they can give better advice to other vegans.  You may just be nervous and didn’t quite understand what your Dr was saying.  If they really said what you just related its time to find a new Dr and report that one for being incompetent.  

You can print this off and give it to your Dr to share with other vegan expectant mothers. http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/vegetarian-diets-for-pregnancy  Just say I found this helpful information from the Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine on Pregnancy you can look over and see if meets your criteria for any other vegan moms you may encounter.  

You should be so proud of yourself for choosing the healthiest diet for you and your baby.  Don’t let some backwards dinosaur spout illogical nonsense and stress you out.  

If you really want to feel like you need to do something, here are the recommendations of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for Pregnant Vegans.  http://www.andjrnl.org/article/S2212-2672(16)31192-3/fulltext#sec4.1 Only follow those if you have actual deficiencies BASED ON BLOOD TESTS.  Supplementation of n-3 / dha have been shown to be neurotoxic in other studies.  (search my tumblr for more info on that) 

We found the medical swap to be completely ignorant of healthy diet for pregnancy and breast feeding & honestly all things infant related.  Get the Forks Over Knives Family Book for more support.  There is no better choice than a properly planned vegan diet.  We have a great RD if you need help, too. 

time.com
Chemical attack in Syria kills 22 members of a single family
The Alyousef family, one of Khan Sheikhoun's main clans, was hardest hit.
By Sarah El Deeb / AP

The grief-stricken father cradled his 9-month-old twins, Aya and Ahmed, each in the crook of an arm. Stroking their hair, he choked back tears, mumbling, “Say goodbye, baby, say goodbye” to their lifeless bodies.

Then Abdel Hameed Alyousef took them to a mass grave where 22 members of his family were being buried. Each branch of the clan got its own trench.

More than 80 people, including at least 30 children and 20 women, were killed in the chemical attack on the Syrian town of Khan Sheikhoun early Tuesday, and the toll could still rise. The Alyousef family, one of the town’s main clans, was hardest hit.

Another member of the family, Aya Fadl, recalled running from her house with her 20-month-old son in her arms, thinking she could find safety from the toxic gas in the street. Instead, the 25-year-old English teacher was confronted face to face with the horror of it: A pick-up truck piled with the bodies of the dead, including many of her own relatives and students.

“Ammar, Aya, Mohammed, Ahmad, I love you my birds. Really they were like birds. Aunt Sana, Uncle Yasser, Abdul-Kareem, please hear me,” Fadl said, choking back tears as she recalled how she said farewell to her relatives in the pile.

“I saw them. They were dead. All are dead now.”

The tragedy has devastated the small town. It also deepened the frustration felt by many Syrians in opposition-held areas that such scenes of mass death, which have become routine in the country’s 6-year-old civil war, bring no retribution or even determination of responsibility.

The U.S. and other Western countries accused President Bashar Assad of being behind the attack, while Syria and its main backer, Russia, denied it. Despite world condemnation, bringing justice is difficult in the absence of independent investigation of Syria’s chemical arsenal, which the government insists it has destroyed.

“My heart is broken. Everything was terrible. Everyone was crying and couldn’t breathe,” Fadl told The Associated Press on Wednesday. “We had many circumstances in Syria and we had many difficult situations. This is the most difficult and most harmful situation I ever had.”

In 2013, horrific scenes of Syrians flooding hospitals or found dead in their homes after a sarin gas attack that killed hundreds in the rebel-held Damascus suburb of Ghouta provoked international condemnation. A Russian-brokered deal followed allowing Assad to declare he has destroyed his chemical stockpile and joined the Chemical Weapons Convention.

But a year later, chlorine gas attacks became recurrent, killing scores of people.

However, Tuesday’s massacre was not caused by chlorine, an irritant with limited ability to kill. The high number of casualties, as well as the grave symptoms including convulsions, constricted pupils and vomiting point to a more complex chemical gas.

A Doctors Without Borders medical team that examined a number of victims in a hospital near the border with Turkey said the symptoms are consistent with exposure to a neurotoxic agent— at least two different chemical agents. The U.S.’s early assessment is that it involved the use of chlorine and sarin, according to two U.S. officials who weren’t authorized to speak publicly on the matter and demanded anonymity.

