neurological injuries

2

Phineas Gage is one of the most famous patients in the history of neuroscience. He was 25 years old when he experienced a serious accident at his work place, where a tamping iron was shot through his head - entering under his eye socket at exiting through the top of his head - after an explosive charge went off. The tamping iron was over a metre long, and after exiting Gage’s head landed 25m away. 

Initially Gage collapsed and went into minor convlusions, but recovered quickly and was able to speak after a few minutes. He walked with little assistance to an ox-cart and was brought to a nearby physician. Initially the physician did not believe his story because he was in such good condition, but was convinced when: 

Mr. G. got up and vomited; the effort of vomiting pressed out about half a teacupful of the brain, which fell upon the floor.

Gage exhibited a number of dramatic behavioural changes following the accident. Harlow, the physician who initially treated Gage, described this change “He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not pre­vi­ous­ly his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires”. However the surgeon Henry Jacob Bigelow described his condition as improving over the course of recovery, stated he was “quite recovered in faculties of body and mind”. This may have been early evidence of neural plasticity. This recovery was also reported by a physician who knew Gage while he lived in Chile, who described his ability to hold on a full time job as a Concord coach driver, a job that required exceptional social skills.

Gage’s neurological deficits following his traumatic brain injury is thought to have been exaggerated and distorted over the course of history, to the point that he is often portrayed as a ‘psychopath’. Scientific analysis of the historical accounts of Gage’s life following his accident, namely by the psychologist Malcolm Macmillan, find that these distorted accounts are most likely untrue, and that Gage made a very good recovery.

Post-mortem analysis of the Gage case concluded that it was the left frontal lobe that was damaged in the accident, although further neurological damage may have resulted from infection. Combined examination of the Phineas Gage case with the other famous cases of Tan and H.M. have concluded that social behaviour, memory, and language are dependent on the co-ordination of a number of different brain areas rather than a single region.

hufflepirate  asked:

My characters crash land in the middle of nowhere and one of them hits his head and is knocked out for about 20 minutes. If his friend has first-aid training but isn't a medic and doesn't have technology, how would he check for a concussion? Are there tests he could do without being in a hospital or having access to CAT scanners? In a related question, what is the waving-a-finger-in-front-of-someone's-eyes thing and what would he be looking for? Sorry if I missed this info in the head injury tag

Hey @hufflepirate​! 

Your character doesn’t need to check for a concussion. The head injury, followed by a very worrying and prolonged period of unconsciousness, is definitely a concussion. A concussion is a clinical diagnosis, you can’t diagnose one on CT because the brain doesn’t show any physical changes. 

However, a CT scan would show all of the other really worrying things that your character is at risk for. 

When the character wakes up, they’re going to be really disoriented and have significant issues surrounding memory. I suggest you check the Head Injury tag, the Concussion tag, and the TBI tag

Understand that with a 20-minute loss of consciousness, your character is at significant risk for a lot of significant and devastating neurological consequences. 

As for the evaluation after the fact, what your first-aid-trained character needs to look at is the following. 

1) Glasgow Coma Scale. 

You and me, happy awake neurologically intact humans, have a GCS of 15. 

The rock on your desk has a GCS of 3. 

I would imagine your character will have a GCS of somewhere between 12-14. 

They’re also going to look at the character’s pupils. If the character’s brain bleeds or swells enough to put significant amounts of pressure on itself, then the pupils will be different sizes: one dilated, one constricted. 

In fact, there are three things that indicate significant pressure on the brain, known as Cushing’s Triad: Unequal pupils; slow heart rate; elevated blood pressure. The thing is that without a hospital and a neurosurgical team, there’s really nothing to do for this person but hope. 

As for finger-waving, what that looks for is the action of the cranial nerves. It requires that the patient be able to follow commands. But basically, we test different visual fields and look for unusual twitching of the eyes. 

