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Simmon’s Catheter

Source = The Requisites, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Kaufman and Lee

Subclavian artery branches

VITamin C & D

  • Vertebral
  • Internal mammary
  • Thyrocervical - inferior thyroidal, superficial cervical, and suprascapular
  • Costocervical - ascending cervical, supreme intercostals, anterior spinal
  • Dorsal Scapular

Axillary artery - sup thoracic, lateral thoracic, thoracoacromial, subscapular, thoracodrosal, scapular circumflex, circumflex humeral.  Close proximity of median, ulnar, and radial nerves.

Brachial artery terminal branches are the radial, ulnar, and interosseous arteries. 

    Classification nomenclature for dural arteriovenous fistulas

    Borden  

    Type I Venous drainage directly into dural sinus or meningeal veins  

    Type II Venous drainage into dural sinus with CVR  

    Type III Venous drainage directly into cortical veins only

    Cognard  

    Type I Normal antegrade venous drainage into dural sinus  

    Type IIa Retrograde venous drainage into dural sinus  

    Type IIb Retrograde venous drainage into cortical veins (CVR)  

    Type IIa + b Retrograde venous drainage into dural sinus with CVR  

    Type III Direct venous drainage into cortical veins without venous ectasia  

    Type IV Direct venous drainage into cortical veins with venous ectasia >5 mm  

    Type V Direct venous drainage into spinal perimedullary plexus

    • CVR, cortical venous reflux.

    Subclavian Steal
    • Retrograde flow down R CCA
    • Retrograde flow down R VA
    • Reversal of flow in smaller subclavian artery branches (thyrocervical trunk and internal mammary artery)
    • Internal mammary artery reversal of flow in patient with cardiac bypass can cause angina.

    Source = The Requisites, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Kaufman and Lee