negative adjectives

20 Common Grammar Mistakes That (Almost) Everyone Makes

Who and Whom

This one opens a big can of worms. “Who” is a subjective — or nominative — pronoun, along with “he,” “she,” “it,” “we,” and “they.” It’s used when the pronoun acts as the subject of a clause. “Whom” is an objective pronoun, along with “him,” “her,” “it”, “us,” and “them.” It’s used when the pronoun acts as the object of a clause. Using “who” or “whom” depends on whether you’re referring to the subject or object of a sentence. When in doubt, substitute “who” with the subjective pronouns “he” or “she,” e.g., Who loves you? cf., He loves me.Similarly, you can also substitute “whom” with the objective pronouns “him” or “her.” e.g., I consulted an attorney whom I met in New York. cf., I consulted him.

Which and That

This is one of the most common mistakes out there, and understandably so. “That” is a restrictive pronoun. It’s vital to the noun to which it’s referring.  e.g., I don’t trust fruits and vegetables that aren’t organic. Here, I’m referring to all non-organic fruits or vegetables. In other words, I only trust fruits and vegetables that are organic. “Which” introduces a relative clause. It allows qualifiers that may not be essential. e.g., I recommend you eat only organic fruits and vegetables, which are available in area grocery stores. In this case, you don’t have to go to a specific grocery store to obtain organic fruits and vegetables. “Which” qualifies, “that” restricts. “Which” is more ambiguous however, and by virtue of its meaning is flexible enough to be used in many restrictive clauses. e.g., The house, which is burning, is mine. e.g., The house that is burning is mine.

Lay and Lie

This is the crown jewel of all grammatical errors. “Lay” is a transitive verb. It requires a direct subject and one or more objects. Its present tense is “lay” (e.g., I lay the pencil on the table) and its past tense is “laid” (e.g.,Yesterday I laid the pencil on the table). “Lie” is an intransitive verb. It needs no object. Its present tense is “lie” (e.g., The Andes mountains lie between Chile and Argentina) and its past tense is “lay” (e.g., The man lay waiting for an ambulance). The most common mistake occurs when the writer uses the past tense of the transitive “lay” (e.g., I laid on the bed) when he/she actually means the intransitive past tense of “lie" (e.g., I lay on the bed).


Contrary to common misuse, “moot” doesn’t imply something is superfluous. It means a subject is disputable or open to discussion. e.g., The idea that commercial zoning should be allowed in the residential neighborhood was a moot point for the council.

Continual and Continuous

They’re similar, but there’s a difference. “Continual” means something that’s always occurring, with obvious lapses in time. “Continuous” means something continues without any stops or gaps in between. e.g., The continual music next door made it the worst night of studying ever. e.g., Her continuous talking prevented him from concentrating.

Envy and Jealousy

The word “envy” implies a longing for someone else’s good fortunes. “Jealousy” is far more nefarious. It’s a fear of rivalry, often present in sexual situations. “Envy” is when you covet your friend’s good looks. “Jealousy” is what happens when your significant other swoons over your good-looking friend.


“Nor” expresses a negative condition. It literally means “and not.” You’re obligated to use the “nor” form if your sentence expresses a negative and follows it with another negative condition. “Neither the men nor the women were drunk” is a correct sentence because “nor” expresses that the women held the same negative condition as the men. The old rule is that “nor” typically follows “neither,” and “or” follows “either.” However, if neither “either” nor “neither” is used in a sentence, you should use “nor” to express a second negative, as long as the second negative is a verb. If the second negative is a noun, adjective, or adverb, you would use “or,” because the initial negative transfers to all conditions. e.g., He won’t eat broccoli or asparagus. The negative condition expressing the first noun (broccoli) is also used for the second (asparagus).

May and Might

“May” implies a possibility. “Might” implies far more uncertainty. “You may get drunk if you have two shots in ten minutes” implies a real possibility of drunkenness. “You might get a ticket if you operate a tug boat while drunk” implies a possibility that is far more remote. Someone who says “I may have more wine” could mean he/she doesn’t want more wine right now, or that he/she “might” not want any at all. Given the speaker’s indecision on the matter, “might” would be correct.