In Khan Sheikhoun, the tragedy was compounded because so many victims were from a single extended family, the Alyousef clan.

Witnesses say four rockets hit around 6:30 a.m. Tuesday, smashing a crater in the ground, but causing minimal structural damage. It quickly became clear this was not a conventional attack.

Alaa Alyousef said his family was sleeping and woke to the sound of the impact only a few hundred yards (meters) away. The first thing they saw was smoke. His father went outside then rushed back in. He had seen a woman walking near the strike suddenly collapse. The family frantically closed windows and dampened cloths with water and apple vinegar to put over their faces.

They were lucky, the wind went in the other direction, Alyousef said.

The rockets hit on the edge of North Harah, a district where much of the Alyousef clan lives. Frantically the clan’s members and their neighbors fled, running from house to house trying to track down relatives.

Fadl remembered her panic when the rockets woke her.

“My husband, where are you? Oh, where are you my lovely son?” she recalled calling out. “They were next to me but I couldn’t see them.” She said their eyes began hurting. “The air became very heavy. There was no bad smell. But the air was so heavy to breathe.”

The Alyousefs brought their dead to a family member’s home that was outside the worst attack area. The courtyard was turned into a makeshift morgue where surviving relatives tried for hours to resuscitate loved ones already dead.

That’s when Fadl finally collapsed, she said, only to wake up in a medical center.

While Fadl recovers along with her son at her parents’ home in a town north of Khan Sheikoun, her husband is still looking for survivors from his extended family.

Alaa Alyousef said not all homes have been searched for survivors yet.

“We are still in shock, a big shock. Our family is devastated,” the 27-year-old said. “Many are still missing. We are afraid to enter homes sometimes lest we find more people dead.”

On Tuesday, he and other family members buried the clan’s dead in the mass grave.

On the way to the grave, Abdel Hameed Alyousef asked a cousin to video his farewell to his twin son and daughter as he sat in the front seat of a van being loaded with bodies.

When the airstrikes hit, he was with the twins. “I carried them outside the house with their mother,” the 29-year-old shop owner told the AP. “They were conscious at first, but 10 minutes later we could smell the odor.”

The twins and his wife, Dalal Ahmed, fell sick.

He brought them to paramedics and, thinking they would be OK, went to look for the rest of his family. He found the bodies of two of his brothers, two nephews and a niece, as well as neighbors and friends. “I couldn’t save anyone. They’re all dead now,” he said.

It was only later that his relatives could bring themselves to tell him that his children and wife had also died.

“Abdel Hameed is in very bad shape,” said his cousin, Alaa Alyousef. He’s being treated for exposure to the toxin, “but he’s especially broken down over his massive loss.”

Discovery of Neurotransmission Gene May Pave Way for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease

A new Tel Aviv University study identified a gene coding for a protein that turns off neurotransmission signaling, which contributes to Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

The gene, called RGS2 (Regulator of Protein Signaling 2), has never before been implicated in AD. The researchers report that lower RGS2 expression in AD patient cells increases their sensitivity to toxic effects of amyloid-β. The study, published in Translational Psychiatry, may lead to new avenues for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease — possibly a blood test — and new therapies to halt the progression of the disease.

The research was led by Dr. David Gurwitz of the Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry at TAU’s Sackler School of Medicine and Prof. Illana Gozes, the incumbent of the Lily and Avraham Gildor Chair for the Investigation of Growth Factors; Head of the Elton Laboratory for Molecular Neuroendocrinology at TAU’s Sackler School of Medicine; and a member of TAU’s Adams Super Center for Brain Studies and TAU’s Sagol School of Neuroscience. Also participating in the research were their PhD student Adva Hadar and postgraduate student Dr. Elena Milanesi, in collaboration with Dr. Noam Shomron of the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at TAU’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and his postgraduate student Dr. Daphna Weissglas; and research teams from Italy and the Czech Republic.

Identifying the suspect

“Alzheimer’s researchers have until now zeroed in on two specific pathological hallmarks of the chronic neurodegenerative disease: deposits of misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plaques, and phosphorylated tau protein neurofibrillary tangles found in diseased brains,” Dr. Gurwitz said. “But recent studies suggest amyloid-β plaques are also a common feature of healthy older brains. This raises questions about the central role of Aβ peptides in Alzheimer’s disease pathology.”

