neuronal cell

Scientists Catalogue “Parts List” of Brain Cell Types in a Major Appetite Center

Using Harvard-developed technology, scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have catalogued more than 20,000 brain cells in one region of the mouse hypothalamus. The study, published in Nature Neuroscience, revealed some 50 distinct cell types, including a previously undescribed neuron type that may underlie some of the genetic risk of human obesity. This catalog of cell types marks the first time neuroscientists have established a comprehensive “parts list” for this area of the brain. The new information will allow researchers to establish which cells play what role in this region of the brain.

“A lot of functions have already been mapped to large regions of the brain; for example, we know that the hippocampus is important for memory, and we know the hypothalamus is responsible for basic functions like eating and drinking,” said lead author John N. Campbell, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of co-corresponding author, Bradford Lowell, MD, PhD. “But we don’t know what cell types within those regions are responsible. Now with the leaps we’ve had in technology, we can profile every gene in tens of thousands of individual cells simultaneously and start to test those cell types one by one to figure out their functional roles.”

Each cell in an animal’s body carries the same genetic information. Cells take on specific roles by expressing some genes and silencing others. Drop-Seq technology – developed by study co-authors Steven McCarroll, PhD, and Evan Macosko, MD, PhD, both geneticists at Harvard Medical School – makes it possible to assess every gene expressed by individual cells. The automated process means the BIDMC researchers could profile tens of thousands of cells in the same amount of time it once took to profile about a dozen cells by hand.

Campbell and colleagues profiled more than 20,000 adult mouse brain cells in the arcuate hypothalamus (Arc) and the adjoining median eminence (ME) – a region of the brain that controls appetite and other vital functions. The cells’ gene expression profiles help scientists determine their functions.

In addition to identifying 50 new cell types, the researchers also profiled the cell types in adult mice under different feeding conditions: eating at will; high-fat diet (energy surplus); and overnight fasting (energy deficit). The technology allowed the researchers to assess how changes in energy status affected gene expression. The cell types and genes that were sensitive to these changes in energy status provide a number of new targets for obesity treatment.

“Sometimes a cell’s true identity doesn’t come out until you put it through a certain stress,” said co-corresponding author, Linus Tsai, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at BIDMC. “In fasting conditions, for example, we can see whether there is further diversity within the cell types based on how they respond to important physiologic states.”

Finally, the scientists analyzed previous human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that revealed gene variants linked to obesity. Noting which brain cell types express such obesity-related genes, the researchers implicated two novel neuron types in the genetic control of body weight.

Campbell and colleagues have posted their massive data set online, making it available to researchers around the world. The open-source information should accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and shape the research questions asked in the field of obesity research.

“The classic way of doing science is to ask questions and test hypotheses,” said Lowell, who is a professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. “But the brain is so complex, we don’t even know how much we don’t know. This information fills in some of the unknowns so we can make new hypotheses. This work will lead to many discoveries that, without these data, people would never have even known to ask the question.”

It started like most things do: for profit.  A scientific experiment, run by a corporation, with little oversight and little ethical attention. A pack of ambitious men and women in a room, a voided lightless room, pounding out science like a hammer against a nail.  Effortless, forthcoming, senseless, progressive.  It was unfathomable what they accomplished, what they were able to do with three  years time and an unlimited bankroll.  It was unlimited power to create and destroy.

How does it really work?

Our brain speaks a language, just like English or French or Mandarin.  They called it Neuronic, after the cells that make up our brain. The key to understanding the language was being able to get a composite picture of the entire neural network, but that required being able to track each neuron’s position and path in real time.  And finally we were able to do that.

Nanotech?

Yes, nanomaterials, to be more precise. They called it a rider, because it would attach onto any unoccupied neuron and ride it virtually forever, all the while pinging information back outside the body.  It was incredible science.

All that remained was to figure out the cipher–which neurons corresponded with which functions–and then Pandora’s box would be opened up completely.  They accomplished this in just a few months of testing.  Of course, each person is different, and their neurons corresponded differently, but when you zoom out wider and farther, our brains all speak the same language, with just slightly different dialects.

So that was it?  The era of thoughtlessness was over?

No, far from it.  The technology worked, but it couldn’t be applied to anyone–only those who had injected the riders inside of them, either with or without their consent.

Then we were injected?