I hope this is what you needed! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

(Samantha Keel)

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anonymous asked:

1/2 I've got a character who was shot twice in the forehead by a 9mm pistol at about ten feet. He survives because of timely treatment and because the bullets didn't go that far in, but the bullets did get stuck in the frontal lobe and damaged whatever else affects memories, motor control, speech and basic coordination, and begins having seizures, amnesia, and is often unable to form complete sentences without stuttering.

2/2He takes a turn for the worse and ends up at a post-apocalyptic hospital (they have decent meds but it’s no modern facility by any means), is it possible to receive treatment to basically stop the brain from completely crapping out and dying? He’s on a steady decline for about a week before they reach treatment. He’s constantly moving, but is able to spend time recuperating.

I’m sorry, nonny, but the scenario you’ve given me is implausible at best and downright impossible at worst. 

First, two gunshots to the head are nearly 100% likely to be fatal, especially from high-velocity rounds like a 9mm. A single round I might believe, but a double-tap is just too much damage. 

But even from a single bullet, the course you’ve described isn’t realistic. They would need the hospital immediately, not a week later. 

What you might consider instead, though, is a blunt injury to the front of the head, whether that’s getting your character’s head bounced off the floor or hit with the butt of a gun. A gradual deterioration from “mostly functional” to the symptoms you describe would fit a subdural hematoma quite well, actually. Unfortunately, without neuro intervention, there would be nothing for your post-apoc hospital to do for the character, especially not a week later. 

One of the things about post-apoc medicinne is that people will either die, or they won’t, and there’s not much to be done about it. This is especially true of the more complicaed cases like head injuries. 

I’m not saying you can’t get the effects you want on your character, you absolutely can! I’m just saying gunshots aren’t the way to do it if you want to ground your story in realism. 

Best of luck! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

(Samantha Keel)

disclaimer    

See the future. Have you considered becoming a clairvoyant?

Free eBook: 10 BS “Medical” Tropes that Need to Die TODAY!  

mychakk  asked:

For The Halloween sentence thingy: “Costumes and candy are for babies. You and me? We’re going to raise the dead.” :D sherlolly of course.

(I had a couple false starts with this one, but here’s… something.)

“Costumes and candy are for babies. You and me? We’re going to raise the dead.”

*

Need your help for a thing.  Lab, 23:30, don’t be late.

Sherlock glanced at the text one more time as he walked towards the morgue.  Molly wasn’t usually this cryptic, typically writing a dissertation spanning four texts of negations and apologies and explanations if she ever had to ask a favour.  He wasn’t worried.  Much.

He stopped dead once inside the morgue; the overhead lights were out and the room was lit by what had to be a hundred candles ringing a sheet-covered body on the slab.  His gut clenched until he noticed Molly in the corner, making notes in a file like it was any other post-mortem.

She turned and smiled.  "Ah, good, right on time, let’s get started.“

“What’s this about?  Is this some kind of— Halloween—” he wiggled his fingers “—thing?” he asked, remembering the date.  She quite liked Halloween or, at least, always seemed a bit cheerier right around that time, much like some people perked up around Christmas.

“‘Halloween thing’ makes it sound so amateur.  Fancy dress and sweets are for babies.  You and me? We’re going to raise the dead.”

You and I, he corrected on reflex, then absorbed what she’d said.  "Raise the dead.“

“Yes.”

“Have you been inhaling some fumes you shouldn’t have been?  Maybe ate too much and fell asleep in front of the telly while a horror film was playing?”

She looked to be taking a moment to steel herself before saying, “There’s something you don’t know about me.  It’s, ah, probably just easier to show you rather than tell you.”

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Jekyll and Hyde cells: their role in brain injury and disease revealed

New research has shown how normally helpful brain cells can turn rogue and kill off other brain cells following injury or disease.

(Image caption: Astrocytes are shedding light on neurodegeneration caused by a range of diseases)

Astrocytes have long been implicated in the pathology of a range of human neurodegenerative diseases or injuries including Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s Parkinson’s disease, brain trauma and spinal cord injury.

