neuronal function

Balancing Time and Space in the Brain: A New Model Holds Promise for Predicting Brain Dynamics

For as long as scientists have been listening in on the activity of the brain, they have been trying to understand the source of its noisy, apparently random, activity. In the past 20 years, “balanced network theory” has emerged to explain this apparent randomness through a balance of excitation and inhibition in recurrently coupled networks of neurons. A team of scientists has extended the balanced model to provide deep and testable predictions linking brain circuits to brain activity.

Lead investigators at the University of Pittsburgh say the new model accurately explains experimental findings about the highly variable responses of neurons in the brains of living animals. On Oct. 31, their paper, “The spatial structure of correlated neuronal variability,” was published online by the journal Nature Neuroscience.

The new model provides a much richer understanding of how activity is coordinated between neurons in neural circuits. The model could be used in the future to discover neural “signatures” that predict brain activity associated with learning or disease, say the investigators.

“Normally, brain activity appears highly random and variable most of the time, which looks like a weird way to compute,” said Brent Doiron, associate professor of mathematics at Pitt, senior author on the paper, and a member of the University of Pittsburgh Brain Institute (UPBI). “To understand the mechanics of neural computation, you need to know how the dynamics of a neuronal network depends on the network’s architecture, and this latest research brings us significantly closer to achieving this goal.”

Earlier versions of the balanced network theory captured how the timing and frequency of inputs—excitatory and inhibitory—shaped the emergence of variability in neural behavior, but these models used shortcuts that were biologically unrealistic, according to Doiron.

“The original balanced model ignored the spatial dependence of wiring in the brain, but it has long been known that neuron pairs that are near one another have a higher likelihood of connecting than pairs that are separated by larger distances. Earlier models produced unrealistic behavior—either completely random activity that was unlike the brain or completely synchronized neural behavior, such as you would see in a deep seizure. You could produce nothing in between.”

In the context of this balance, neurons are in a constant state of tension. According to co-author Matthew Smith, assistant professor of ophthalmology at Pitt and a member of UPBI, “It’s like balancing on one foot on your toes. If there are small overcorrections, the result is big fluctuations in neural firing, or communication.”

The new model accounts for temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks and the correlations in the activity between neurons—whether firing in one neuron is correlated with firing in another. The model is such a substantial improvement that the scientists could use it to predict the behavior of living neurons examined in the area of the brain that processes the visual world.

After developing the model, the scientists examined data from the living visual cortex and found that their model accurately predicted the behavior of neurons based on how far apart they were. The activity of nearby neuron pairs was strongly correlated. At an intermediate distance, pairs of neurons were anticorrelated (When one responded more, the other responded less.), and at greater distances still they were independent.

“This model will help us to better understand how the brain computes information because it’s a big step forward in describing how network structure determines network variability,” said Doiron. “Any serious theory of brain computation must take into account the noise in the code. A shift in neuronal variability accompanies important cognitive functions, such as attention and learning, as well as being a signature of devastating pathologies like Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.”

While the scientists examined the visual cortex, they believe their model could be used to predict activity in other parts of the brain, such as areas that process auditory or olfactory cues, for example. And they believe that the model generalizes to the brains of all mammals. In fact, the team found that a neural signature predicted by their model appeared in the visual cortex of living mice studied by another team of investigators.

“A hallmark of the computational approach that Doiron and Smith are taking is that its goal is to infer general principles of brain function that can be broadly applied to many scenarios. Remarkably, we still don’t have things like the laws of gravity for understanding the brain, but this is an important step for providing good theories in neuroscience that will allow us to make sense of the explosion of new experimental data that can now be collected,” said Nathan Urban, associate director of UPBI.

It started like most things do: for profit.  A scientific experiment, run by a corporation, with little oversight and little ethical attention. A pack of ambitious men and women in a room, a voided lightless room, pounding out science like a hammer against a nail.  Effortless, forthcoming, senseless, progressive.  It was unfathomable what they accomplished, what they were able to do with three  years time and an unlimited bankroll.  It was unlimited power to create and destroy.

How does it really work?

Our brain speaks a language, just like English or French or Mandarin.  They called it Neuronic, after the cells that make up our brain. The key to understanding the language was being able to get a composite picture of the entire neural network, but that required being able to track each neuron’s position and path in real time.  And finally we were able to do that.

Nanotech?

Yes, nanomaterials, to be more precise. They called it a rider, because it would attach onto any unoccupied neuron and ride it virtually forever, all the while pinging information back outside the body.  It was incredible science.

All that remained was to figure out the cipher–which neurons corresponded with which functions–and then Pandora’s box would be opened up completely.  They accomplished this in just a few months of testing.  Of course, each person is different, and their neurons corresponded differently, but when you zoom out wider and farther, our brains all speak the same language, with just slightly different dialects.

So that was it?  The era of thoughtlessness was over?

No, far from it.  The technology worked, but it couldn’t be applied to anyone–only those who had injected the riders inside of them, either with or without their consent.

Then we were injected?

No, hold on, I’m getting there.

Sorry.

It’s okay, I know you can’t help yourself. They knew that this wouldn’t go anywhere unless they could market it as actually having a use.  That is, they knew people wouldn’t buy a library card if there were no open books.  They needed a way to open most or all of the books.  

How’d they do it?

That’s the thing: no one knows.  Most think they made the riders replicating and self-sufficient–able to float through the air and enter new hosts.  Others think they simply poured enough into the major water streams and let time do its work. You could hold all the riders in all the Earth in the palm of your hand and not even see them. That’s how infinitesimally small these things are. All they needed to do was make them able to find new bodies.

Wasn’t this illegal?