The researchers pinpointed a common suspect — the RGS2 gene — by combining genome-wide gene expression profiling of Alzheimer’s disease blood-derived cell lines with data-mining of previously published gene expression datasets. They found a reduced expression of RGS2 in Alzheimer’s disease blood-derived cell lines, then validated the observation by examining datasets derived from blood samples and post-mortem brain tissue samples from Alzheimer’s patients.

“Several genes and their protein products are already known to be implicated in Alzheimer’s disease pathology, but RGS2 has never been studied in this context,” Dr. Gurwitz said. “We now propose that whether or not Aβ is a primary culprit in Alzheimer’s disease, neuroprotective mechanisms activated during early disease phases lead to reduced RGS2 expression.”

Sensitizing brain neurons to potential damage

The new TAU study furthermore proposes that reduced RGS2 expression increases the susceptibility of brain neurons to the potentially damaging effects of Aβ.

“We found that reduced expression of RGS2 is already noticeable in blood cells during mild cognitive impairment, the earliest phase of Alzheimer’s,” Dr. Gurwitz observed. “This supported our theory that the reduced RGS2 expression represents a ‘protective mechanism’ triggered by ongoing brain neurodegeneration.”

The team further found that the reduced expression of RGS2 was correlated with increased Aβ neurotoxicity. It acted like a double-edged sword, allowing the diseased brain to function with fewer neurons, while increasing damage to it by accumulating misfolded Aβ.

“Our new observations must now be corroborated by other research groups,” Dr. Gurwitz concluded. “The next step will be to design early blood diagnostics and novel therapeutics to offset the negative effects of reduced expression of the RGS2 protein in the brain.”

The sharks we see swimming around outside Rapture are obviously modeled off Great Whites, and while Great Whites do sometimes swim in that area of the sea they do not go nearly as deep. The Greenland shark would have been a far more accurate shark to have present around the city.

Some facts about Greenland sharks

  • Greenland sharks are even larger than Great Whites, growing up to 24 feet long
  • They swim extremely slowly and look like big stone gargoyle fish
  • Virtually every shark is parasitizied by Ommatokoita elongataa copeopod that eats at the shark’s corneal tissue and is said to exude a green glow
  • Their flesh is neurotoxic and has such a high urea content that it smells like piss.

So I think the 2K developers really missed an opportunity when they neglected to have Rapture patrolled by huge blind gargoyle piss-sharks.

Dissociative Hallucinogen Masterpost

What Are Dissociatives?

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen that work by distorting the senses and causing a sense of powerful dissociation, as well as induce general anesthesia. The term dissociative is generally used to refer to NMDA receptor antagonists (with a few exceptions). They work by blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. Many dissociative users experience very clarified thinking and introspection while under the influence (notably ketamine, methoxetamine, and dextromethorphan). Many dissociatives do more than just block signals to the conscious mind, they act on a variety of other receptors as well. DXM releases a flood of serotonin & norepinephrine, PCP releases dopamine & endorphins, and ketamine causes a variety of opioid receptors to activate as well as dopamine release.

Many dissociatives also activate your sigma receptor, which is not very well studied, but is assumed to be why many people experience some form of enlightenment after using certain dissociatives. Many drugs can activate this receptor mildly, such as methylphenidate and buprenorphine. It is suggested that the only non dissociative drug that has as much affinity to this receptor is dimethyltryptamine. DMT is considered to be the most psychedelic compound on earth.

NMDA receptor antagonists are placed into a few categories;
👉🏻Adamantanes
👉🏻Arylcyclohexylamines
👉🏻Morphinians (morphine derivatives)
👉🏻Diarylethylamines

👉🏻Non NMDAR antagonist drugs that are still dissociatives, are kappa-opioid receptor agonists. The most popular kappa-opioid agonist dissociative is salvia divinorum.

