Explanations of SZ: Biologial: Neural Correlates
- Measurement of structure/function in brain that occurs in conjunction with an experience
- Schizophrenia may be linked to structural abnormalities in the brain
- Positive and negative symptoms both have correlates
- Ventral striatum has been linked to avolition
- Linked to anticipation of reward for actions
- Abnormality therefore leads to lack of motivation
- Kirschner et al (2016) found, using fMRIs, that the ventral striatum was involved in apathy and avolition (however, it was not linked to affective flattening).
Abnormally large ventrcles: brains are lighter and there are less neurons present within their brains.
- Smaller amygdala: less emotion: affective flattening
- Activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal gyrus being reduced has been linked to auditory hallucinations
- Noga et al (1995) found that the cingulate gyrus in Sz patients was smaller in comparison to a control group (using MRI), and there was a negative correlation between size of cingulate gyrus and severity of hallucinations.
- However, these differences were not significant after statistical testing
- Basal Ganglia: motor dysfunction: catatonia
- PFC: less activity: delusions
- Visual and auditory cortex: same activity when hallucinating as when sane people have genuine experiences
- Findings inconsistent, so inconclusive
- MRIs: we can see these things happening and do not have to wait until after death
- Causality? do the differences in the brain cause Sz or does the Sz cause the differences?
- Antipsychotics could cause enlarged ventricles
- Reductionist: what about other factors?
- Deterministic: unavoidable