What, infecting the entire world with nanomaterials that would betray your thoughts and feelings? I’m sure it was, but what can you do?  Take the corporations to court while all the lawyers’ and judges’ and juries’ worst thoughts were portrayed to everyone who had access to them, everyone who had bought their way into the elite, purchased a superhuman power?  

It was chaos at first. The rider translators were prohibitively expensive, on purpose, and only the most affluent few in the world could afford the privilege of looking into the heads of others. Almost every politician was thrown out of office, almost every celebrity or public person was cast in a horrible light over something they had mindlessly thought when someone was in range with a translator.  You know, the wealthy used to hire these people to follow other people around.  The new age thought paparazzi, the nightmares of everyone who was worth exposing.

Couldn’t they block it?  Block the riders, or get rid of them?

The riders, no, those are impenetrable.  But people tried everything: diets, surgeries, horrible devices and treatments, but nothing worked at all.  The only option was to try to block the translators, either by getting out of range or attempting to mix up the signal.  These were…. moderately successful at first, but the corporations kept churning out better and better translators, larger ranges and stronger pathways.   Eventually, there was only one sure way to get some instance of peace.

Getting rid of the translators?

Yes, unfortunately.  People started figuring out that they needed to destroy the translator devices themselves.  Keep in mind, these were fed up people whose lives were all but destroyed.  The tragedy was that the corporations had started permanently planting these in people’s ears.   It was a gruesome and bloody year.  Neighbors and friends turned on each other, even when they weren’t sure if they had them or not. The destruction of many of the devices and the danger that came with wearing one prompted the corporations to keep lowering the price, until eventually almost all but the poorest people had them.  Now everyone could be betrayed and everyone could betray. 

So that’s why we live in a state of equality now?  When everyone can know everything about everyone, doesn’t that mean a level playing field?

No, doesn’t it just expose everything? Am I equal because I have equal information, or am I just more informed of my own inequality?  Hey, it’s 7:00 here in the states.  What time is it over there for you, again?

Midnight.

Time for bed then, isn’t it?

Ah, Dad, tell me more…

I’ll think with you more tomorrow.  Be good for your mom.

Goodnight.

Goodnight.

2

The above photo? My friend and I, happy, soaking up the sun’s energy and each other’s energy.

The other night, a doctor in the emergency room that I work with said that I radiate light, and he can tell that I’m well connected to my surroundings. Little did I know that he meant it literally. We’ve been discussing photons emitted by human bodies. How he thinks in terms of science, doesn’t necessarily “believe” in God, but thinks that the world gravitates around the concept of light. Another doctor, an atheist, has discussed the Higgs Boson with me, saying that he thinks we have been looking at this from the wrong angle. He thinks there’s a correlation between particle physics, subatomic particles, light, photon emission, biochemistry, happiness, and our health/existence in general. He even, in a way, thinks of light, if anything, as “god”. Which I find absolutely intriguing.

I’ve spent the past several hours reading about Nobel laureates, physicists, and even MIT’s take on photon emission; but doing my best to stay away from nutty quacks, who’s explanations have no scientific basis. Here’s a research article, beginning with Planck himself:

“I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as a derivative of consciousness.” —Max Planck

The development of quantum theory in the early twentieth century and the elegant Einstein equivalence established once and for all that matter is energy. Perhaps this led Einstein to state enigmatically in 1916: “For the rest of my life I want to reflect on what light is.” David Bohm (1980) also saw all of existence as an unending sea of light, a “holomovement” in which matter is a crystallized form of light. We too are left to reflect on what light itself is. Biologic science has been slow in the uptake, failing to appropriate the implications of quantum physics, and attempting to abstract bodies from their greater matrix of energy. Medical researchers and practitioners need not repeat this mistake, but can and should appropriate the knowledge of this dynamis for the healing sciences.

Researchers in the biologic sciences are beginning to come to terms with a complementary model of biologic functioning pioneered by Gurwitsch et al. (the Vernad-sky-Gurwitsch-Bauer school). Gurwitsch (1944, 1948) introduced the concepts of the morphogenetic field (1944) and mitogenetic radiation (i.e., ultra-weak photon emission from living systems). Research continues with the work of Popp (1992), Voeikov (2000), van Wijk (2001), and others. It is a brave new world wherein the basis of life is located in the world of biophotons, electron excited states (EES), and quantum coherence; biologic systems functioning as lasers (Korotkov, 2002). At a deeper level, a truly holistic approach requires vacuum biophysics (Bischof, 2000) where the potential is as important as the actual (Dürr, 1998). These perspectives portray the body more as an energy biocomputer (Gariaev, 1994; Hurtak, 1973a) than a molecular machine. A system operating in nonequilibrium thermodynamics (Beloussov and Popp, 1995; Prigogine, 1967), it is understood as open to fields and energies that from the contemporary human perspective may seem new. These fields include consciousness fields of a mind reality operating beyond the functions of neuronal interactions and microtubule structures (Stapp, 1993).

These new fields and new energy realities that have awakened human scientific curiosity are more than passing energy phenomena; in a deeper sense they reflect the structured processes of multiple-body-vehicles that already exist within the biologic complex of the human being. This paper looks at the interplay between the two: the consciousness and material realities. For if these other models are true, holism will come to have an even more expanded meaning, and holistic medicine will be compelled to include the many subtle consciousness and energy fields that interpenetrate and commingle to form the totality that we call the human being. In so doing, medicine will evolve to draw on the full healing power implied by the insight of physicist Bernard d’Espagnat, who said: “The doctrine that the world is made up of objects whose existence is independent of human consciousness turns out to be in conflict with quantum mechanics and with facts established by experiment.”

Light, energy, electromagnetic waves, vibrating the atoms that constitute our bodies. E=mc^2. We are made of matter and matter is energy.

When you wake up, go perch outside and soak up some sunlight. Turn off Netflix. Look up at the stars. Embrace those around you. Anyway, I love you guys. I know i’m not on here as much as I used to, but I’m still here. Curious as ever.