But how they are produced and what their roles in disease may be, has been as yet unknown. This paper provides an understanding of the mechanism involved and for the first time provides hope that a lot of these diseases may in fact be treatable.

The study, published recently in Nature and led by researchers at The University of Melbourne and Stanford University, provides deeper understanding of the functions of injured or diseased astrocytes found in the Central Nervous System (CNS) following acute injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease.

In a healthy brain, astrocytes are vital for the normal functioning of the brain - providing nutrients to support neuron viability, releasing factors that aid formation of connections between nerve cells known as synapses, as well as many other important functions.

One puzzle has been that in some circumstances the astrocytes appear to have a toxic effect on neurons, whereas in others they support neuronal viability and connectivity.

Researcher Dr Shane Liddelow from the University of Melbourne’s Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, and the Department of Neurobiology at Stanford University, said astrocytes are often characterised as ‘helper’ cells but they can also contribute to damage caused by brain injury and disease by turning toxic and kill other types of brain cells.

“These apparently opposing effects have been a puzzle for some time. By characterising two types of astrocytes this paper provides some answers to the puzzle,” he said.

“Following nerve damage, astrocytes form scar tissue that can help in the regeneration of severed fibres. But we have also discovered that under certain conditions, they can turn and become negatively reactive, causing cell death,” Dr Liddelow said

For many decades, the trauma and neurodegeneration research focus has been on neurons. Researchers are excited by the discovery of these neurotoxic reactive astrocytes, because for the first time, these findings imply that acute injuries of the retina, brain and spinal cord and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, may all be much more treatable and even reversible than first thought.

By providing new insights into the process of neurodegeneration, researchers can look at new pathways for dealing with neurological diseases and injuries, by targetting these toxic astrocytes, in addition to neurones in neuropsychiatric diseases or oligodendrocytes as for instance in multiple sclerosis.

Ultimately, there is still hope that one day it may be possible to switch back astrocytes from the “toxic” to the “helper” state, a long term target for Dr. Liddelow and colleagues.

anonymous asked:

I have a character who's blind. Would her pupils dilate and contract in response to light as normal or not?

Hey there nonny! This really depends on the cause of the blindness.

If the blindness is neurological, from a head injury or stroke, and it’s an information processing problem, then they’d likely still contract. If it’s from a lesion on the optic chiasm or in the nerves that control the eye, they won’t react. 

If it’s from retinal detachment – the retina fell off the back of the eye – then I don’t think so, but I could be 100% wrong. 

If it’s from cataracts, you won’t be able to see the pupil anyway, because cataracts. (if the cataracts are partial, then dilation is likely.) 

If it’s from a lens problem – they’re unable to focus  for some reason – then they’ll react normally. 

If it’s damage to the pupillary muscles, then it’s a maybe/maybe not. 

Generally, the rule is, if it’s due to nerve damage, the pupils won’t react; most other causes, they will. 

I know I really need to do a masterpost on blindness, but it’s an enormous topic and it’s not my forte. I’m sorry I can’t be more help! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

[disclaimer]

Otto Warmbier, the US student detained by North Korea and returned in a coma, has died

(In this Feb. 29, 2016 file photo, American student Otto Warmbier speaks to reporters in Pyongyang, North Korea.Kim Kwang Hyon (Associated Press))
Otto Warmbier, the US student who was medically evacuated from North Korea to his home in Cincinnati last week, passed away on Monday at 2:20 p.m. while "surrounded by his loving family,“ according to a statement from the Warmbiers.

US diplomats negotiated the evacuation of Warmbier while he was serving a 15-year sentence in North Korea for "anti-state” activities, which he was sentenced to after attempting to take down a propaganda poster in his hotel.

Warmbier, healthy upon his arrival to North Korea and at his trial, suffered a serious neurological injury that caused him to go into a coma while in detention. North Korean officials said that he contracted botulism, took a sleeping pill, and never woke up, but upon arriving back in the US, doctors found no evidence of that toxin.