Whether and If

Many writers seem to assume that “whether” is interchangeable with “if.“ It isn’t. “Whether” expresses a condition where there are two or more alternatives. “If” expresses a condition where there are no alternatives. e.g., I don’t know whether I’ll get drunk tonight. e.g., I can get drunk tonight if I have money for booze.

Fewer and Less

“Less” is reserved for hypothetical quantities. “Few” and “fewer” are for things you can quantify. e.g., The firm has fewer than ten employees. e.g., The firm is less successful now that we have only ten employees.

Farther and Further

The word “farther” implies a measurable distance. “Further” should be reserved for abstract lengths you can’t always measure. e.g., I threw the ball ten feet farther than Bill. e.g., The financial crisis caused further implications.

Since and Because

“Since” refers to time. “Because” refers to causation. e.g., Since I quit drinking I’ve married and had two children. e.g., Because I quit drinking I no longer wake up in my own vomit.

Disinterested and Uninterested

Contrary to popular usage, these words aren’t synonymous. A “disinterested” person is someone who’s impartial. For example, a hedge fund manager might take interest in a headline regarding the performance of a popular stock, even if he’s never invested in it. He’s “disinterested,” i.e., he doesn’t seek to gain financially from the transaction he’s witnessed. Judges and referees are supposed to be "disinterested.” If the sentence you’re using implies someone who couldn’t care less, chances are you’ll want to use “uninterested.”


Unless you’re frightened of them, you shouldn’t say you’re “anxious to see your friends.” You’re actually “eager,” or “excited.” To be “anxious” implies a looming fear, dread or anxiety. It doesn’t mean you’re looking forward to something.

Different Than and Different From

This is a tough one. Words like “rather” and “faster” are comparative adjectives, and are used to show comparison with the preposition “than,” (e.g., greater than, less than, faster than, rather than). The adjective “different” is used to draw distinction. So, when “different” is followed by a  preposition, it should be “from,” similar to “separate from,” “distinct from,” or “away from.” e.g., My living situation in New York was different from home. There are rare cases where “different than” is appropriate, if “than” operates as a conjunction. e.g.,Development is different in New York than in Los Angeles. When in doubt, use “different from.”

Bring and Take

In order to employ proper usage of “bring” or “take,” the writer must know whether the object is being moved toward or away from the subject. If it is toward, use “bring.” If it is away, use “take.” Your spouse may tell you to “take your clothes to the cleaners.” The owner of the dry cleaners would say “bring your clothes to the cleaners.”


It isn’t a word. “Impact” can be used as a noun (e.g., The impact of the crash was severe) or a transitive verb (e.g., The crash impacted my ability to walk or hold a job). “Impactful” is a made-up buzzword, colligated by the modern marketing industry in their endless attempts to decode the innumerable nuances of human behavior into a string of mindless metrics. Seriously, stop saying this.

Affect and Effect

Here’s a trick to help you remember: “Affect” is almost always a verb (e.g., Facebook affects people’s attention spans), and “effect” is almost always a noun (e.g., Facebook’s effects can also be positive). “Affect” means to influence or produce an impression — to cause hence, an effect. “Effect” is the thing produced by the affecting agent; it describes the result or outcome. There are some exceptions. “Effect” may be used as a transitive verb, which means to bring about or make happen. e.g., My new computer effected a much-needed transition from magazines to Web porn. There are similarly rare examples where “affect” can be a noun. e.g., His lack of affect made him seem like a shallow person.

Irony and Coincidence

Too many people claim something is the former when they actually mean the latter. For example, it’s not “ironic” that “Barbara moved from California to New York, where she ended up meeting and falling in love with a fellow Californian.” The fact that they’re both from California is a “coincidence.” “Irony” is the incongruity in a series of events between the expected results and the actual results. “Coincidence” is a series of events that appear planned when they’re actually accidental. So, it would be “ironic” if “Barbara moved from California to New York to escape California men, but the first man she ended up meeting and falling in love with was a fellow Californian.”


Undoubtedly the most common mistake I encounter. Contrary to almost ubiquitous misuse, to be “nauseous” doesn’t mean you’ve been sickened: it actually means you possess the ability to produce nausea in others. e.g., That week-old hot dog is nauseous. When you find yourself disgusted or made ill by a nauseating agent, you are actually “nauseated.” e.g., I was nauseated after falling into that dumpster behind the Planned Parenthood. Stop embarrassing yourself.