Silver Balls- Eisuke Ichinomiya (NSFW)

The story of an undrunken Eisuke getting controlled and commanded by his drunken girlfriend! This is my first smut on Tumblr, and I’m sure there’s some scope for improvement. Readers and followers, if you wish to suggest areas for improvement, feel free to message me! 😁


It was Christmas Eve, and the Penthouse was beautifully decorated, complete with the huge Christmas tree and gold and silver colored decorations. _____, boyfriend Eisuke and the other bidders were having a really good time with all the food and drinks……until….

She got horribly drunk, no sorry, was gotten horribly drunk by two huge criminals – Ota and Baba. She started swirling the champagne bottle, as her dopamine levels scooted high and higher; so high that she could not keep herself from stumbling and falling. After stumbling two times over the sofa and falling thrice on an extremely annoyed Eisuke, she sat quietly in her place.

“How dare you get her so drunk?!” Eisuke asked Ota and Baba furiously.

“Not our fault. You are the one who came late. Else you would’ve stopped her. Or maybe us.” Baba replied with a wink.

“Yesssss…..Eiiiiisukkeeeee, it’s…it’s not…their fault at….all…haha!!” she said, laughing a bit and taking another sip from the almost empty champagne bottle in her hand.

“Oh god _________! You’re terribly drunk, let’s go back to our suite.” He snatched the bottle from her hand while the others giggled.

“Nooooo Eisukeeeee pleaseeeeeee lemme drink some moreeeee….”

“Not at all! Cummon now!” he said sternly, trying to get her off the sofa.

Just the Ota’s phone rang. And that’s when the huge disaster of the evening took place.

All my friends are Heathens, take it slow….Wait for them to ask you who you know….

Please don’t make any sudden move; you don’t know the half of the abuse…”

 

The ringtone played on. Ota kept the phone aside, when _____ got up from her seat and started singing,

“Yes my man’s an asshole, takes it slowwww…..”

Eisuke stared at her, bewildered, body frozen, and eyes wide with shock. The other bidders looked more than amused at this.

“Woo hoo _______. That’s so nice! Keep going!!” Ota cheered while Baba and Mamoru laughed.

“Yes my man’s an asshole, takes it slowwww……

Wait for him to ask…me….where to fuck!

Please don’t make any s…s…sudden moooveee……

You don’t know….haha….he’s got nice balls too!” she sang, much to Eisuke’s dismay. He stood where he was mouth slightly agape.

“Oho Eisuke….the kid sings like…hella well!” Mamoru commented.

“I never knew she had it in her!” Soryu said, with a mischievous smirk which earned him an angry glare from Eisuke.

“_______, stop that please.” Eisuke said getting up and pulling her towards their suite.

“Naawwwww Eisuke, bad boyyyyyy!!!” she slurred and got away from him, moving back until she stumbled and hit the Christmas tree. Thank goodness she was drunk; else the tree would have been down upon her. But what happened now was the worst. Or the future best. The small force caused a few decoration balls to fall off the top of the tree and ____ managed to catch some of them. She started giggling, formulating more incoherent words for putting into the song.

“Yes my man’s an asshole takes it slowww…..

He’s got great balls like these silver balls….!” she sang, squeezing the balls in an absolute vulgar manner, causing the bidders to laugh even more; whereas Eisuke grew red. She continued taking that as a token of appreciation….

“Yes my man’s an asshole takes it sloww…..

He’s got great balls like these silver balls….!

He don’t care, what time it is, which room…..!

He once fucked me on the table toooo!!”

That was the end of it for Eisuke. Face redder than a tomato, he forcefully pulled _____ and dragged her towards their suite.

“Heyyy Eisukkkiiiieee lemmmee sinnggg….Eisukeee you asshole!!” she whined constantly and tried to escape his grasp.

“Cummon Eisuke let us hear her sweet voice.” Baba said grinning.

“Shut up! Just shut up, okay!!” Eisuke said, out of sheer embarrassment.

“Heyy cummon _______, tell us more about what he does.” Ota said.

“Oh yes….he once put a cheesecake on my….-“she started again, but Eisuke cut her off immediately.

“No ________, no! You aren’t going to say a word after this!” he shouted, opened the door and pushed her inside, hearing the amused laughs of the others as he did so.

“Yes Eisuke…you’re an asshole…!”

Eisuke sighed. It irritated him to have such vulgar things about him heard by others; more because they came from _____’s mouth. But ______ was certainly in mood for some fun. She pulled him by his tie and both of them fell back onto the bed.

“What the hell are you doing?” he asked, trying to get up and push her away. But she pulled him back against herself and started kissing his jaws and neck.

“____, please stop this and go to sleep.” Eisuke tried to stop her, but failed. She straddled his torso and started kissing his lips, her eyes showing a sense of roguery. Eisuke froze. Just what was happening? The hell was this drunken woman up to?! When did she become so damn bold?! And so utterly shameless?! His hands rested on her waist, temporarily allowing her advances; until his neurons got back into function. He started kissing her back, clearly tasting the remnants of champagne on her lips. _____ moved her hands up and down his chest, thighs and upper arms. He started pulling the zip of her dress when she smacked his hand.

“Ouch…”

“Bad boy, very….bad…boy…Eisuke!” she scolded and got off him. He tried to hold her back by her wrist but she shook him off anyways.

“What are you upto baby? You get me this hot and now you’re leaving?” he said, the annoyance apparent in his voice.

“Who said I was leaving, huh?” she replied stumbling a bit, but gaining balance. Before Eisuke could open his mouth to say anything further, quick as a flash, she took off her dress and threw it off in a random direction. Surprise for him. Eisuke-0, ____-1.