The Warmbier’s expressed their joy at their reunion with their son, as well as their pride in the life he led, in parallel to the sadness they felt at the loss of their son and brother at 22.



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The fencing response is a peculiar position of the arms following a concussion. Immediately after moderate forces have been applied to the brainstem, the forearms are held flexed or extended (typically into the air) for a period lasting up to several seconds after the impact. The fencing response is often observed during athletic competition involving contact, such as American football, hockey, rugby and martial arts. It is used as an overt indicator of injury force magnitude and midbrain localisation to aid in injury identification and classification for events including, but not limited to, on-field and/or bystander observations of sports-related head injuries.

I’m a fucking mess, y’all.

I’m having a big dose of self pity rn and i need to knock it off. I️ just feel so hopeless right now. I️ never expected to be dealing with the fallout of a brain injury and neurological damage at such a young age. Let’s be real, know one expects to have brain damage. My quality of life is so dysfunctional right now. I’m trying so many things and nothing seems to stick. It’s making work and normal day to day tasks seem so daunting. I️ just need to vent even if it is like screaming into the void. I’m terrified, lonely, confused, and embarrassed. I️ just needed to stomp my feet and pout for a moment.

Brain stimulation restores memory during lapses, research shows

A team of neuroscientists at the University of Pennsylvania has shown for the first time that electrical stimulation delivered when memory is predicted to fail can improve memory function in the human brain. That same stimulation generally becomes disruptive when electrical pulses arrive during periods of effective memory function.

The research team included Michael Kahana, professor of psychology and principal investigator of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Restoring Active Memory program; Youssef Ezzyat, a senior data scientist in Kahana’s lab; and Daniel Rizzuto, director of cognitive neuromodulation at Penn. They published their findings in the journal Current Biology.

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verbal dyspraxia (also known as apraxia of speech, verbal apraxia, and articulatory dyspraxia) is when you “have difficulty in making and co-ordinating the precise movements needed to produce clear speech with your mouth”

or, in other words, when there is a disconnect or difficulty between the processes in the brain that allow you to think and formulate speech and the processes that take that speech all the way down to your mouth and then control the muscle movements and exercise the motor control needed to articulate the speech. 

so, simply put, it’s a neurological disconnect between your brain and mouth. 

- it doesn’t mean there is anything about your actual muscles or nerves around your mouth that are affected, just the processes in your brain that translate speech to those mouth movements 

- verbal dyspraxia, like most disabilities (especially neurological ones), exists on a spectrum of degree of ability, both from individual to individual and within each individual from day to day and moment to moment 

- verbal dyspraxia in particular exists on a notable spectrum of ability, as it is characterized by inconsistent speech errors, and the ability to pronounce something one day or moment and unable to repeat it the next   

- it can be developmental (meaning existing from birth) or it can be acquired later in life from neurological injury 

- it isn’t only present in children - adults also have verbal dyspraxia, it is not just “a disability of childhood” despite the fact that developmental verbal dyspraxia is often only called “childhood apraxia of speech” 

- verbal dyspraxia signifies specifically speech and is separate from oro-motor dyspraxia which means having difficulty moving lips, tongues, etc. to perform other actions like eating, swallowing, laughing, etc. 

- it is also separate from general motor dyspraxia, which can affect all fine and/or gross motor movements of the body/limbs

- either of the two other forms of dyspraxia can co-occur with verbal dyspraxia, however 

- the disability is not well-known and likely occurs more commonly than it is diagnosed (and in certain groups is more likely to be present but less likely to be diagnosed as such - ex: autistic individuals) 

- it also difficult to diagnose developmental verbal dyspraxia early on as it naturally changes throughout the course of child’s life, through normal development, & as speech demands change with age & social relationships 

- people with verbal dyspraxia will have difficulty pronouncing certain sounds or ordering sounds in their speech, which can lead to speech that seems disorganized, intelligible, or slurred 