👉🏻Although not being kappa-opioid agonists or NMDAR antagonists, anticholinergic drugs are considered to be a subtype of the dissociative class. When referring to the recreational use of anticholinergics in doses far exceeding those recommended, they’re called deliriants. A wide variety of deliriants, natural and synthetic, are easily accessible, cheap, and entirely legal. This is most likely because deliriants are generally considered to be the least recreational of any recreational drug class. Causing hallucinations indistinguishable from reality, powerful body dysphoria, inability to keep a train of thought, and inability to recognize yourself in the mirror. Deliriants are considered a subtype of dissociative because they too block signals between the conscious mind and brain, but in a very different way. Deliriants stop acetylcholine from being produced in the brain. When this happens, extreme memory impairment, hallucinations, and extreme confusion accompanied by false beliefs starts to begin. The natural lack of acetylcholine in the brain is known as dementia and Alzheimer’s. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), meclizine (Dramamine II: Less Drowsy Formula), and doxylamine (Unisom) are all synthetic anticholinergic compounds. A variety of plants naturally contain the anticholinergics atropine, scopalamine, and hyoscyamine.

The Most Used Recreational Dissociatives Are;

👉🏻Nitrous oxide (laughing gas, whippets) is a widely used and unscheduled dissociative, with hallucinogenic effects lasting no longer than a few seconds.

👉🏻Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an over the counter cough suppressant, that when used in high doses, is a very powerful and long lasting dissociative. The maximum dose for cough suppression is 30 mg, however recreational users can reach doses of 1,500+ mg. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide lasts up to 8 hours, while dextromethorphan polistirex can last up to 12. DXM itself is an unscheduled drug, no different than tobacco or alcohol. However some stores, in order to stop theft, keep DXM containing products off the shelves and behind a pharmacy counter. Many stores also require the buyer to be at least 18 years of ago, and have restrictions on how much can be purchased at a time.

👉🏻Phencyclidine (PCP) was created to be used as an anesthetic in the 1950’s, but was discontinued less than 15 years later because many surgical patients would hallucinate and become extremely agitated. Soon after its discontinuation, the drug became prevalent on the black market, use peaking in the late 70’s and early 80’s. A common misconception is that PCP is related to embalming fluid (formaldehyde). Formaldehyde has no psychoactive effects, and therefore is not of any relation to PCP. Rapper Big Lurch is serving life in prison for acts of murder and cannibalism committed while under the influence of PCP. A variety of phencyclidine-related designer drugs are fully legal to purchase over the Internet. While PCP is still a Schedule II drug, it cannot be prescribed and is only rarely legally synthesized for miscellaneous research. PCP is used at a fraction of the rate it was in its peak, most PCP only being found on the east coast, as the drug comes in through the biggest sea port in America (which is in northern New Jersey). When the drug is synthesized within the country, it’s usually created by someone who also uses the drug, obviously compromising the quality of the product.

👉🏻Ketamine was created as a less dangerous alternative to PCP. Ketamine is only used in humans when the patient is young enough that the drug won’t cause hallucinations, but is mostly used in veterinary practices. Although it is a Schedule III drug, no prescriptions can be written for it, as it’s only used in hospital settings. Ketamine use is most prominent in Canada and the UK, but also used in America and a variety of other European countries less commonly. The majority of crystalline ketamine comes from India, where it has been reported to be illegally packaged in hair dye packets and sent overseas to other countries. Ketamine also has investigational use as an antidepressant and an analgesic. A variety of ketamine-like research chemicals (most notably; methoxetamine) are freely available to purchase online in almost all countries. In countries that have banned the arylcyclohexylamine class of drugs, methoxetamine and any other ketamine alternative are illegal drugs.

👉🏻NMDAR Neurotoxicity (Olney’s lesions) are a form of potential brain damage from use of dissociative drugs. It was concluded that all dissociatives cause some sort of vacuolization at the NMDA site, but not always cause lasting damage. It was concluded that PCP, tiletamine, and dextrorphan definitely cause the lesions. However other dissociatives like ketamine, nitrous oxide, and dextromethorphan have not been shown to cause such brain damage, but it’s not entirely out of question that it’s possible.

(Dendroaspis viridis) western green mamba

Venom primarily neurotoxic, but not much known. Potentially dangerous, but bites of humans rare. A few reported envenomations & human deaths due to bites by this species had symptoms very similar to those caused by Black Mamba venom. If cornered, may (only very rarely) spread a small hood or inflate its throat.

sausagezeldas  asked:

Are there snakes that produce neurotoxins?