If you’re looking for a practical, quick guide to proper grammar, I suggest the tried-and-true classic The Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White. A few of these examples are listed in the book, and there are plenty more. Good luck!


  1. ほしい (expressing desire) 
  2. 〜かもしれません (expressing uncertainty) 
  3. あげる・くれる・もらう (giving and receiving) *skipped in this post; look at this post for notes on あげる and くれる
  4.  〜たらどうですか?(giving suggestions)
  5. # + も・# + しか + negative (as many as/only)


To say you want to do something, we use 〜たい, but to say you want something, a noun, we use ほしい.

ほしい means “desired” and is used to say you want something. It is a い-adjective and conjugates as such.

  • (Object of desire)  ほしいです。
  • (Object not desired)  ほしくないです。

ほしい is limited to first person. Here are some ways to say someone else wants something:

  • (Subject) は (object of desire)  ほしがっています。= subject is showing signs of desiring object.
  • (Subject) は (object of desire)  ほしいと言っています。= subject said they wanted object.
  • (Subject) は (object of desire)  ほしいと思っています。= subject thinks that he wants object.
  • (Subject) は (object of desire)  ほしそうです。= it seems like subject wants object.



My little sister wants a puppy.


When I was a child, I always wanted a Nintendo DS, but no one gave it to me.


かもしれません can be used to say something is a possibility but you are not sure what is really the case. The same concept can be expressed with でしょう, but かもしれません sounds more uncertain.

It is placed after short forms of any kind, present or past, affirmative or negative. If a な-adjective or noun precedes it and it is not in past tense, だ is dropped.



The teacher might be Japanese.


That person might be able to speak English.


Mary might have been short when she was a kid.


This can be used to give suggestions but can sound critical. It’s translated as “how about…?” or “why don’t you…?” It follows the past tense short form of a verb. 

This cannot be used to suggest NOT doing something. In order to convey this, you can say “(verb in short form) のを やめたらどうですか?” which means “how about you stop doing…?”



How about you go to a doctor?


Why don’t you stop buying clothes?

5.  # + も / # + しか + negative : AS MANY AS/ONLY

も can be used to say “as many as” when describing amount. It implies the number is above expectations and may have a tone of surprise.

しか is used to say “only” when describing few amounts of things. It implies insufficiency and may have a tone of disappointment. When しか is used, the sentence must end in a negative predicate.



He has as many as four cars.


My friend only goes to school two times a week.

I didn’t have time to make these into separate posts with more detail, so I hope this will do for now. As usual, please let me know if I made any mistakes in my sample sentences! Also, sorry for skipping the third point… It’s just a lot of information and probably needs its own post.

A minute ago I touched this rose and did something I always did as a child.
Every time I saw a rose, I immediately started to look for its thorns.
Most often, they were cut out.
That made me sad.
I know it was for safety and no one would give roses with the thorns intact but it just seemed so incomplete to me.
Even though the thorns weren’t the focus nor the best part, they were still a part.
I wanted to see it in its entirety.
With the leaves too.
The whole stem.
But most importantly, the thorns in their place.
The rose being beautiful and fierce at the same time.
Growing up, I was constantly taught that women are meant to be pretty and only negative adjectives were used for women who were assertive, out spoken and had opinions different than the ones fed to them.
For some time I did believe that women can’t be fierce and pretty.
That if you’re fierce, you seize to be pretty.
Maybe that’s why I wanted the roses with the thorns.

Thoughts on Jeff Sessions’ testimony

Jeff Sessions’ entire testimony was riddled with physical and verbal signs of lying. Much, if not all, of his testimony and answers read as scripted. He used numerous negative adjectives and accusatory remarks to denounce and insult anyone who opposes him and the Trump administration. He was unabashedly loud and arrogant. He carried the hearing, rather than letting the Senate carry it. That’s not how a hearing works.

Comey was quiet and reserved, if not a bit nervous. He tried clarifying remarks and questions from the Senate, to the point of using logical association to get his points across. He stuttered and used physical gestures, both signs of a mostly-impromptu testimony. He did not carry the hearing, but let the Senate carry the hearing. He understands that public service does not mean pledging loyalty to an individual, not even yourself (ALL government officials are public SERVANTS).