- people with verbal dyspraxia also have difficulty with prosody, which is the volume, intonation, rate and inflection of sound. people may speak very loudly or softly and be unable to control their volume, or be unable to modulate their rate of speech, or create or change tone and inflection 

- people with verbal dyspraxia often feel that the act of speaking can take an incredible amount of concentration and energy and the overwhelming feeling of I just can’t do it, no matter how much they want to 

- people with verbal dyspraxia may often experience opening their mouth to say something but no sound being produced or only a partial sound instead of a whole word or a different sound than they intended 

- longer words are often more difficult than shorter words. likewise, longer sentences are more difficult than shorter, and prolonged speaking will likely lead to an increase in errors, exhaustion, or eventual loss of speech 

- people with verbal dyspraxia may take longer to formulate their speech, with gaps in time between a question being asked and their response, or the last thing they said and the next  

- people with verbal dyspraxia may frequently respond in short phrases without elaboration (simply saying ‘yes’ or ‘no’) or without reciprocation (asking a follow up question to their speaking partner) or answering something by saying “I don’t know”, due to trouble formulating more complex speech, even if more complex answers and exchanges exist in their head 

- people and children with verbal dyspraxia are often mistaken for shy, avoidant, rude, disinterested, or unintelligent, depending on the situation  

- people may have one or a set of particular topics which they are very good at articulating and talking at length regarding, but deviating from that topic presents difficulties again and they become unsure of their ability to communicate

- people may have practiced phrases they use over and over but deviating from that script will present difficulties 

- it is often much easier to generate speech when reading something aloud than to spontaneously come up with speech without a visual guide  

- expected speech is easier than spontaneous speech (knowing you are going to be talking about a certain topic vs. casual unexpected conversation or responding to a prompted question vs. initiating speaking with someone) 

- people with verbal dyspraxia typically have stronger receptive language than expressive language (even in cases where receptive language difficulties are present, they are still typically stronger than expressive language) 

- people with verbal dyspraxia often experience both physical (around the mouth) and mental exhaustion from speaking 

- people with verbal dyspraxia may become partially or totally unable to formulate speech, often due to increased levels of stress  

- the reality of a physical difficulty with speaking is often exasperated by repeated experience of being unable to communicate with others, leading to insecurity in their speech, reluctance to communicate if they feel it is inevitably difficult and easy to be misunderstood, and possible selective mutism

- verbal dyspraxia can also commonly co-occur with conditions such as central auditory processing disorder or difficulties accessing known vocabulary (such as aphasia), which can increase trouble and frustrations with conversation and expression 

Indoor cats vs. outdoor cats.

It’s a huge debate between pretty much anyone that has any contact with cats: owners, vets, homeowners, wildlife managers, and so on. There have been many arguments given by both sides. Outdoor supporters often mention the cats’ need for outdoor enrichment. Indoor supporters fire back with safety and wildlife concerns.

I’m not going to go through the arguments. Instead, I’m going to tell you a few clinical experiences that resulted from cats being let outdoors.

First are the abscesses. There is no one experience that stands out, just the many, many people coming in with cats inappetant, lethargic, and oozing foul pus from a recent bite wound. And there would always be the same excuse: oh, but she’s so sweet, she never fights. Oh, he always runs away from other cats.

Doesn’t matter. Other outdoor cats don’t care how sweet another cat may be. Fights happen regardless, and cats are left with ugly abscesses that their owners then struggle to pay to treat.

And then there are the unexpected, unknown accidents.

Take the kitty brought in unable to stand, hind end covered in urine. Owners don’t know what happened. She’s always been indoor-outdoor, but last night, she just didn’t come back. This morning, they find her in their yard, meowing and unable to rise. They rush her in. On examination, she’s painful in her abdomen. Painful enough that I’m not comfortable palpating more than minimally without pain meds. And without doing some basic imaging. For all I know, palpating her will cause more damage.