Yeah, lots! Snakes in the family Elapidae have neurotoxic venom. This is a group of mostly Old World snakes: king cobras, the cobras in the genus Naja, sea snakes, kraits, mambas, taipans, and coral snakes (which are New World snakes). These are the snakes that are usually called the world’s deadliest! In addition, some Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) has a neurotoxic-hemotoxic venom (most rattlesnakes don’t have neurotoxic venom, just hemotoxic). However, not all Mojave rattlesnakes produce neurotoxic venom; the species is divided into Venom A and Venom B groups. Venom B, the smaller of the two groups, lives only in southern central Arizona. 

Sure thing! 

So a patient gets put on a ventilator when:

  • They have significant damage to the muscles that control respiration
  • They are paralyzed from a drug that prevents those muscles from working (like during surgery)
  • Their lungs are so damaged/full of fluid that the muscles aren’t strong enough (or have become too exhausted) to pull air in/keep fluid from building up further (this can be for many reasons, the most common being severe burns, pneumonia, bronchiolitis in children, cancer, and poorly controlled right-sided heart failure).

Scenarios where this might be applicable in fanfiction:

  • Character receives a gunshot/stab wound to the upper abdomen, where the diaphragm is pierced or otherwise badly damaged.
  • Character is envenomated by a blue-ring octopus or some other paralyzing neurotoxic venom.
  • Bow-and-Arrow-themed superhero ironically receives a typically lethal dose of curare (a personal fav).
  • Character sustains injuries involving multiple broken ribs, rendering breathing excessively difficult/painful.
  • Character sustains severe burns with suspected inhalation injuries (burns in the lung) and their lungs are swelling/filling with fluid.

I’m going to talk about ventilators for a second before getting into the meat of your question. There are two distinct types of mechanical ventilation. Positive Pressure (PP) Ventilation and Negative Pressure (NP) Ventilation

PP Ventilation is what most people think of when they think of a ventilator. This type of ventilator consists of a tube that either goes down a patient’s throat or through a hole in their windpipe called a tracheostomy. The tube is connected to a computerized and mechanized reservoir of air that pushes a set quantity of air through the tube into the patient’s lungs. Patients then (usually) breathe out passively. These can be set to “breathe” either a certain number of times per minute or to detect the beginning of a patient’s breath and only “assist” with the breath instead. 

Here is a video that demonstrates breathing and shows how this machine typically works. These machines look like this:

In NP ventilation there is no tube going into the patient’s lungs. This machine works by changing the air pressure around the patient’s body, causing the chest to expand and take in air. One familiar example of this is the iron lung. While these are not typically used today, one of their descendants, called the biphasic cuirass ventilator (BCV), is (link is to a video). This is like a wearable mini iron lung and looks like a turtle shell: 

It is possible for people to be on both types of ventilators while awake.

Trauma patients usually need to be on PP ventilation, and will be at least partially sedated during their time on a vent, on painkillers, and anti-anxiety drugs. This means they usually aren’t particularly “with it” during this time. The sedatives and anti-anxiety drugs are used with PP ventilation because the experience can be very scary and uncomfortable for patients (think of not being able to move while your brain is telling you you’re suffocating, even though you aren’t, combined with pain from other injuries, unfamiliar surroundings/noises from the machine/hospital in general). Most people wouldn’t want to experience/remember that.  Painkillers would be less for the ventilation itself and more for other injuries, but could still have a significant impact on consciousness.

That being said, the moment in a fanfic where a character wakes up on a PP vent and is told “Don’t fight it!” can be accurate in limited circumstances. In this situation, if the patient is fighting the ventilator, it may be time to change the vent setting to one where the patient initiates the breaths (see above). If the character’s breathing still needs to be entirely mechanically controlled for another reason, doses of sedative medication may need to be changed. Irl, it would be unacceptable to simply leave a patient in a condition where they were constantly fighting the ventilator. Even if the patient was calm and trying really, really hard not to fight it, it would likely still be a mentally and physically exhausting and uncomfortable experience for them. 