One of these men is lying. One of these men is also showing many signs of lying. One of these men is committing perjury.

Think about it.

A new cartoon out of Mexico about a conman supervillain who pitches world domination gadgets to the audience, I’d check out the subbed shorts on YouTube, it’s pretty inventive and the most refreshing Y-7/intended-for-older-kids show I’ve seen in a LONG time since both Cartoon Network and Nick have babyproofed a lot of their programming in recent years…but I’m getting ahead of myself


-People complaining that Americans are “stealing” the show by trying to get it to air in the US…you know, because that’s how localization works

-People saying that the main character is “just another Onceler/Bill Cipher/ect.”

-People complaining about one storyboarder in particular who drew her underage OCs in sexual situations when she herself was THE AGE OF THE OCS and was directly involved with Officer and Miss Truffles (she didn’t handle the money end of things, she was equally as scammed as everyone who backed it).

-Probably an anti-Markiplier person or two in there. This is the only argument I haven’t seen firsthand but you just KNOW it’s out there

The air surrounding this really good show is already so toxic and that pains me. I just wanna be an bitter “weh weh cartoons were better when they pandered to the Y-7 demographic like Invader Zim and Billy and Mandy did!” adult in peace

Jewish women can never just be seen as women, as human beings. When we’re not the ugly hag, the nagging mom, the frizzy-haired prude; we’re the Jewish American princess, the sexy exotic Israeli (and most of the time we aren’t even Israeli), the “pretty for a Jewish girl.” We are caught between the antisemitic demonization of Jews and the antisemitic exoticification of Jewish women. We are both hated and commodified. The intersection of antisemitism and misogyny do not allow Jewish women to just be Jewish women; there is always a negative adjective in front. I don’t want to be a bitch, a reptilian, a snob, a prude, or a sexy kosher fantasy. I want to be me and I want to be a Jewish woman.


문법 | Grammar

Negative form:

The adverb 안 is used to make a verb/adjective negative. It places before the verb/adjective.

*[Exception] When you make a negative that is noun + ~하다 (dictionary form), 안 goes before the ~하다.

Example Sentences:

저는 콜라 좋아해요.
I don’t like cola.

*사라는 공부를 해요.
 Sara isn’t studying.


earlploddington  asked:

I've always tried to explain the 'mindfulness' thing to people as basically being a step by step method of how to make me have a meltdown like every time i've followed someone's mindfulness steps i've immediately started having a killer anxiety attack so this one time in group therapy there were five of us gettin super relaxed and calm while there's me in the corner chewing on my fingers and trying not to scream at the trees outside

It’s almost the same for me! 

Like, all these mindfulness exercises do exactly the opposite of what they’re supposed to do. 
For example, concentrating on my breathing WILL NOT empty my mind, it has the opposite effect. If I concentrate on bodily sensations, I cannot keep my thoughts at bay. 
I also tried these exercises that you’re supposed to do to feel better about yourself - meaning that you’re supposed to stand in front of a mirror and just try to talk about yourself neutrally without any positive or negative adjectives. Doesn’t work for me because I know how my face looks like from a neutral point of view but that does in no way influence my opinion on my face. These exercises again made everything worse because they forced me to concentrate again on the very details that I’ve been stressing about. 

I’m not surprised that issues with mindfulness are common in the autistic community. 
Mindfulness is supposed to be something that reduces stress. Something that offers room for relaxation, positiv thoughts and emotions during hard times. It’s a skill that needs to be cultivated over time and functions as a ressource during stressful situations. 

What I think is the most fascinating part about mindfulness is how it overlaps with the neurotype of autistic people and how both mindfulness and said neurotype cause so vastly different behavior. 