His literally stared at her, pupils dilated and mouth dry. And he would be lying if he said ‘he wasn’t thrilled’or ‘this is nothing!’ Never had _____ been so bold. If she had, then he’d definitely not seen it. But oh god, she did look sexy, so sexy that he wouldn’t mind chaining her to the bed and having his way with her; roughly.He looked like a hungry, horny wolf, which hadn’t mated since months and was seeing a potential mate for the first time. He propped himself up, ready to take off his own clothes, but she pushed him and straddled him once again. “Bad boys don’t get their candy….so soon!” she said, biting her lip seductively. She grinded her hips and he groaned.

“____, I swear stop it!” he growled in a low tone. This further amused the inebriated girl. She pulled Eisuke’s hands above his head and held them there, surprisingly with a lot of strength. Eisuke tried breaking the constraint so that he could teach his little vixen how to behave, but all in vain. She was stronger than he’d expected. This display of strength was new for him. He never knew a drunken woman could be this strong.

“____, do you know what effect doing this can have?” he asked, raising a brow. He was trying his best to be patient. He didn’t want to have rough sex with her in a drunken state. But this goddamned woman was driving him crazy; he doubted if he could further contain the hungry inner beast.

“I’ve know ya for quite sometime ‘suke. And I just know what all you can do!” she cooed, with a smirk. Unzipping his trousers, she pulled them down, along with his expensive black Emporio Armani boxers, revealing something far more precious- his heated erection.

“Looks like someone’s yearning for  friction…..” ____ said, licking her lips. Eisuke gulped as the remaining blood from his head, rushed downwards. He was caught in a spell, a sexy spell that she had cast on him. She flicked his erection.

“Ow heck!” he almost shouted. _____ giggled. “Please don’t do that….it hurts…”

She did it once again, harder this time. “Fuck!” he shouted, “Stop it you damn woman!” She laughed wickedly. Eisuke Ichinomiya was under he control tonight. So were his Silver Balls. She finally released his wrists and pulled his trousers and boxer off his legs. Eisuke looked at her, secretly anticipating her next move. She looked into his eyes and slid herself down his body, until her face came in contact with his cock.She gave it one slick lick.

“Ahhh….”Eisuke groaned lightly. She slowly took his entire cock into her mouth and started sucking on it.

“Oh -fuck……!” he moaned, kicking his right leg hard. Despite of how cold, narcissistic and oblivious he appeared on the outside, he hated to admit, he was sensitive down there. And _____ was driving him crazy. She was his personal Achilles’ heel. She was the only one who could make him vulnerable; while being so vulnerable herself.

“Ah…ah…._________! Oh god please!” he moaned, running one his hands through ________’s hair.

She smiled. He was helpless and she’d made him like that! It was good to see Eisuke Ichinomiya lose control once a while. She redoubled her efforts and sucked harder.

“Fuckkk…….” he growled. Eisuke’s hands were now free but he couldn’t even move. His head was buried into the pillow and his eyes rolled back into his brain. She had brought out the most vulnerable, sensitive and weak him. Someone whom the others won’t ever believe to be Eisuke Ichinomiya.

“________….I’m there, I’m t-there!” he roughly breathed out. And ______ stopped her caresses. Just as he was about to cum.

“What…..why?” he asked, his eyes holding an expression of longing in them.

“Bad boy Eisuke, you have to admit some things today.” she said, winking at him.

Eisuke furrowed his brows. Him? Admitting things? As if…..

“Me?” he questioned.

“Yes baby boy. YOU.” she said, “Firstly, admit it that you….are…an…asshole.

“What? NEVER!” he said defiantly. She took his cock out of her mouth and looked up at him, batting her eyelashes.

“_____ no fair. Don’t stop please!” he begged.

“Admit it then.”

“No! No! Never!” he said, with a smirk.

“No? Really?” she said, kissing his balls, blatantly paying no attention to his erect member, which desperately needed friction.His smirk immediately disappeared. Eisuke was too tired, too embarrassed to stroke himself. Rather, he was still in shock, as far as her boldness was concerned. He wanted this. He wanted this badly. Wanted to reach his high. He wanted her body. Setting aside all his pride, for the first and perhaps the last time, he said, “Yes _____, yes. I admit that I’m an asshole.”

She smiled and started sucking him again as a reward. He gave out a satisfied moan.

“Number two. Admit it that you are…actually…liking this!” she said

“Yes! Yes! I like this! I like this so damn much!” he moaned.

“Third, admit it that you consider each and every inch of yourself as mine”

“Ah….ah….yes…oh _______, Yes!” he shouted, nearing his high again.

“Now beg for it.”, _____ said, sucking harder.

“I…ah….d-don’t just beg….oh!” he said, moaning in reflex.

“So you won’t eh?” she said coyly and sucked him the hardest she could.

“Fuck yes! Aahhh….I want you please! _____, I want y-you so bad!” he almost screamed in pleasure. That was it for Eisuke. He couldn’t take anymore of the teasing. THIS was what he did to ______ everytime. He made her beg. He made her moan and writhe helplessly. He made her scream in desperation and ecstasy. But today, that privilege was not on his cards. He was under her control.

______ left Eisuke’s cock and straddled him once again. He opened his eyes and looked into hers, wondering why she’d stopped inspite of him having put up with her demands. She let her lips find his while he hugged her flush to his still clothed chest.

“Take me”, she asserted.

She was willing to give herself to him. She was being incredibly susceptible, inspite of knowing Eisuke could punish her in the worst way. That was LOVE for Eisuke. He kissed her and shifted her to his side, opening his shirt buttons whilst never taking it off. Positioning his hardness at her wet entrance, he slowly pushed in. Spooning was something Eisuke had never tried. But heck, it felt amazing! Eisuke’s thrusts were short, yet passionate. His face buried in the crook of ______’s neck.