People who are more used to being on a ventilator (long term patients) may need fewer interventions/drugs to stay comfortable. It is possible to “get used to it” over time. Those who are conscious/calm enough to communicate typically can do so through writing or a book/board with pictures they can point to that help express their needs/answer questions. These patients can answer questions like “What is your name and birthday?” “What year is it?” and “Point to the picture of a dog” In order to determine mental status.

Measuring mental status with sedated patients is done through observational scales like this one: 

Patients on NP ventilation have no need for paralytic or sedative drugs to initiate or continue ventilation. They can talk and even eat normally while wearing a BCV, and movement is only slightly restricted. However, it is much less likely that a BCV would be used in a trauma situation because it requires an intact chest cavity to work, and because it does squeeze and pull at the chest, it could cause more pain and damage to injured bones and muscles..

Hope this answered your question!

PS, if you haven’t read this SGA fic, you may love it.

Russian Sleep Experiment

Depiction of the tragic events outlining initial and last runs of The Russian Sleep Experiment and the supposed use of the neurotoxic Nikolayev gas.

The following depicted events have been acutely documented by the remaining members of the original study (Researchers). Who fled the grasp of the NKVD (KGB) in the 1940-1950s. The accuracy can be argued but the depiction displayed below ↓ is based off on the journal entries and stow aways from the original experiment. The leak sources remain anonymous with whom I (The Webmaster) am corresponding with.

Nikolayev Gas: The original purpose of this gas was deemed to have soldiers stay awake on a battlefield for extended periods of time throughout war. This would allow the government to either use less soldiers or allow for that number of soldiers to become a greater force.

The gas was found to be named after Felix Nikolayev: A esteemed soldier with limited descriptions rendered from the remaining journal entries of the experiment.

Today there is evidence found that more refined versions of the Nikolayev gas is used today as a hypnotic catalyst and as a truth serum.

Below is whats considered The Original Predecessor of “Nikolayev” AKA. The Russian Sleep Experiment

________

The Russian Sleep Experiment

 

Soviet researchers from the late 1940s kept five people awake for fifteen days using an experimental gas structured stimulant. This was in term called “The Russian Sleep Experiment” They were kept in a sealed environment to carefully observe their oxygen intake so the Nikolayev gas didn’t kill them, since it was toxic in large concentrations. This has been before the existence of closed circuit cameras therefore they had only microphones and 5 inch thick glass porthole sized windows into the holding chamber to monitor and keep track of them. The holding chamber was stocked with various publications, cots to sleep on but no bedding, running water and toilet, and adequate dried food to last all five for upwards of a month.

These test subjects were political prisoners deemed as enemies of the soviet state during The second world war.

Protected Entrance to The Experimentation Chambers ↓

The First Five Days

Everything was running smoothly with the sleep experiment; the subjects hardly complained having been promised (falsely) that they would be freed if they submitted to the test and did not sleep for experimented days. Their interactions and routines were monitored and it was noted that they continued to discuss increasingly traumatic incidents they’ve experienced in their past, and the overall tone in their conversations took on a darker aspect following the 4 day mark.

After five days they started to protest concerning their circumstances and events contributing to where they were being held and all commenced to show signs of intense paranoia. They ceased conversing withone another and began instead to whispering to the the microphones and their one way mirrored portholes. Oddly all of them appeared to think they could win the trust of the experimenters by snitching over , the other subjects in captivity with them. At first the researchers suspected that this was indeed as result of the experimental gas itself…

The Ninth Day

The first of them started off screaming. He ran along the chamber consistently screaming at the top of his lungs for Three hours without pause, he continued attempting to scream but was only capable of producing infrequent squeaks. The researchers postulated that he had physically tattered his vocal cords. Probably the most surprising thing about this behavior is how the other captives reacted to it… or rather didn’t react to it whatsoever. They carried on whispering to the microphones up until thesecond of the captives started to screaming. The 2 non-screaming captives took the books apart, smeared page after page with their own feces and pasted them calmly over the glass portholes. The screaming promptly ceased. So did the whispering to the microphones. The Porthole windows have became un-viewable.