No, hold on, I’m getting there.

Sorry.

It’s okay, I know you can’t help yourself. They knew that this wouldn’t go anywhere unless they could market it as actually having a use.  That is, they knew people wouldn’t buy a library card if there were no open books.  They needed a way to open most or all of the books.  

How’d they do it?

That’s the thing: no one knows.  Most think they made the riders replicating and self-sufficient–able to float through the air and enter new hosts.  Others think they simply poured enough into the major water streams and let time do its work. You could hold all the riders in all the Earth in the palm of your hand and not even see them. That’s how infinitesimally small these things are. All they needed to do was make them able to find new bodies.

Wasn’t this illegal?

What, infecting the entire world with nanomaterials that would betray your thoughts and feelings? I’m sure it was, but what can you do?  Take the corporations to court while all the lawyers’ and judges’ and juries’ worst thoughts were portrayed to everyone who had access to them, everyone who had bought their way into the elite, purchased a superhuman power?  

It was chaos at first. The rider translators were prohibitively expensive, on purpose, and only the most affluent few in the world could afford the privilege of looking into the heads of others. Almost every politician was thrown out of office, almost every celebrity or public person was cast in a horrible light over something they had mindlessly thought when someone was in range with a translator.  You know, the wealthy used to hire these people to follow other people around.  The new age thought paparazzi, the nightmares of everyone who was worth exposing.

Couldn’t they block it?  Block the riders, or get rid of them?

The riders, no, those are impenetrable.  But people tried everything: diets, surgeries, horrible devices and treatments, but nothing worked at all.  The only option was to try to block the translators, either by getting out of range or attempting to mix up the signal.  These were…. moderately successful at first, but the corporations kept churning out better and better translators, larger ranges and stronger pathways.   Eventually, there was only one sure way to get some instance of peace.

Getting rid of the translators?

Yes, unfortunately.  People started figuring out that they needed to destroy the translator devices themselves.  Keep in mind, these were fed up people whose lives were all but destroyed.  The tragedy was that the corporations had started permanently planting these in people’s ears.   It was a gruesome and bloody year.  Neighbors and friends turned on each other, even when they weren’t sure if they had them or not. The destruction of many of the devices and the danger that came with wearing one prompted the corporations to keep lowering the price, until eventually almost all but the poorest people had them.  Now everyone could be betrayed and everyone could betray. 

So that’s why we live in a state of equality now?  When everyone can know everything about everyone, doesn’t that mean a level playing field?

No, doesn’t it just expose everything? Am I equal because I have equal information, or am I just more informed of my own inequality?  Hey, it’s 7:00 here in the states.  What time is it over there for you, again?

Midnight.

Time for bed then, isn’t it?

Ah, Dad, tell me more…

I’ll think with you more tomorrow.  Be good for your mom.

Goodnight.

Goodnight.

Every thought, feeling, and emotion creates a molecule known as a neuropeptide. Neuropeptides travel throughout your body and hook onto receptor sites of cells and neurons. Your brain takes in the information, converts it into chemicals, and lets your whole body know if there’s trouble in the world or cause for celebration. Your body is directly influenced as these molecules course through the bloodstream, delivering the energetic effect of whatever your brain is thinking and feeling.
— 

Deepak Chopra

Human cortical neural stem cells

Cortical neurons are located in the cerebral cortex of the brain, a region responsible for memory, thought, language, and consciousness. Neural stem cells are “immature” cells committed to become neurons and helper cells of the brain. Neurons are the liaison between our brain and the world. When we eat a lemon, neurons connected to our taste buds tell the brain that it’s sour. Messages from the brain can also be sent elsewhere, as when neurons command muscles to contract while lifting a heavy object.

Image by Kimmy Lorrain, BrainCells, Inc.

Synaptic Gap

Originally posted by namjoonie00

Kim Taehyung/V x Reader - Fluff, Angst, Sexual References

Words: 4.6K

Summary: (F/n) (L/n): perfect student, perfect grades, can’t seem to find the perfect person for a relationship. Kim Taehyung: university’s infamous fuckboy, longest relationship was two days, finds it difficult to commit to a relationship. Two people who long to be in a lasting relationship cross paths in one eventful party in an attempt to fall in love and change themselves.

Requested by anon!