“Suki….suki….ahhhh….Eisuke! I’m close!” she screamed.

“Ah baby, I’m close too”, Eisuke moaned along. Every time his cock entered her, it made a weird and erotic squelching sound, which added to their combined arousals.

“Eisuke…please!!! I’m cumming!”

“Hah…wait for me baby..ah!”

“Ahh no, I c-can’t take it E-Eisuke, please!”

“Yes baby…..”

“Suki…EISUKE!!”, _____ screamed loudly as she came.

“Fuck _____!!”, Eisuke groaned into her ears as his orgasm shook his core, his hips coming to a steady halt after the final few thrusts. Finally, coming so hard was worth every bit of the teasing! Both of them tried to catch their breaths as their arousal seeped out of _____.

“Eisuke, baby are you okay?” she asked as she turned to face him.

“Yeah” he managed to say through his harsh pants, “that was amazing ____!”

_____ blushed a bit.

“Seems that her high is wearing out”, thought Eisuke.

“I love you Eisuke”, ____ said, giving him small pecks across his jaws and collarbones. Eisuke propped himself on his elbows and took off his blazer and shirt, both of which were horribly creased and drenched with sweat. ____ pulled the comforter on their warm bodies. Today had been amazing for both of them. Eisuke pulled her flush against himself, enjoying the soft feeling of her body.

“I admit one more thing _____. I’m madly in love with you. You make me behave like a horny bastard there, I so damn love you.”, he said, his cheeks flushing a light shade of red. ____ smiled as sleep overcame her. Eisuke continued stroking her hair even after she’d slept. She had been so bold today. Heck, if he’d only recorded everything; she’d definitely forget it all in the morning and wouldn’t believe him! But then, it was a good thing to tease her about. All thanks to Ota’s ringtone and the guys who got her drunk. Sneaky bastards. Eisuke chuckled a bit as he remembered some of the lyrics of what ____ sang.

“How senseless!”, he thought. Thank goodness he stopped her in time, else she would’ve definitely blurted out the entire cheesecake incident to those guys.

“You’d better be ready for a punishment sweetheart, for getting drunk and calling me an asshole, for making me admit embarrassing things, for speaking too much in front of the guys and for stripping me off my pride.”

But, that was all for some other time. Right now, Eisuke focused his gaze  on her contented face. It was one in  a million, and he’d never give her up. For anyone. For anything.


9

So I got a request to do a close up of my review sheets and maybe a mini how-to so let’s see how this goes.

My review sheets are for my AP Psychology class, and each sheet corresponds with a chapter of the textbook we’ve done so far. 

As for the mini how-to, for each sheet I make a list of the important topics for each chapter. I’ll use my third sheet as an example:

  • Neurons - structure and function
  • Neurotransmitters - names and functions
  • The Nervous System - breakdown of structures
  • The Brain - Lobes and functions, parts and their functions
  • The Endocrine System - function and parts

After I have a rough idea of what needs to go on the sheet, I space out where the different categories go on the sheet and then I just write. If there isn’t enough room on the paper for all of the information, I attach a sticky note over top of the section to finish it off. 

Sometimes if I’m feeling adventurous I’ll try and draw a sketch of a structure or draw a picture for the section (albeit poorly). 

That’s basically what I do for each review sheet, I don’t know if this is helpful for anyone at all, I don’t really think about what I’m doing when it comes to making my review material. 

Anyways I hope this is helpful to someone out there , and I hope you all have a wonderful day!!

Katie <3

Miss Right

taetaebears said: Hello~! Just wanted to say that I really like your writhing^-^ And a request, could you do like a fic where Suga is in school, he really likes the reader and the boys do everything to bring him to confess to her but they struggle really hard to do it? Thank you<3

Pairing: Yoongi x Reader

Genre: The most fluffy thing I have ever written

Warnings: Too much fluff  None

Word Count: 1.6k

A/n: Okay so, I have finally finished it! I hope this is what you were thinking of! If it’s not I’m sorry :(  Also the verse used in this scenario is from Miss Right by Bts, Yoongi’s part!


“Okay, see you later!” She said getting up from the chair next to mine, starting to gather all her stuff.

“See you!” I smiled and closed my notebook. Watch her leave the classroom made me sigh.

“YOONGI!” An annoying and unfortunately familiar voice called.

“What, Tae?” I answered, not bothering to look at him.

He took a seat in her chair and grabbed my shoulders making me look at him.

“Please just kiss already, and love each other, and marry, and have kids, and die together.”

Jungkook came behind him and hit Tae’s head.

“Shut your mouth!” He whispered. “what if she heard?”

I sighed and finished closing my bag.

“See you around guys.” I told them getting up and in some seconds I was outside the class.

I finally got to my locker. I saw her some meters away taking her headphones and books from inside her locker. Suddenly, all the books fell from her hands and I noticed a girl behind her, who just pushed her, making her head hit the lockers as her hands eventually let go of the books.

Quickly I closed my locker door and run up to the beautiful girl bleeding from the head on the floor.

“Are you stupid?” I asked the girl, who was standing next to her friends. I didn’t know what they had expected me to say, but they all looked surprised. “Are you ok?” I asked, changing my attention to y/n. “No, you’re not. Here, let me take you to the infirmary.” I helped her up, one arm on her waist and the other taking her hand.

“I can walk Yoongi, don’t worry.” She let go of my hand.

I took her bag and still with my arm around her I stood in front of 5 girls. Any boy would love to be with them, but I didn’t. I never understood why a boy could hook up with someone so… egocentric and bitchy.

“Touch her again and you’re done. And I honestly wouldn’t give a shit of the fact that you’re a girl.”

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So there’s loads of different neuroimaging methods out there that are used depending on what it is you’re looking for! I’ve had the privilege of actually studying it and there’s so so many different types more than just functional MRI that people don’t really know about so here are a few and what they’re used for an how they work.

MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The most commonly used form of neuroimaging and for good reason. MRI uses the body’s tissue density and magnetic properties of water to visualise structures within the body. It has really incredible spatial and temporal quality and is predominantly used in neuroscience/neurology for looking for any structural abnormalities such as tumours, tissue degeneration etc. It’s fantastic a fantastic form of imaging and is used in numerous amounts of research.

Functional MRI (fMRI)

These images are captured the same way as MRI but the quality is a little bit lower because the aim is to capture function (those blobs you can see) as quickly and accurately as possible so the quality is compromised a little bit. Nonetheless, fMRI usually uses the BOLD response to measure function. It measures the amount of activity in different areas of the brain when doing certain things, so during a memory test for example, and it does that by measuring the amount oxygen that a certain area requires. The increased oxygen is believed to be sent to an area where there is more neuronal activity, so it’s not a direct measurement but rather we’re looking at a byproduct. There are numerous studies trying to find the direct link between the haemodynamic response and neuronal activity, particularly at TUoS (where I’m doing my masters!) but for the moment this is all we have. This sort of imaging is used a lot for research and checking the general function of the brain, so if you were to have had surgery on your brain, they may run one of these just to see which areas might be affected from it and how, or in research we’ve used this a lot to research cognition - which areas are affected during certain cognitive tasks (ie my MSc thesis - Cognition in schizophrenia and consanguinity). 

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

This is my current favourite type of NI right now! DTI is beautiful, unique and revolutionary in this day and age, it’s almost like sci-fi stuff! DTI measures the rate of water diffusion along white matter tracts and with that calculates the directions and structural integrity of them to create these gorgeous white matter brain maps. They are FANTASTIC for finding structural damage in white matter - something that is making breakthroughs in research lately ie. schizophrenia, genetics and epilepsy. It measures the rate of diffusion which tells you about possible myelin/axonal damage and anisotropy, so the directions and if they are “tightly wound” or loosely put together - think of it like rope, good FA is a good strong rope, poor FA is when it starts to fray and go off in different directions - like your white matter tracts. My current research used DTI and it was honestly surreal to work with, the images are also acquired through an MRI scanner so you can actually get these images the same time you’re getting MRI’s done, functional or otherwise! 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

One of the “controversies” (if you could call it that) is the use of radioactive substances in PET scanning. It requires the injection of a nuclear medicine to have the metabolic processes in your brain light up like Christmas! It uses a similar functional hypothesis to BOLD fMRI, in that it is based on the assumption that higher functional areas would have higher radioactivity and that’s why it lights up in a certain way. It depends on glucose or oxygen metabolism, so high amounts of glucose/oxygen metabolism would show up red and less active areas would show up blue, perfect for showing any functional abnormalities in the overall brain. However it has incredibly poor temporal resolution and due to it’s invasive nature, MRI is chosen more often. (The pictures are gorgeous though!) 

Electroencephalography/Magnetoencephalography (EEG & MEG)

These are not “imaging” types in the stereotypical sense. They create a series of waves that you can physically see (think of the lines you get on a lie detector!). Electrodes/Tiny magnets are placed on the scalp/head in specific areas corresponding to certain brain structures. EEG picks up on electrical activity which is the basis of neuronal function, whereas MEG picks up on magnetic fields - the same property that is utilised by MRI. One of the biggest issues with EEG is that deeper structures passing through tissues get distorted, whereas MEG doesn’t because it only measures the magnetic properties. I’ve not had a lot of experience with either of these but I do know EEG is used in a lot of medical procedures to measure brain activity, from measuring seizures and sleep disorders to measuring brain activity in a coma. It’s fantastic and if you can actually figure out how to conduct and interpret results it’s an invaluable tool into looking at electrical activity. 

4

HELLO so I had an ask on this from a while back and I tried to answer but I stuffed up and I can’t respond properly now… It basically asked me to review my textbooks and whether they were course requirements (they asked for a focus on the Brain and Behaviour textbook, too)

Firstly, yes they are all course requirements for my units this semester.

Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences:
- I used this last year too for another unit and I find it useful and detailed. I can always find what I need rather quickly, but it’s really dry (it’s STATS, so duh)
- It covers basically everything you need for first and second year stats in psych and it will most likely be a useful reference/recap for future years

An Introduction to Brain and Behaviour:
- This book is my baby. It’s written so well! It’s clear, and it covers everything in perfect detail!
- The examples they use are relevant, and the layout of the book is very helpful
- It covers the following in depth: nervous system and it’s functional units; Neurons and electrical communication; drugs and hormones; structures and functions of the brain; changes in the nervous system; sensation and perception; response to stimulation and producing movement; emotions and motivations; sleep and dreams; learning, memory and thinking
- Definitely keeping this textbook for future reference!

Lifespan Human Development:
- I like how this book is set out, and it makes note-taking very easy
- I feel as if they use slightly too many words to get to what they want to say, but it’s not annoying
- There’s interactive components to the book (tests and quizzes etc.) that keep you engaged

Personality and Individual Differences:
- Reading this book makes me very happy. The author basically has a running commentary throughout the textbook, and his personal stories/additions are very amusing
- It’s written clearly and is detailed
- I might be biased because it’s my favourite subject in psychology, but whatever I love it and it’s interesting

If anyone has any more questions about the textbooks or my reviews of them, please ask (I won’t stuff it up next time)!

More (Detailed) Neuroscience and Behavior Notes

Other Neuroscience and Behavior Notes (with pics!)
What’s not included in that^ post is here and vice versa. Also some things might repeat.