The Twelfth Day 

The researchers checked the microphones hourly to make certain they were working, since they thought it was not possible that no sound could be coming with 5 people on the inside. The oxygen intake in the holding chamber indicated that all 5 must still be alive. The fact is, it had been the volume of oxygen 5 people would consume at a very heavy amount of strenuous exercise. On the early morning of the 14th day the study did something they said to the prisoners that they would not do. In order to obtain some sort of reaction from the captives, they used the intercom inside the chamber, aiming to trigger any kind reply from the captives that they were afraid were either dead or vegetables. They declared: “We are opening up the chamber to test the microphones step away from the door and lie flat on the ground or else you will be shot. Consent will earn one of you your immediate freedom.” To their surprise they heard but a single phrase in a very quiet voice response: “We no longer want to be freed.”Debate broke out among the research workers and the military forces funding the study. Not able to provoke any more replies via intercom The Researchers had finally decided to open the chamber at midnight on the fifteenth day.

Fifteenth Day | Midnight

The chamber was purged from the Nikolayev gas and filled with fresh air and instantly voices from the microphones had begun to object. 3 different voices began pleading, as though they were begging for the life of loved ones to turn the gas back on. The chamber was opened and soviet soldiers sent in to retrieve the test subjects. They started screaming louder than ever before, and thus did the soldiers when they had the chance to see what was on the inside.

Brief Warning:

The Following details depicting the events that followed might be considered graphic in their details.

__________________________________

The Russian Sleep Experiment: Part II

 

Four of the five subjects remained alive, despite the fact that nobody could rightly call the state of the test subjects as ‘living. ‘ The food rations past day 5 hadn’t been so much as touched. There was chunks of meat from the deceased test subject’s upper thighs and chest stuffed into the drain down the middle of the chamber,obstructing the drain and allowing 4 inches of water to amass on to the floor. Exactly how much of the water on the floor was actually blood never was determined.

All four ’surviving’ Russian Sleep experiment subjects also had significant portions of muscle tissue and epidermis torn far from their bodies. The destruction of flesh and exposed bone on the subject’s finger tips revealed that the wounds were inflicted manually by hand, not with teeth as the research workers initially considered. Closer study of the position and angles of the wounds revealed that most if not all all of them were self-inflicted. The abdominal organs underneath the ribcage of all four test subjects have been removed. While the heart, lungs and diaphragm stayed in place, the skin and the majority of the muscle tissue attached to the rib cage had been ripped off, exposing the lungs in the ribcage. All the arteries and internal organs remained intact, they had just been removed and laid on the floor, fanning out about the eviscerated but still living bodies of the subjects. The digestive tract of all four could be seen to be working, digesting food. It quickly became apparent that what they were digesting was their very own flesh that they had ripped off and eaten throughout the course of days and nights.

Most of the soldiers were Soviet special operatives in the facility, but still many refused to revisit the chamber to remove the test subjects. They carried on to scream to be left inside the chamber and alternately begged and demanded that the gas be turned back on, lest they fall asleep… To everybody’s surprise the test subjects put up a fierce fight while being taken out of the chamber.Among the Soviet soldiers, one perished from getting his neck punctured by a test subject, another was gravely injured by having his testicles ripped off and an artery in his leg severed by one of the subject’s teeth.

In total: 5 of the soldiers, following the incident took their own lives after being witness to their comrade’s deaths. In the struggle one of the four living subjects had his spleen ruptured and he bled out almost immediately. The medical researchers tried to sedate him but this proved impossible. He was injected with serum DMT using more than ten times the human dose of a morphine derivative and still fought like a cornered animal, kicking to breaking the ribs and arm of one doctor. When heart was seen to beat for a full two minutes after he’d bled out to the point there was more air in his vascular system than blood. Even after it stopped he continued to scream and flail for an additional 3 minutes, struggling to attacking anyone in reach and just repeating the word “MORE” repeatedly, weaker and weaker, until he finally fell silent.

The remaining three test subjects were heavily restrained and transferred to a medical facility, the two with intact vocal cords continuously begging for the Nikolayev gas demanding to be kept awake…By far the most seriously injured of the three was taken to the only surgical operating room that the facility had. In the process of preparing the subject to have his internal organs placed back within his body it turned out that he was effectively immune to the sedative they’d given for him to prepare him for his surgery. He struggled furiously against his restraints once the anesthetic gas was brought out to put him under. He managed to tear the majority of the way through the 4 inch wide leather strap on one wrist, even with the bodyweight of a 200 pound soldier holding that wrist as well. It took merely a little more anesthetic than normal to put him under, and the instant his eyelids fluttered and closed, his heart stopped. In the autopsy of the test subject that deceased on the operating table it was discovered that his blood had triple the normal level of oxygen. His muscle tissue which were still attached to his skeleton were badly torn and he had broken 9 bones in his fight to not be subdued. Most of them were from the force that his own muscles had exerted on them.