Keep reading

Misconceptions- Chapter 1

Pairings: Bucky x Reader, Natasha x Bucky, Platonic Tony x reader.

 Warnings: ANGST. Pregnancy, violence, insecurity and self-loathing, Mutant reader (powers similar to Jean from X-men with a little immortality thrown in) also swearing. 

Okay so i did a thing. i don’t know how good this is but it will be multi-chapter constructive criticism is appreciated. This is my first time writing anything so please be gentle! also a huge thank you to @denialanderror whose encouragement finally got me to write something. 

Originally posted by mylastlove-mylastsong

Hindsight. You stared at them from your spot on the couch and all that you could think was hindsight. The blinding aching pain that seemed to spread from your chest into every frayed nerve, neuron and cell of your body roared in agreement. Hindsight is always 20/20, you should not have agreed to his proposition, you should not have let his puppy dog eyes reel you in, you should not have listened to your heart. He twirls a lock of her silky red hair around his finger, tugging slightly to get her attention, she all but purrs at him ‘Barnes’ she warns him, ‘Not here big guy, we at least have to pretend to be interested in movie night’. He pouts at her but relents, snuggling into her hair and breathing her in. You can feel the scream clawing at your throat, doing its best to make him realise just how much he hurt you. How badly he broke you. How seeing them together, the man you love and your best friend, rips into your psyche, searing the image into the back of your eye lids. How beautiful dreams of you and Bucky building a life has been replaced by a gasping moaning Natalia under an equally aroused Bucky. Stupid you think, stupid insipid girl, stupid stupid stupid. You watch as Natalia seemingly melts into his embrace, the content sigh that escapes her and the blindingly beautiful smile Bucky graces her with. It’s enough to make you want to hurl. You swallow the lump that’s forming in your throat. ‘I’m a trained assassin, I’ve had worse, seen worse. I can do this’ you tell yourself. Yet you can feel your body revolting, your mind and heart shattering with every word they exchange, bile burning a hot path up your digestive tract and you bolt to the nearest bathroom, purging yourself of everything you’ve seemingly eaten in the last week. Through the haze of tears and dry heaving you hear banging on the door the concerned voice of Bucky filtering through your foggy mind. 'Doll? Doll are ya alrigh’ in there sweetheart?’ You moan into the toilet bowl. of fucking course. Bucky fucking Barnes could not leave you to throw up in peace, oh no he had to be your saviour. ‘I’m fine James’ you reply, spying your birth control at the end of the basin. Shit. Oh oh shit. ‘You’re puking buckets into the toilet, doll face. I don’t think your fine’ he throws back at you ‘For the love of God Barnes, FUCK OFF’ you scream ‘I don’t need you treating me like a goddamn child Bucky, please just leave me alone’. You’re staring at the birth control, trying to quell the mounting panic, counting off the days since your last period, and connecting the late night fridge raids to the devastating realisation that your 2 months late and your last partner was none other than Bucky Fucking Barnes.

Flashback:

 ‘Kitty cat can we talk?’ Bucky asks as he fidgets with his shirt sleeve. You can tell he’s nervous, you can practically feel it rolling off of him in waves. ‘Of course, sugar. Whadda ya need?’ you don’t see him flinch at the nickname or the grimace that takes over his features. You’re giddy. Excited. Its been six months since you and Bucky started sleeping together, a desperate night born from an exceedingly horrible mission and pent up frustration of not being able to do more, to be more for the people you are supposed to protect. ‘I need ta talk ta ya about us, or whatever this is’ he replies. ‘Finally’ you muse. You’re smiling now, a big toothy grin that wraps around your face and scrunches the corner of your eyes. 'You have my undivided attention, Buck’ you sit across from him, feet tucked underneath you, waiting with bated breath for the words you’ve been dying to hear for what feels like forever. 'I met someone’ he blurts out. ‘I really feel for her ya know? And I wanna try with her’. You feel the blood in your veins turn to ice. ‘I’m sorry kitty, but you knew this was temporary. You’re my closest friend next ta Stevie and I really don’ wanna lose you over a mistake’ Mistake? He thinks you’re a mistake? ‘And Nat an’ I just sorta happened’ he adds. And in that moment you can feel your entire life implode. 

