I saw this picture of one of my favorite humans, Hank Green, floating around and felt like I had to add these basic examples.

Yes, there are extremely harmful chemicals/molecules out there, but you can’t be afraid of all chemicals because literally everything is made of chemicals - from the air to your full body. Your body functions because it makes chemicals and reacts with other chemicals. Your senses are results of chemical reactions. Your emotions are chemicals, your food and nutrition are chemicals, your whole life is chemicals. Whether it’s a solid, liquid, or a gas. Chemicals.

There’s a big reason why you have to take a lot of chemistry when you study biology…

Life IS chemistry.

According to NASA, the flyby of Pluto was successful. This image was taken on July 13, 2015, approximately 16 hours before the New Hew Horizons approach. More images will appear as the day progresses, likely this evening.

Though we will see even closer and more detailed images, this is by far the most clear image of Pluto we’ve ever seen.




Enceladus is a moon of Saturn that is believed to have an ocean under its surface. As pictured above, Enceladus has giant plumes. These plumes contain water vapor, carbon dioxide, and various trace compounds like ammonia. The geysers can erupt up to 3x the radius of Enceladus itself, suggesting the interior is rather warm.

This is a fantastic place to search for life! There could be life forms under the ice. Similarly to Earth, there could be life thriving on the extreme conditions at the bottom of the ocean.


Surface cracks on Europa, one of Jupiter’s many moons.

Europa is full of water and water ice - the cracks are thought to be a result of tidal forces. Jupiter’s gravity is incredibly strong, as it swings around Jupiter, the gravity pulls the surface ice apart and it refreezes, creating these brilliant surface scars. The tidal forces also keep the interior nice and toasty, creating liquid water under the surface. Let’s hope there’s some sort of space shark down there!


Storms in other worlds.

Earth is not the only world with storms in our Solar System, and in many cases, even our most destructive storms are pipsqueaks compared to our neighboring worlds.
Venus, with its runaway greenhouse effect has clouds of CO2 and likely lots of lightning.
Mars is known for its dust storms, some are so huge that they will pose threats to future astronauts on Mars. Pictured is a simple dust devil.
The Jovian Giants are full of storms. Jupiter’s big red spot is perhaps the most famous, but the other gas giants are no stranger to epic storms that last many years.
Titan has a dense atmopshere and has an abundance of methane. There are storm systems that rain liquid methane. This means there are vast seas and rivers of methane too.


The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular dwarf galaxies that you can see from the Southern Hemisphere with the naked eye. They’re pretty gassy and dusty compared to most galaxies (namely our own).

In the Northern Hemisphere, galaxies are hard to see with the naked eye. There are a few spiral galaxies, Andromeda being one of them, but they simply appear as fuzzy dots in the sky and aren’t very obvious unless the observer knows where to look.

Top image by Colin Legg Photography (AUS)
Bottom images: Hubble (NASA/ESA)

What’s the crap is that in your profile pic?

That’s Titan, one of Saturn’s moons. According to NASA, the image is a combination of infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths. This amazing moon has a thick atmosphere of mainly nitrogen mixed in with a little bit of methane. There’s weather here, lakes (possibly oceans), rivers, and rain of liquid methane. Look how thick that dang atmosphere is!

And look! There’s clouds!

For more information via NASA, CLICK HERE


The above images are spectacular representations of what Chandra X-Ray Telescope has brought to the astronomy table. The earth’s atmosphere filters out a great majority of x-rays, therefore, by having a telescope in orbit outside of the atmosphere, it gives astronomers a new perspective on the makeup of various celestial bodies. As seen in these images, high energy particles often emit high levels of x-rays which are typically invisible to us if we simply take a picture in the visible spectrum. Having an x-ray observatory like Chandra opens a brand new (beautiful) window to the universe.


Aurora - Not just for Earth.

Typically, if the planet has an active iron core/magnetosphere, it gets aurora at its poles!

Do note that yes, the aurora appear at both the North and South poles on Earth. Those who live in northern regions are not the only ones enjoying the show. Scientists/nerds and penguins living in Antarctica get to enjoy them too. Perhaps the polar bears do too….maybe some seals…Occasionally (though rare), Australia can see them too!


This just in: new pictures from Pluto! The top image is mountain ranges of Pluto near its equator and the bottom image is of Charon. Both of these have features that seem to be geologically very new. As you can see on Charon, there are very few craters. This indicates that the surface was formed relatively recently in relative terms, which is quite surprising.

In addition, Pluto’s mountain ranges are also surprising since they seem to be young and potentially still growing. This means Pluto may still be geologically active. All of this is incredible information and surprising. Surprises in science are always good, it opens doors for more knowledge and research into the formation of bodies in our universe.



Peculiar Galaxies
These types of galaxies have no particular “normal” or common shape to them. A lot of times, they’ll have jets bursting out from the center, weird arms, or just flat out strange formations. Many times, peculiar galaxies are also a mix of 2 (or more) normal galaxies that collided at some point.

In the future, Andromeda and The Milky Way, both regular spiral galaxies, will collide. They’ll likely form a peculiar galaxy similar to the Mice Galaxies in the second image.