 

Neurons: The Basic Elements of Behavior
The Structure of the Neuron

  • Neurons: Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
  • Perhaps as many as trillion neurons throughout the body are involved in the control of behavior.
  • The nucleus incorporates heredity material that determines how a cell will function.
  • Neurons are physically held in place by glial cells. Glial cells provide nourishment to neutrons, insulate them, help repair damage, and generally support neural functioning.
  • Terminal Buttons AKA Terminal Branches
  • Myelin Sheath: made up of fat and protein
  • Neural impulses generally move across neurons in one direction only

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Egg Whites

@tel-abelas-mofo , I BLAME YOU for all of this!

Definitely NSFW themes


The cup offered to him was pewter, a few dents in the side to show it’s age. It wasn’t too large, but not small either. Solas looked from the cup to his lover, one brow arched. “Yes?”

Thema just smiled, a smile that he both loved and feared. “I need you to fill this up with beaten egg whites, please.”

He accepted it, groaning inside. His entire right arm ached already. “Very well.” A kiss was pressed on his cheek so he only grumbled a little as he reached for the eggs.

“What are you doing?”

The sigh was issued through his nose, pained and long-suffering. “I am getting eggs. To beat. As you need.” What were they even making?

“Oh.” There was something in her tone that made him look at her. “I didn’t mean those eggs.”

His mind blanked then raced to figure out what she meant, what other kinds of egg whites there were. The confusion must have shown because she smiled sadly and slipped over to his side.

“This recipe has a secret ingredient… Specifically…” One hand cupped him through his pants. “These beaten egg whites.”

The functioning neurons in his brain died with the sound of air escaping a balloon.

What?

Eyes fervently, beggingly, searched her face for some sort of sign that she was joking. An impish twist to her lips, in her eyes.

There was none.

“W-What?” He would later deny that his voice was panicked and - stars swallow him whole - squeaked. Was this an Earth thing? Did they put that in their desserts? Why would they do that? Was it a thing for lovers? Did… did she do that with the other desserts she’d made?! Blood flooded his face and ears, none left to even think about going to where her hand was.

How was it possible to even fill the cup?!

The entire time her smile was normal if a bit pitying. “I’m sorry, Solas… I meant to tell you…”

Her smile twitched, faltered and then she was staggering away. Bent in half, clutching the edge of the wooden work island, silently laughing so hard she was crying. Thema was wheezing when she could manage to draw in air, the stunned look on his face only making her convulse harder. Knees buckled, leaning against the leg of the island, splotchy red on her face from her mirth.

His own face was still red but now from embarrassment and anger. Oh, he was pissed at her, and also proud of her for pulling one over on him. Getting his temper under control he calmly reached back for an item on the counter.

And dumped the entire pitcher of ice water over her head. The resulting shriek was worth it.

Restaurant Dates Are The Worst! (Seb Stan x Reader) - Part 5

MASTERLIST

Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4

Word Count: 3.7k

Tagging: @supernaturallymarvellous @heismyhunter @quotemeow @feelmyroarrrr @andimadeitawkward @super-potter-4ever @its-hellohazel @ichabbster25 @wantedtobefree-notbefreed

The week following Sebastian’s return was a breath of fresh air in comparison the the previous weeks. After you had told him everything, he became angry – very angry. He was in a state of fury you had never imagined he was capable of, your warm, kind Sebastian. But discovering that your boyfriend had a temper wasn’t half as worrying than one singe ‘hi’ from your persecutor. Having a man raise his voice was always a sounding alarm in any woman’s head, but you knew Sebastian’s yells weren’t directed toward you, they were meant for Robert, and weren’t it for you standing between Seb and the door, he would have stormed right out and hunted him down. Thankfully a few gentle reminders that neither of you knew where he lived, added to the fact that you really needed him here right now was enough to calm him down.

“He-” Sebastian started but he bit his lip, obviously not finding anything harsh enough to say. “That hideous bastard, he’s-” Still not finding anything, he closed his mouth, his lips drawing a thin, straight line. He eventually settled on, “This is serious, (Y/N).”

“I know,” you said, rubbing your face with both hands. That hot shower’s soothing effects were slowly fading away. “I don’t know what to do, but please, please-” you started, “Just be with me right now, hold me and make me forget.”

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DO SO-CALLED HOLLYWOOD “STAR WHACKERS” REALLY EXIST?

ACCORDING TO THIS INSIDER, THERE EXIST SOPHISTICATED CRIMINAL SYNDICATES WITHIN HOLLYWOOD THAT ARE COMPOSED OF HIT MEN, CON MEN, AND MEN IN OTHER POSITIONS, OFTEN POSING, (SOMETIMES FOR YEARS IN ADVANCE) AS HIS/HER TRUSTED FRIENDS, AGENTS, MANAGERS, FINANCIAL ADVISORS, AND SO ON…)

THESE ORGANIZED CRIME GROUPS SPECIALIZE IN TARGETING HIGH-PROFILE CELEBRITIES - CAUSING THEM TO HAVE MENTAL BREAK-DOWNS BY SECRETLY DOSING THEM WITH A CONFIDENTIAL DRUG CONCOCTION - THIS SECRET CHEMICAL CONCOCTION EVENTUALLY CAUSES THE TARGET TO EXPERIENCE A SLOW DETERIORATION OF NEURON FUNCTION IN HIS/HER BRAIN AND THIS CAUSES THE TARGET TO BECOME MORE TRUSTING AND COMPLIANT, AS WELL AS GRADUALLY FADE INTO A QUASI-SCHIZOPHRENIC/BI-POLAR STATE.

SUPPOSEDLY, THIS IS DONE IN ORDER TO GAIN CONTROL OVER THE TARGET CELEBRITY’S ASSETS BY TRICKING THE UNWITTING HOLLYWOOD STARS INTO GRANTING THESE CHARMING CRIMINALS POWER OF ATTORNEY OR TAKING OUT A LIEN ON THE CELEBRITY’S ESTATE AND BELONGINGS


IS THIS MAN TELLING THE TRUTH?