For example, autistic people are super detail-oriented. It’s also an autistic thing, as far as my observations go, to be easily exciteable and find joy and beauty in the smallest things (kinda makes sense if you think about it - if you don’t see the small things, you can’t enjoy them. If you see them all… of course you can!). 
This is one of the main goals of mindfulness - to concentrate on the moment, the details and why living in the current moment is beautiful. 
However, as an autistic person, we can’t just turn off this part of mindfulness. For us, paying attention to the details is not a skill we had to aquire with hard work, it’s something we were born with. But if you can’t turn it off, it automatically HAS TO work in both directions. 
If you’re a person who focuses on the small things, then you’re a person who both gets happy and stressed, sad, etc. by these things. Which is actually super dangerous. Because there will always be small aspects that are sad, frustrating, stressful, etc. and if you can’t help but focus on them… well, we all know what happens. 

In this aspect, allistic and autistic people are polar opposites. Which is nothing bad! The only thing that’s bad about it is that it doesn’t get taken into consideration by professionals (which I don’t understand because… it’s just very obvious and logical?).
Autistic people have a much lower stress-tolerance than allistic people. Autistic people are wired to focus on the details, allistic people to focus on the big picture. It’s only logical to conclude that in both cases, if stress/anxiety/etc. comes up, it’s something that is inheirently influenced by the person’s perspective. 
So OF COURSE you tell allistic people to focus on the small things. They get stressed out by the big stuff, so they should advert their attention like that in order to calm down. 
BUT giving the same advice to autistic people? DOESN’T MAKE ANY SENSE. It’s completely illogical. Telling a person who’s stressed out by details to focus on the details is actually telling them to focus more on the things they are stressing about? 

What I realized is that, what helps me a lot, is to do the exact opposite. Instead of telling myself to be “mindful” and “focus on the small things” (did that for a while, now I’m burnt-out), I try to do the opposite. I try to take a step back and take a look at the bigger picture. And so far, it helps!

My conclusion is that mindfulness is not something that magically works because it’s a ~spiritual thing~ (do we even need to talk about all these annoying yoga-people? Like…) arising from buddhism and hinduism but simply because it uses the mechanism of shifting ones attentions away from what is initially causing stress and NOTHING ELSE.
I actually messaged my TA at university just now because as far as I know, this theory exists but couldn’t be empirically proven so far. But a study with autistic people and allistic people could actually do that. And maybe, maybe it could even get all those ~yoga, meditation, kale, good vibes~ people to calm down a little and stop appropriating asian culture in everything they do.


Words: 4,879
Sammy x Reader
Warnings: language, descriptions of disturbing imagery, blood
A/N: Thanks for your patience on this part ya’ll! Our story is progressing… the next part will reveal some important things! And yes, this one does end in a cliffhanger. MUAHAHA!

Your name: submit What is this?

Dean awoke uncharacteristically early. He’d fallen asleep with his head propped against the headboard and he had a pain in his neck to show for it. The radiating pangs were probably what had woken him. The light in the room was dim, suggesting that the sun was probably just starting to break over the horizon. The television was still on, though muted. Sam must have taken care of that after Dean had drifted off. In the flickering glow of some old black and white movie, Dean was surprised to see two figures sitting up against the headboard of the next bed. Sam leaning back, and you leaning towards him.

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anonymous asked:

My A-level exams are in January but I haven't studied that much yet and I know I still have enough time but my anxiety paralyzes me and my depression makes everything worse :( Do you have any advice on how to calm down and find a way to start studying? :)

you are courageous for reaching out for help, i’m very proud of you. where do you find yourself most comfortable (or where is the least anxiety-inducing place in your life right now)? it could be the desk in your room, or a quiet library, or the kitchen table downstairs—wherever your ‘safe spot’ is, settle there. for me, my room is definitely my refuge, but the library is what gets me to work. 

visualize yourself acing your a-levels, now write out a rough, general to-do list for getting there—something like 1) review chapter readings, 2) practice problems, 3) practice exams. then, break each of these steps into smaller steps, and when i say small i mean small. write down “read 1 paragraph” if needed. write down “pick up pencil”. deconstructing seemingly daunting tasks into seemingly meaningless bits really helped calm me down.

showers are the best mood-lifters. it’s hard to describe, they don’t necessarily make me happy, but it sort of feels like hitting refresh and resetting my brain so the anxiety/bad feelings go back to default. try writing out a small to-do list of tasks for the evening, go take a shower and (figuratively) clean off the bad feelings, and then start on the to-do list.

it also helps to make your study area nice and pretty—if you’re at home, light some candles, set out your pens, make yourself a cup of tea or hot chocolate. this will help your brain associate studying with comforting/positive feelings, which is never a bad thing.