She’s able to feel and move her hind legs, but won’t stand up. Her lungs sound harsh. Her abdomen feels swollen.

As is often the case in emergencies, the owners are tight on money. They do, however, have enough to at least let me take x-rays. So I do.

Kitty has a broken pelvis. That’s immediately obvious. The second huge finding is confusing at first, because I’ve never seen it before. After a minute of staring at the image and trying to come up with another reason for what I was seeing, I finally acknowledge that it was as bad as what it looks like: her bladder has herniated through her body wall. It is now outside her actual abdomen, buried under her skin in her fat. Which was why she can’t control her urination and is covered in urine. I shave her belly to better examine the area. Her abdomen is one giant bruise.

I relay the findings to the owners. My best guess is that she was hit by something. A car, likely. They tearfully tell me that she never goes in the road, that she must have gotten spooked by something and ran in by accident.

Well, all it took was one time. Because of finances and the aggressive treatment and surgery she would need, kitty is euthanized.

Another case, a different kitty: a woman comes in with her indoor-outdoor kitty who came home acting very strange last night. I do the exam. I watch kitty walk around. I watch him walk around some more. And I come to the conclusion that kitty is totally blind.

His eyes work. As in, the retinas are intact, the eyes can detect light, the pupils constrict when they should. The communication between eyes and brain is somehow compromised. Why? I have no idea. Does kitty have a head injury? A neurological disease or parasite? Did he get into something toxic? Does he have a brain tumor that has nothing to do with his outdoor adventure?

I have no idea, and the owner can’t give me any good history because the cat was gone all day. She doesn’t have the means to work the case up and wants to take kitty home to monitor. Okay, I say, with the warning that, without knowing what happened or what’s going on, things could turn life-threatening at any time. We never hear from her again.

So after reading all of this, can you guess which side of the debate I’m on?

Keep your cats inside. Provide them with enrichment. It’s your responsibility as a pet owner to give your pets what they need SAFELY.

The moment you let your cat out unsupervised, you risk any number of injuries, diseases, and horrible accidents that will leave you rushing to the vet, unable to tell anyone what actually happened and faced with hefty bills to try to fix your cat. And more often than anyone wants, that cat may not make it through.

I don’t care how smart your cat is, how well it avoids roads, how safe you believe your neighborhood is. All it takes is that one freak accident, that one unexplained malady, and you’ve got big trouble to deal with.

If you let your cat go outdoors, know that, at any moment, you could become the owner of a dead cat. And you may not even know why.

And all of this isn’t even considering the owners whose cats go out and just never come back.

Misconceptions on this Hell Site TM about psychosis

So first off: I don’t experience psychosis. So none of this stems from a sense of personal experience. Rather, this is the stuff that you learn when someone you know and love deals with that shit. So this isn’t, y’know, “here’s what it’s like to experience psychosis”, it’s more like “even we ought to know this shit, c’mon”.

And I say “we” because this post is, duh, aimed at other people who don’t experience that shit. There is a problem in a lot of mental illness related communities where psychosis becomes this sort of boogeyman, where people say they’re “mentally ill, not crazy” and then reel off what “crazy” means and we all know you mean people who experience psychosis. Or they criticise inaccurate depictions of things like depression and anxiety, but not ever, say, schizophrenia.

So here are some things I keep seeing that are just like… basic misinformation. On this here hell site. Ok. So.