One awkward trip to the doctor, an entire tub of chocolate mint ice cream and a night of dreams involving Bucky’s face on the body of a new born baby screaming for Natasha later and your strolling into the kitchen scanning the room for Tony and deliberately avoiding Bucky’s gaze boring into the back of your head. You haven’t spoken to him since the bathroom incident, actively leaving the room when he walks in, ignoring his frantic calls of your name, ignoring the screams that echo through the tower at night. You’re being petty and unfair, you know, but you can’t listen to his declarations of love for the woman you would literally take a bullet for. Your gaze lands on the billionaire, you take a deep breath to calm your ever-rebellious stomach and mentally call out to him ‘Tony I need your help’ his eyes snap to yours ‘Got an itch that needs scratching, sugar tits?’ he replies waggling his eyebrows and leering playfully. ‘No you perv, I’m serious can you meet me in the lab? In like 10 minutes?’ He sobers instantly ‘Sure (y/n) I’ll be right up’ 

10 minutes and a bitten thumbnail later and you’re staring at a fuming Tony Stark trying to explain just exactly how you managed to get yourself knocked up. ‘You have got to be fucking kidding me (y/n), you’re baby bumping around the tower and you didn’t think to tell me?’ He’s screaming now, an interesting shade of puce on his face “you didn’t even have to use words! you can think shit at me, you’re unbelievable’   ’T I’m so sorry, please, no one can know, I need your help. Please T’ you’re pleading, the sound of your own voice grating your pride. ‘Why?’ he splutters ‘Why can no one know kitty I don’t understand!’ 

 ‘It’s Bucky’s T. I’m pregnant with Bucky’s baby’

Tags: I honestly don’t know what i’m doing, i’m so sorry.

@loricameback @lancefuckrr @mellifluous-melodramas @buckyhoneybarnes

@buckyywiththegoodhair @marvel-ash @bucky-plums-barnes @buckyismyaesthetic @marvel-lucy @denialanderror @avasparks @a-tale-of-twocomics @thatawkwardtinyperson @emilyevanston @lomlbarnes @hannahindie @crownedloki @pitubea1910 @papi-chulo-bucky @lowkeybuckytrash

Our First and Last (Ch. 7)

Ch. 1 | Ch. 2 | Ch. 3 | Ch. 4 | Ch. 5 | Ch. 6 | Ch. 7 | Ch. 8 | Ch. 9 | Ch. 10 | 

Ch. 11

  • Pairings: Jeon Jungkook x Reader (MAIN) | Park Jimin x Kim Taehyung | Jung Hoseok x Min Yoongi | Kim Namjoon x Kim Seokjin
  • Genre: angst and fluff, soulmate au, scifi
  • Words: 3,285
  • Description: “It’s likely that this person is not one person but a mix of two or more people. It’s not uncommon for someone in your dreams to actual be a combination of more than one person you know in real life. I think your affection for this guy might’ve just given him a ticket to merge with whatever person or people you’ve consistently dreamt of for most of your life” Taehyung explains.

“Hobi, thank you so much for driving me, I am so nervous right now,” You wipe your clammy hands on your thighs as you sit in the passenger’s seat of Hoseok’s car. You were so glad he offered to drive you to Dr. Jeon’s lab because you would be running late otherwise, and being late on the first day would be a horrible way to start off and not to mention leave the most undesirable lasting impression.

“Hey, no prob, I wanted to meet this guy anyways” Hoseok says, head still turn towards the road in front. He was wearing his sunglasses, so you could only see the upward curve of his lips as he grins.

Traffic wasn’t too bad since most people were already at work around 10 in the morning.

When the two of you arrive, you see that it was a huge hospital building that looked very new and modern, with parts of the walls made of glass. The windows reflected the bright sunlight, and there were potted flowers and other shrubs near the main entrance. A round fountain with an abstract design was flowing with shallow water, and people were walking in and out of the automatic revolving door. It definitely seemed like a busy place.

Keep reading

Fun Fact: The human body gives off an electromagnetic field.  No, seriously, all communication within the body and within the cell itself uses electricity. The field exists due to short-lived electrical events called action potentials which occur in several types of animal cells which are called “excitable” cells, a category of cell which includes neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells.

Bonus Fact: The human body also gives off light in the form of energy called biophotons. This energy is not heat energy; rather, the emission of biophotons is technically a type of bioluminescence such as certain sea creatures possess. Yes, we literally glow in the dark.