don’t forget to take breaks. don’t be afraid to reward yourself for completing the smallest of tasks. don’t beat yourself up, you are doing absolutely fine. 

something that helped me deal with mental illness in general is viewing it as a separate entity from me. it’s so easy to attach ‘anxious’ or ‘depressed’ to your identity as a person, it’s so easy to forget that these illnesses are not who you actually are. your character isn’t ‘apathetic’ or ‘anxious’, you’re a bright, talented, caring, ambitious person and right now these mental illnesses are trying to screw with that. it helped me to imagine studying as my way of telling my depression to back the hell off, instead of associating negative adjectives like ‘lazy’ or ‘failure’ with who i was. 

if you ever need to let it out to somebody, or need any advice, my ask box is open as always. don’t you dare forget how strong you are, i’m sending a big hug your way. cheering you on.

p.s. i have a self-care/encouragement tag here

The merch does not lie

@monsterscavenger posted this great cover art of a child’s primer, and it inspired me to pull up a couple visual comparisons:

Hello, dark knight, lost prince of Alderaan. You Ben Solo is showing.

The artists have rendered our boy in full Disney Prince mode. He fits right in with this lineup:

And visually, he does not fit here:

After all the months of fandom sturm and drang, the angst, the dark nights of the soul full of doubt about where the story is going to go (aided and abetted by the rumor mill, our own headcanons, and coy communications from Mr. Hidalgo); at the end of the day: Trust the merch. The merch does not lie.

Over the coming months, as we begin to get more of these indications about the way the wind is blowing in the new trilogy, I realize I am going to enjoy this phase of the Long Wait. This week already graced us with “Reylo in a Box,”* and now this delightful book cover. What will they offer us next? It’ll be fun to see!

* (coming soon to a Target near you)

Edited to add: Clearly the antis who were happily reblogging this post would benefit from reading the excellent commentary by @daughter-of-water, who provided the details about the copy on the packaging that explain why this bit of merch supports Reylo:

“Why is no one talking about the blurb on the back of the box?

In the snowy forests of the First Order stronghold and super weapon, Starkiller Base, Kylo Ren and Rey engage in a lightsaber duel in which Kylo promises to help train Rey in the ways of the Force. Rey refuses and finds a way to connect to the Force using it to continue the fight and put Kylo Ren on the defensive. The fight ends with the planet crumbling beneath their feet due to the Resistance’s successful attack on the Base, leaving both to their respective quests for answers.

Note the total absence of negative adjectives usually applied towards Kylo Ren in the advertising. His training offer is described as “a promise to help” as opposed to an attempt to seduce her to the Dark Side. Then there is this phrase “leaving both to their respective quests for answers” in the last line. If you didn’t know better you’d think you were reading about two good guys who happen to be on opposing sides of a war trying to figure it all out rather than a dastardly patricidal villain versing a hero. I see what you are doing there, Star wars marketing team. I see the shift that’s being made.”

We had to admit that the world was ugly. The majority of it was filled with hate, greed, pain, and any other negative adjective you could think of. But at the same time, there are people who makes it bearable to live in. People who would never let you believe that everything has a tragic ending. People that loves you better than anyone else. And for some people like me, the lucky ones, I got to have one; you.
—  you make the world a better place (via @justimbxste)

The only way Julian Fellowes or anyone associated with Downton Abbey is getting my money for a movie is if it features Mary getting a divorce or already divorced from Henry Talbot.

Like, I still cannot even believe we watched every character on the show push her at him, and push her at him, and push her at him, insisting (and in Tom’s case, snarling) all the while that she didn’t know her own mind, until she literally broke down and cried, then were expected to swallow his whole “I just happen to have a marriage license with me even though I haven’t so much as breathed a word about or in the direction of your son – what’s his name again? Geoff?” routine.

There was a better way to write that pairing. A THOUSAND better ways to write that pairing. Instead, it came off as lazy, rushed, shallow, insert-your-own-negative-adjective-here.

Seriously, in that scene where Mary’s talking to Matthew’s grave, I imagine Dan Stevens dressed up like a ghost and making a perfect “WTF? WTF?” face at her.