  • “Psychosis” is not a mental illness. It is a symptom found in many conditions. Nor is it synonymous with “schizophrenic”. Other conditions which may cause psychosis include but are not limited to bipolar disorder, PTSD and many neurological conditions. Yep, that’s right, psychosis isn’t even limited to mental illnesses, per se. If you very abruptly began experiencing psychosis, they’d want to rule out neurological injury before even considering an MI diagnosis, typically.
  • Nor is it limited to hallucination in the sense of solid, concrete audiovisual hallucinations. Delusions and impaired insight into reality- which are not the same as hallucinations- also come under psychosis. You can be deluded and not hallucinating and vice versa, for the record. Psychosis involves not having a clear and accurate sense of reality both internally and externally. That can manifest in many ways. And hallucinations are not always or even often clear, concrete and “realistic”, either.
  • Psychosis, and the conditions often associated with it, also tend to be characterized by “irregular thinking” or disordered thought patterns, which can interrupt “basic” processes such as speech, writing and coordination.
  • People do not necessarily experience psychotic symptoms 24/7/365. They also do not necessarily just experience them in brief, clearly defined episodes. There is no “necessarily”. Also, it’s basically never, for any illness or condition, like “oh I took my meds so it’s gone, oh I missed a dose I’m craaaazy now!”, okay?
  • Antipsychotic medication is complicated and sometimes medically risky and a pain in the arse to balance. It is not and never going to be “here is the pill you take once a day for schizophrenia”. You are probably going to be adjusting dosage and medications and juggling side-effects your whole life if you’re on them.

tl;dr stop shitting on the mentally ill people in our communities you think are scaaaaary or whatever to promote “positivity” or i’ll stand outside your window and scream for the rest of your life.

WWE being sued by several ex-wrestlers
[July 18th, 2016]

A list of ex-WWE wrestlers have been listed as plaintiffs in a lawsuit that claims that the WWE hid long-term effects of brain injuries from its superstars. The WWE is accused of failing to care for wrestlers repetitive head injuries “in any medically competent or meaningful manner”. The company is also accused of misrepresenting and concealing the nature of long-term neurological injuries that wrestlers suffer during their careers.

The list of plaintiffs include: Jimmy “Superfly” Snuka, Road Warrior Animal, Paul Orndorff, Chavo Guerrero Jr., Bryan Clark (Adam Bomb), Ahmed Johnson, Kamala, Dave Hebner (when did he take a bump?), Earl Hebner, King Kong Bundy, Ken Patera, Sabu, Ax and Smash of Demolition, The Berzerker, Shane Douglas, Muhammad Hassan, Henry Godwinn, Mark Jindrak, Marty Jannetty, Heidenreich, Mantaur, One Man Gang, and the estate of Axl Rotten.

Well, there goes Mark Jindrak’s Hall Of Fame induction.

What’s strange about this list is that many of the wrestlers wrestled for multiple companies, not just the WWE. That, to me, shows that this entire case is centered around money rather than the potential future well-being of superstars in the company. It’s odd that anybody can say “well, we didn’t know getting hit with chairs, slammed on our necks, kicked in the head, forearmed across the face, etc. was going to lead to any long-term issues”. Really?! Did you REALLY not know that?! 

NOTES/WARNINGS: So this actually happened to me yesterday. I was biking back to my dorm, it was pouring out rain. I thought I could beat the car, I didn’t. The guy didn’t see me because of how heavy the storm was and blew right into me. The windshield shattered, and I was thrown back down onto the pavement. I didn’t start crying until I got to my dorm. I got myself checked out at the hospital, and they said it didn’t look like I had any major injuries or neurological damage. Today was a bit difficult going to classes, because I was overly paranoid. I love this blog, and I figured I might as well make a little imagine about it to help myself out. Tell me what you guys think. This is just an imagine, so if you want a one-shot, just let me know, and I can write one based on what happened yesterday. Thank you! 

                                   *************************************

Imagine biking back to your dorm after finishing classes for the day and getting hit by a car, making you fly up onto the windshield (shattering it) and getting thrown back down again onto the pavement. You miraculously don’t have any major injuries or broken bones, but you’re emotionally traumatized.   

As you enter your dorm room after you’re released from the hospital, you break down in uncontrollable sobs. Loki comes by, because you two have dinner together at your dining hall every night. Once he sees the state you’re in, he immediately rushes to your side. You struggle between gasps to get the words out explaining the situation, and as you explain, you see Loki’s face turn ghostly white. He slowly stands up, mind racing. 

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