negro prisoners


El Doce - 1912
The 1912 Massacre of AfroCubans

 According to the U.S. Consul in Santiago de Cuba, “many innocent and defenseless Negroe in the country are being butchered.” Bohíos were set on fire, and peasant families trying to run away were hunted down and shot. Alleged rebels who surrendered or were taken prisoner were often killed, and their bodies were often multilated.

The British consulate at Santiago reported that whites would come into town with a packet of Negroes’ ears cut off prisoners who had been shot.

…Commander of the Cuban Army General Monteagudo carried out such “carnage in the hills” that “it was impossible to estimate the number of dead.”

Estonez was shot at point-blank range, together with fifty men…. His body, covered with flies, was displayed in Santiago de Cuba before being buried in a common grave….


The Inmates of the Chain Gang at Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Rosie. Alan Lomax field recording (Italian vinyl version on Albatross Records, 1977). 1947.