YOU DECIDE.



LOVE AND LIGHT.

Remember the ice bucket challenge? It just funded an ALS breakthrough

Originally posted by huffingtonpost

The ALS Association says money raised by viral charity challenge, dismissed as ‘slacktivism’ by many, has helped identify a new gene associated with the disease

It is often easy to dismiss viral charity campaigns as “slacktivism”, which lacks in real-world impact (we never did catch the warlord Joseph Kony, after all) but a breakthrough discovery bankrolled by 2014’s ALS ice bucket challenge may give the lie to that cynicism.

The ice bucket challenge was a phenomenon in the summer of 2014 in which people dunked a bucket of iced water over their heads in order to solicit donations before nominating others to do the same.

The campaign raised more than $100m in a 30-day period, and was able to fully fund a number of research projects. One of these was Project MinE, a large data-driven initiative funded by the ALS Association through ice bucket challenge donations, as well as donations from the organization’s Georgia and New York chapters. The project’s researchers announced on Monday that they have identified a new gene associated with the disease, which experts say could lead to new treatment possibilities.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a neurological disorder in which the motor neurons that control muscle function slowly die. The disease can be either sporadic or inherited, and in either case there is currently no cure.

“It’s very exciting because it shows everyone who contributed to the ice bucket challenge that their donation had an impact on the research,” said Brian Frederick, executive vice-president of communications and development at the ALS Association. The newly discovered gene, NEK1, is only associated with 3% of ALS cases, but it is present in both inherited and sporadic forms of the disease, which researchers say gives them a new target for the development of possible treatments. Project MinE has been working to sequence the genomes of 15,000 people with the disease, and the discovery, which was described in a paper published on Monday in the journal Nature Genetics, involved more than 80 researchers in 11 countries.

The discovery was significant, Frederick said, “because it helps us understand what’s triggering this and can help us better find a treatment,” though he added that “it’s still very early in our understanding of this particular gene, and we still have a ways to go with understanding ALS generally.”

the cycle

nope, not a fic.

Addiction is made of psychological and physiological dependence. One suffering from addiction engages in compulsive behavior, losing control entirely on the intake of the drug, which rewards that particular behavior through the reward pathway, thus making any negative consequence to that behavior of no importance at all. The fact is, addiction is a chronic disease and it changes your brain fundamentally, by altering your synaptic activity (the communication between neurons) which alters your brain chemistry.

In your brain you have a reward center, there, thanks to external stimuli, there is a release of dopamine (a neurotransmitter, passes information between neurons) which basically makes you happy - when you do something that turns out well, your brain is pumped full of dopamine and you likely will do it again. The stimuli, though, can be natural or artificial and that’s what drugs become to an addict, meaning the release of dopamine becomes a positive answer in your brain to taking more of the drug. Now, each drug affects the brain differently as they alter the chemicals all in similar, but not identical ways.

The initial intake of any drug may categorize as self abuse, which affects the reward system mostly, but as the drugs become a regular presence, they effectively alter the neurobiology in your brain, thus initiating the process of abuse and dependence. Tolerance is when one’s system gets used to the drug, prompting the increased dosage and abuse, dependence is when the neurons adapt to functioning normally with said drug’s alterations and require it to function at all as the brain itself has become dependent. On the long run, this means one only feels normal under the influence of the drug and the dopamine deficiency that comes with the absence of the drug causes depression, anxiety and a crap ton of similar awful feelings and sensations - under the influence the neurons in the reward pathway cease to function normally, so the natural response is nonexistent, requiring the drug for a dopamine fill.

Addiction is not lack of will power or the intentional and direct want to lose control, while retaining still the control to stop it. Just like a lot of mental disorders it screws with your brain chemistry and therefore you actually feel different and think different and react different - think of it as someone with bad sight losing their glasses, it’s not like they don’t know how things really are, they just can’t see them that way. In fact, addiction is a chronic disease and the people affected have really very, very little control over it as is often ties with other, easily triggered issues (depression and the like). 

The cycle that every addict is stuck into, is a chain reaction of psychological and physiological responses which may repeat endlessly. It starts with pain, pain that leads to one acting out, which to an addict means leaning into the comfort of their drug of choice. With the drug and the alternate, happy and pain free reality that comes with it there is a stage of calm and relief - temporary, but hey. After that come the consequences of acting out, they vary and they may lead to more pain and the start of an entire new cycle or recovery. Recovery, though, is tricky and while you can eliminate the physiological reaction, the psychological symptoms are a lot harder to get rid of, as the cravings will always be there and when a decent dose of pain is added to an addict’s milk chocolate one morning, the cycle will start anew for them as well.

I’m not a doctor or an addict or a shrink, I just love brains an the chemical imbalances that cause what we commonly call crazy (I like that we’re not actually crazy, there’s is a real explanation for it), and I really did try to make it as easily understandable and complete as I could, but I might have failed there. I’m sick and tired of people being disappointed in Amelia for giving up and for falling for it again and for letting drugs take over when she knows better. Amelia can’t help it, she is sick and this is how her body responds. It’s not Owen’s fault or Meredith’s fault or anyone else’s, but it’s not hers either. She relapsed again and this may not be the last time either, it’s just how it works and there’s little she can do there but be as happy as she can without the need to resort to drugs.

Are Kagune Sentient?

Kagune are one of the many mysteries in the world of Tokyo Ghoul, there’s an excellent post already  by @coromoor that details the workings of the building blocks of Kagune, rc cells. Reding that, and another post  by @sans-san and @oneeyedkingeto , I pieced together what could be another solution behind the mystery of Kagune. How exactly do Kagune act sentiently, or on their own parted from the body?

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