How the Mind Can Heal Your Body

Harness your mind’s ability to heal your own self. Mind can cure the physical diseases of the body by harboring harmonious and healthy divine thoughts, because all physical diseases have their origin in mental ill-health.

Lack of cheerfulness contributes to physical ill-health. If one is always cheerful and entertains good divine thoughts, one will not suffer from any disease and will have perfect health at all times.

At every moment the body is changing as it reshuffles and exchanges its atoms and molecules with the rest of the universe.

The fifty trillion cells in your body are in constant interaction with each other as they keep your heart beating, digest your food, eliminate toxins, guard you from infection and disease, and handle the countless other functions that keep you alive.

While these processes may seem out of your conscious control, countless research indicates that nothing holds more power over the body than the mind.

To think is to practice brain chemistry. Every thought, feeling, and emotion creates a molecule known as a neuropeptide.

Neuropeptides travel throughout your body and act as receptor sites of cells and neurons. Your brain processes the information, transforms it into chemicals, and informs whole body know if there’s trouble in the world or cause for celebration. Your body is directly influenced as these molecules course through the bloodstream, delivering the energetic effect of whatever your brain is thinking and feeling.

You can activate high levels of interleukin and interferon, which are powerful anticancer drugs by fostering healthy and cheerful thoughts.

It is in your power to continue well and young as long as you like.

By K. Nagori

Supporting the damaged brain

A new study shows that embryonic nerve cells can functionally integrate into local neural networks when transplanted into damaged areas of the visual cortex of adult mice.

(Image caption: Neuronal transplants (blue) connect with host neurons (yellow) in the adult mouse brain in a highly specific manner, rebuilding neural networks lost upon injury. Credit: Sofia Grade, LMU/Helmholtz Zentrum München)

When it comes to recovering from insult, the adult human brain has very little ability to compensate for nerve-cell loss. Biomedical researchers and clinicians are therefore exploring the possibility of using transplanted nerve cells to replace neurons that have been irreparably damaged as a result of trauma or disease. Previous studies have suggested there is potential to remedy at least some of the clinical symptoms resulting from acquired brain disease through the transplantation of fetal nerve cells into damaged neuronal networks. However, it is not clear whether transplanted intact neurons can be sufficiently integrated to result in restored function of the lesioned network. Now researchers based at LMU Munich, the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology in Martinsried and the Helmholtz Zentrum München have demonstrated that, in mice, transplanted embryonic nerve cells can indeed be incorporated into an existing network in such a way that they correctly carry out the tasks performed by the damaged cells originally found in that position. Such work is of importance in the potential treatment of all acquired brain disease including neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer‘s or Parkinson’s disease, as well as strokes and trauma, given each disease state leads to the large-scale, irreversible loss of nerve cells and the acquisition of a what is usually a lifelong neurological deficit for the affected person.

In the study published in Nature, researchers of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, and the Helmholtz Zentrum München have specifically asked whether transplanted embryonic nerve cells can functionally integrate into the visual cortex of adult mice. “This region of the brain is ideal for such experiments,” says Magdalena Götz, joint leader of the study together with Mark Hübener. Hübener is a specialist in the structure and function of the mouse visual cortex in Professor Tobias Bonhoeffer’s Department (Synapses – Circuits – Plasticity) at the MPI for Neurobiology. As Hübener explains, “we know so much about the functions of the nerve cells in this region and the connections between them that we can readily assess whether the implanted nerve cells actually perform the tasks normally carried out by the network.” In their experiments, the team transplanted embryonic nerve cells from the cerebral cortex into lesioned areas of the visual cortex of adult mice. Over the course of the following weeks and months, they monitored the behavior of the implanted, immature neurons by means of two-photon microscopy to ascertain whether they differentiated into so-called pyramidal cells, a cell type normally found in the area of interest. “The very fact that the cells survived and continued to develop was very encouraging,” Hübener remarks. “But things got really exciting when we took a closer look at the electrical activity of the transplanted cells.” In their joint study, PhD student Susanne Falkner and Postdoc Sofia Grade were able to show that the new cells formed the synaptic connections that neurons in their position in the network would normally make, and that they responded to visual stimuli.