Free Mary Crawley.

Japanese Conditionals

There are many ways to say “if”, “when”, and other variants in Japanese, and they aren’t very difficult to learn either.

時 (とき) - When

とき serves almost the exact same purpose as the English “when” (and this is rare so appreciate it). It goes after a verb.


Nihon ni iku toki, yatara to takusan taberu.

When I go to Japan, I impulsively eat a lot.

場合 (ばあい) - In the case…

場合 is used just like  とき , and it means “in the case that…”. By itself it is a noun that means “case”, of course.


Kaji no baai, tatemono o dete kudasai.

In the case that there is a fire, please leave the building.

ば - If

ば is a verb construction that means, quite plainly, if. However it cannot be used if sentence B is a command or suggestion. You conjugate it by:

-u verb: -う changes to -え, add ば

-ru verb: drop れ, add れば

kuru –> kureba | suru –> sureba

-i adjectives and negative verbs: drop the final い and add ければ


Sonna you ni kanjireba, kanojo wa sude ni wakarimasu ne.

If you feel that way, she alread knows.

と - If

と is placed at the end of a clause, and it means that “if A happens then the immediate consequence is B

燃やすと 煙が出るぞ。

Moyasu to kemuri ga deru zo.

It it burns, there will be smoke.

たら - If

This expression is very common because it is easy to use and generally, pretty neutral of implications. When using it, it hints that the incident is accidental, but the result is definite. In other words, If A happens, B will happen. It’s formed by simply adding ら to the past tense form.


Detara, boku mo deru yo.

If you leave, I will leave too.

なら - If

なら is a bit uncommon in speech, and it is used when the speaker makes an assumption and comes to a conclusion. It goes right at the end of a sentence.


Aka wa ao nara, midori wa murasaki.

If red is blue, then green is purple.

Don’t use it for scenarios that are likely to happen.


Sinces Japanese puts verbs at the end of the clause, the listener must wait until the very end to find out how the objects in the sentence are related and involved. With もし, which goes at the beginning of a たら or なら clause, the listener will know that the sentence is indeed a conditional.

That’s all I have for now, thanks for reading, comments, questions, and corrections are welcome!

person first language and why you should Really Not

okay so there’s a post going around that says a lot but basically boils to this: “Instead of saying “the mentally ill man,” say “the man with a mental illness. Putting someone’s characteristics (especially negative ones) before them is dehumanizing and rude. Don’t do it.”

ding dong this is wrong for a lot of reason and i see it reblogged by people i like and respect in a well meaning fashion who seem to truly not get why it is bad

basically to put this simply and in a short bulletted fashion

  • things like ‘disabled’ and 'autistic’ and 'mentally ill’ and 'chronically ill’ etc are not negative things they are adjectives and they exist for a reason
  • deliberately separating them separates the disability from the person like no i am not a person 'with’ autism i am an autistic person i am a whole person whether i am autistic or not and separating that is what is dehumanizing
  • it’s telling you that neurotypical/allistic/abled/etc people are the 'people’ like that they are the baseline, the 'norm’ and that anything else is extra or different or somehow wrong or a problem
  • oh my god that is not a “”“"negative”“”“ characteristic being mentally ill/physically ill/etc is not a negative thing and disabled people are told this all the time we are told that we are lesser and wrong and broken and that is a harmful negative that must be stopped
  • i am sure there’s more
  • silversarcasm (one of my fave blogs, she talks about ableism a lot) has mentioned this before multiple times

littlebrubby  asked:

In spanish, does adding "poco" mean the opposite? Like if I say "me haces poco seguro" (from that one post idk if I saw it from you or not) does that mean "you make me feel unsure" or "you make me feel slightly sure"?

Hi! :) Poco in this case does make the following word the opposite of what it means, and (it seems) that that is the case whenever poco is followed by and adjective. However, it only works with positive adjectives, such as feliz (happy), seguro (safe), etc. 

If you use a negative adjective such as triste (sad) or desgradable (unpleasant), you would have to say un poco, and it would mean “a little”. For example, estás un poco triste, “you’re a little sad”. In this case, it doesn’t mean the opposite.

Of course, this also doesn’t work with nouns, and poco in that situation also means “a little”.

I hope it helps! :)