“Determination of halide concentration by controlled specific ion meter” We basically make a calibration curve by setting two points, a maximum (0.01 M Cl-) and a minimum (0.001 M Cl-) Fro m this we create a slope of mV. Which is the “Nernst slope” This slops is to measure SRP (Standard Reduction Potentials) of atoms and compounds. This slope should theoretically be 59.2 mV. It’s a pretty straigh forward lab. the only problem is our equipment is ancient.
[ Authors ]
Archis S. Joglekar, Alexander G. R. Thomas, Christopher P. Ridgers, Robert J. Kingham
[ Abstract ]
We present nanosecond timescale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm’s Law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of non-local behavior, we demonstrate that effects such as anomalous heat flow are induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. We show magnetic field amplification up to a factor of 3 from Nernst compression into the hohlraum wall. The magnetic field is also expelled towards the hohlraum axis due to Nernst advection faster than frozen-in-flux would suggest. Non-locality contributes to the heat flow towards the hohlraum axis and results in an augmented Nernst advection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling.
[ Authors ]
Yu Qiao, Benzhuo Lu, Minxin Chen
[ Abstract ]
The hard sphere repulsion among ions can be considered in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations by combining the fundamental measure theory (FMT). To reduce the nonlocal computational complexity in 3D simulation of biological systems, a local approximation of FMT is derived, which forms a local hard sphere PNP (LHSPNP) model. In the derivation, the excess chemical potential from hard sphere repulsion is obtained with the FMT and has six integration components. For the integrands and weighted densities in each component, Taylor expansions are performed and the lowest order approximations are taken, which result in the final local hard sphere (LHS) excess chemical potential with four components. By plugging the LHS excess chemical potential into the ionic flux expression in the Nernst-Planck equation, the three dimensional LHSPNP is obtained. It is interestingly found that the essential part of free energy term of the previous size modified model has a very similar form to one term of the LHS model, but LHSPNP has more additional terms. Equation of state for one component homogeneous fluid is studied for the local hard sphere approximation of FMT and is proved to be exact for the first two virial coefficients, while the previous size modified model only presents the first virial coefficient accurately. To investigate the effects of LHS model and the competitions among different counterion species, numerical experiments are performed for the traditional PNP model, the LHSPNP model, and the previous size modified PNP (SMPNP) model. It’s observed that in steady state the LHSPNP results are quite different from the PNP results, but are close to the SMPNP results under a wide range of boundary conditions. Besides, in both LHSPNP and SMPNP models the stratification of one counterion species can be observed under certain bulk concentrations.