The team then went on to characterize, for the first time, the broader pattern of connections made by the transplanted neurons. Astonishingly, they found that pyramidal cells derived from the transplanted immature neurons formed functional connections with the appropriate nerve cells all over the brain. In other words, they received precisely the same inputs as their predecessors in the network. In addition, they were able to process that information and pass it on to the downstream neurons which had also differentiated in the correct manner. “These findings demonstrate that the implanted nerve cells have integrated with high precision into a neuronal network into which, under normal conditions, new nerve cells would never have been incorporated,” explains Götz, whose work at the Helmholtz Zentrum and at LMU focuses on finding ways to replace lost neurons in the central nervous system. The new study reveals that immature neurons are capable of correctly responding to differentiation signals in the adult mammalian brain and can close functional gaps in an existing neural network.

Astrocytes Keep Time For Brain and Behavior

Until recently, work on biological clocks that dictate daily fluctuations in most body functions, including core body temperature and alertness, focused on neurons, those electrically excitable cells that are the divas of the central nervous system.

The research is in Current Biology. (full access paywall)

Christ taught this.
Confucius taught this.
Socrates taught this.
Dr. Martin Luther King taught this.
Rosa Parks taught this.
Bruce Lee taught this.
Nelson Mandela taught this.
Kahlil Gibran taught this.
Mother Theresa taught this.
Dali Lama teaches this.
Wayne Dyer taught this.
Life teaches this.
Spirituality teaches this.
Water teaches this.
Nature teaches this.
Physics teaches this.
Alchemy teaches this.
Qigong/ Tai Chi teaches this.
Meditation teaches this.
Creativity teaches this.
Times of chaos and confusion teaches us this.
Healing teaches us this.
The neurons and cells teach this.
The digestive track teaches this.
The heart teaches this.
The muscles, lymphatic and nervous system teaches this.
The emotional body teaches this.
The mind teaches this.
The electro-magnetic energy/field teaches this.
Your journey and your higher-self is teaching you this (continually).

》'C A L M’ is a super power and the ultimate STRENGTH.

Purkinje cell
Professor M Häusser, Sarah Rieubland and Arnd Roth, UCL
Winner of the Wellcome Image Awards, 2015.
“Scanning electron micrograph of tree-like branches (dendritic tree) spreading out from a particular type of nerve cell (Purkinje cell, or neurone) found in the brain. The finger-like projections in this elaborate network act like tiny sensors, picking up information and passing on messages to help control and coordinate muscle movement. This particular neurone is from the cerebellar cortex in a rat brain.” 

anonymous asked:

sana and elias liked to color in coloring books when they were little. sana's hung up some of their finished pages on her wall, and even has seen them. even has been hearing about stuff going down with his bakka friends, so when its sanas birthday even slips her a coloring book filled with biology related things like neurons and cells. sana is worried about elias, so she shows up at his door one night and holds out the book. "wanna color?" and they do. the end result is a wall full of neurons

and cell drawings, and elias has helped sana label everything. they sleep in the same room that night sana half on her bed half off, and elias on the floor and for the first time both siblings get over 8 hours of sleep among the broken crayons and pencils. even gets a thank you note tucked into his pocket one day and he opens it to find a drawing that both siblings made with him the balloon boys and sana. it’s captioned “we miss you, come home to us any time

This is cute nonnie!!!!!!!!!!
, like i totally see them doing this staying up to color like THEY PROBABLY WOKE AT NOON BECAUSE MAMA BAKKOUSH SAW THEM LYING THERE BEING LIKE IM GOING TO LET THEM REST BUT PUTTING A BLANKET ON ELIAS FIRST OR ELSE HE WILL CATCH A COLD

THEY TOTALLY MADE THIS A THING LIKE ONE OF NEED TO VENT BUT WONT TALK ABOUT LET COLOUR SOME COLOURING BOOKS AFTER FINDING OUT EVEN GAVE SANA THAT COLOURING BOOK HE ASKS SANA IF EVEN STILL HAS THE SAME NUMBER WITH A SOFT SMILE ON HIS FACE AND HE BRIGHTS UP WHEN SANA SAYS HE DOES

Expression of combinations of three different fluorescent proteins in a mouse brain produced ten different colored neurons. Individual neurons in a mouse brain appear in different colors in a fluorescence microscope. This “Brainbow” method enables many distinct cells within a brain circuit to be viewed at one time.