The second survivor was the very first of the group of five to start screaming. His vocal cords messed up he was unable to beg and resist surgery, and he only reacted by shaking his head violently in disapproval once the anaesthetic gas was brought near him. He shook his head yes when somebody suggested,hesitantly, they try the surgical procedure without anesthetic, and did not react for the whole 6 hour operation of replacing his abdominal organs and attempting to cover them with what remained of his skin. The surgeon presiding stated repeatedly that it should be clinically feasible for the affected prisoner to be alive. One terrified nurse assisting the surgery stated that she saw the patients lips curl into a grin several times, whenever his eyes met hers. Once the surgery ended the subject looked over at the surgeon and began to wheeze loudly, attempting to speak while struggling. Assuming this must be something of drastic importance the surgeon had a pen and pad fetched so the patient might write down his message. It was simple. “Keep cutting.” The other two test subjects received the same surgery, both without anesthetic as well. Although they had to be injected with a paralytic for the duration of the operation. The surgeon found it extremely hard to execute the operation as the patients laughed continuously. Once paralyzed the subjects might only follow the attending researchers with their eyes. The paralytic cleared their system within an extraordinarily short period of time and were soon looking to escape their bonds. As soon as they could speak again, they were again requesting the stimulant gas. The study attempted at asking why they had seriously injured themselves, why they had ripped out their very own guts and why they wanted to be given the gas again. Merely one response was given: “I must remain awake.”

The three subject’s restraints were reinforced and they were placed back into the chamber awaiting conviction in regards to what ought to be done with them. The researchers, facing the wrath from their military ‘benefactors’ for having failed the stated goals of the project considered euthanizing the remaining subjects. The commanding official, an ex-KGB instead saw potential, and wanted to see what can happen if they be put back on the gas. The study strongly objected, but were overruled.

In preparation for being sealed in the holding chamber again, the subjects were connected to an EEG monitor and had their restraints padded for long term confinement. To everyone’s surprise the three stopped their struggling as soon as it had been let slip that they are to be going back on the gas. It was obvious that at this point all three were putting up a great struggle to stay conscious. One of subjects that could talk was humming loudly and consistently; the mute subject was straining his legs against the leather bonds with all his might, first left, then right, then left again for something to concentrate on. The remaining subject was holding his head off his pillow and blinking rapidly. Having been the first to be wired for EEG most of the researchers were overseeing his brain waves in surprise. They were normal more often than not but sometimes flat lined inexplicably. It looked as if he were repeatedly suffering brain death, before going back to normal. As they focused entirely on the paper scrolling out of the brainwave monitor only one nurse observed his eyes slip shut at the same moment his head hit the pillow. His brainwaves immediately changed to that of deep sleep, then flatlined for the last time as his heart simultaneously stopped.

The sole remaining subject that could talk started screaming to be sealed in now. His brainwaves showed exactly the same flat-lines as one who had just died from falling asleep. The commander gave an order to seal the holding chamber with the two subjects on the inside, as well as 3 researchers. One of the named three immediately drew his gun and shot the commander point blank between the eyes, then turned the gun on the mute subject and shot his as well… He pointed his gun on the remaining subject, still restrained to a bed as the leftover members of the medical and research team fled the area. “I will not locked in here with these things! Not with you!” he screamed at the man strapped to the table. “WHAT ARE YOU?” he demanded. “I have to know!” The subject smiled. “Have you forgotten so easily?” The subject asked. “We are you. We’re the chaos that exists within you all, begging to be free at every moment in your deepest animal mind. We have been that which you hide from in your beds every night. We’re what you sedate into silence and paralysis when you go to the nocturnal haven where we cannot tread.” The researcher paused. Then aimed towards the subject’s heart and fired. The EEG flat-lined whilst the subject weakly choked out.